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Die Arbeit leistet einen wissenschaftlichen Beitrag zur Erforschung der Einsatzmöglichkeiten eines Immobilienportfoliomanagements für öffentliche museale Schlösserverwaltungen in Deutschland. Insbesondere wird ein für deren Organisation spezifisches Modell zur Investitionssteuerung herausgearbeitet und dessen Anwendbarkeit in der Praxis mit Experten diskutiert.

One of the most important subjects of hydraulic engineering is the reliable estimation of the transverse distribution in the rectangular channel of bed and wall shear stresses. This study makes use of the Tsallis entropy, genetic programming (GP) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) methods to assess the shear stress distribution (SSD) in the rectangular channel.
To evaluate the results of the Tsallis entropy, GP and ANFIS models, laboratory observations were used in which shear stress was measured using an optimized Preston tube. This is then used to measure the SSD in various aspect ratios in the rectangular channel. To investigate the shear stress percentage, 10 data series with a total of 112 different data for were used. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the most influential parameter for the SSD in smooth rectangular channel is the dimensionless parameter B/H, Where the transverse coordinate is B, and the flow depth is H. With the parameters (b/B), (B/H) for the bed and (z/H), (B/H) for the wall as inputs, the modeling of the GP was better than the other one. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the use of GP and ANFIS algorithms is more effective in estimating shear stress in smooth rectangular channels than the Tsallis entropy-based equations.

Although it is impractical to avert subsequent natural disasters, advances in simulation science and seismological studies make it possible to lessen the catastrophic damage. There currently exists in many urban areas a large number of structures, which are prone to damage by earthquakes. These were constructed without the guidance of a national seismic code, either before it existed or before it was enforced. For instance, in Istanbul, Turkey, as a high seismic area, around 90% of buildings are substandard, which can be generalized into other earthquakeprone regions in Turkey. The reliability of this building stock resulting from earthquake-induced collapse is currently uncertain. Nonetheless, it is also not feasible to perform a detailed seismic vulnerability analysis on each building as a solution to the scenario, as it will be too complicated and expensive. This indicates the necessity of a reliable, rapid, and computationally easy method for seismic vulnerability assessment, commonly known as Rapid Visual Screening (RVS). In RVS methodology, an observational survey of buildings is performed, and according to the data collected during the visual inspection, a structural score is calculated without performing any structural calculations to determine the expected damage of a building and whether the building needs detailed assessment. Although this method might save time and resources due to the subjective/qualitative judgments of experts who performed the inspection, the evaluation process is dominated by vagueness and uncertainties, where the vagueness can be handled adequately through the fuzzy set theory but do not cover all sort of uncertainties due to its crisp membership functions. In this study, a novel method of rapid visual hazard safety assessment of buildings against earthquake is introduced in which an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2FLS) is used to cover uncertainties. In addition, the proposed method provides the possibility to evaluate the earthquake risk of the building by considering factors related to the building importance and exposure. A smartphone app prototype of the method has been introduced. For validation of the proposed method, two case studies have been selected, and the result of the analysis presents the robust efficiency of the proposed method.

In the last decades, Finite Element Method has become the main method in statics and dynamics analysis in engineering practice. For current problems, this method provides a faster, more flexible solution than the analytic approach. Prognoses of complex engineer problems that used to be almost impossible to solve are now feasible.
Although the finite element method is a robust tool, it leads to new questions about engineering solutions. Among these new problems, it is possible to divide into two major groups: the first group is regarding computer performance; the second one is related to understanding the digital solution.
Simultaneously with the development of the finite element method for numerical solutions, a theory between beam theory and shell theory was developed: Generalized Beam Theory, GBT. This theory has not only a systematic and analytical clear presentation of complicated structural problems, but also a compact and elegant calculation approach that can improve computer performance.
Regrettably, GBT was not internationally known since the most publications of this theory were written in German, especially in the first years. Only in recent years, GBT has gradually become a fertile research topic, with developments from linear to non-linear analysis.
Another reason for the misuse of GBT is the isolated application of the theory. Although recently researches apply finite element method to solve the GBT's problems numerically, the coupling between finite elements of GBT and other theories (shell, solid, etc) is not the subject of previous research. Thus, the main goal of this dissertation is the coupling between GBT and shell/membrane elements. Consequently, one achieves the benefits of both sides: the versatility of shell elements with the high performance of GBT elements.
Based on the assumptions of GBT, this dissertation presents how the separation of variables leads to two calculation's domains of a beam structure: a cross-section modal analysis and the longitudinal amplification axis. Therefore, there is the possibility of applying the finite element method not only in the cross-section analysis, but also the development for an exact GBT's finite element in the longitudinal direction.
For the cross-section analysis, this dissertation presents the solution of the quadratic eigenvalue problem with an original separation between plate and membrane mechanism. Subsequently, one obtains a clearer representation of the deformation mode, as well as a reduced quadratic eigenvalue problem.
Concerning the longitudinal direction, this dissertation develops the novel exact elements, based on hyperbolic and trigonometric shape functions. Although these functions do not have trivial expressions, they provide a recursive procedure that allows periodic derivatives to systematise the development of stiffness matrices. Also, these shape functions enable a single-element discretisation of the beam structure and ensure a smooth stress field.
From these developments, this dissertation achieves the formulation of its primary objective: the connection of GBT and shell elements in a mixed model. Based on the displacement field, it is possible to define the coupling equations applied in the master-slave method. Therefore, one can model the structural connections and joints with finite shell elements and the structural beams and columns with GBT finite element.
As a side effect, the coupling equations limit the displacement field of the shell elements under the assumptions of GBT, in particular in the neighbourhood of the coupling cross-section.
Although these side effects are almost unnoticeable in linear analysis, they lead to cumulative errors in non-linear analysis. Therefore, this thesis finishes with the evaluation of the mixed GBT-shell models in non-linear analysis.

Complex vortex flow patterns around bridge piers, especially during floods, cause scour process that can result in the failure of foundations. Abutment scour is a complex three-dimensional phenomenon that is difficult to predict especially with traditional formulas obtained using empirical approaches such as regressions. This paper presents a test of a standalone Kstar model with five novel hybrid algorithm of bagging (BA-Kstar), dagging (DA-Kstar), random committee (RC-Kstar), random subspace (RS-Kstar), and weighted instance handler wrapper (WIHWKstar) to predict scour depth (ds) for clear water condition. The dataset consists of 99 scour depth data from flume experiments (Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005) using abutment shapes such as vertical, semicircular and 45◦ wing. Four dimensionless parameter of relative flow depth (h/l), excess abutment Froude number (Fe), relative sediment size (d50/l) and relative submergence (d50/h) were considered for the prediction of relative scour depth (ds/l). A portion of the dataset was used for the calibration (70%), and the remaining used for model validation. Pearson correlation coefficients helped deciding relevance of the input parameters combination and finally four different combinations of input parameters were used. The performance of the models was assessed visually and with quantitative metrics. Overall, the best input combination for vertical abutment shape is the combination of Fe, d50/l and h/l, while for semicircular and 45◦ wing the combination of the Fe and d50/l is the most effective input parameter combination. Our results show that incorporating Fe, d50/l and h/l lead to higher performance while involving d50/h reduced the models prediction power for vertical abutment shape and for semicircular and 45◦ wing involving h/l and d50/h lead to more error. The WIHW-Kstar provided the highest performance in scour depth prediction around vertical abutment shape while RC-Kstar model outperform of other models for scour depth prediction around semicircular and 45◦ wing.

The concept of information entropy together with the principle of maximum entropy to open channel flow is essentially based on some physical consideration of the problem under consideration. This paper is a discussion on Yeganeh and Heidari (2020)’s paper, who proposed a new approach for measuring vertical distribution of streamwise velocity in open channels. The discussers argue that their approach is conceptually incorrect and thus leads to a physically unrealistic situation. In addition, the discussers found some wrong mathematical expressions (which are assumed to be typos) written in the paper, and also point out that the authors did not cite some of the original papers on the topic.

The development of a hydro-mechanically coupled Coupled-Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) method and its application to the back-analysisof vibratory pile driving model tests in water-saturated sand is presented. The predicted pile penetration using this approachis in good agreement with the results of the model tests as well as with fully Lagrangian simulations. In terms of pore water pressure, however, the results of the CEL simulation show a slightly worse accordance with the model tests compared to the Lagrangian simulation. Some shortcomings of the hydro-mechanically coupled CEL method in case of frictional contact problems and pore fluids with high bulk modulus are discussed. Lastly, the CEL method is applied to the simulation of vibratory driving of open-profile piles under partially drained conditions to study installation-induced changes in the soil state. It is concluded that the proposed method is capable of realistically reproducing the most important mechanisms in the soil during the driving process despite its addressed shortcomings.

Transformation of the Environment: Influence of “Urban Reagents.” German and Russian Case Studies
(2021)

An urban regeneration manifests itself through urban objects operating as change agents. The en-tailed diverse effects on the surroundings demonstrate experimental origin - an experiment as a preplanned but unpredictable method. An understanding of influences and features of urban ob-jects requires scrutiny due to a high potential of the elements to force an alteration and reactions. This dissertation explores the transformation of the milieu and mechanisms of this transformation.

In recent years, substantial attention has been devoted to thermoelastic multifield problems and their numerical analysis. Thermoelasticity is one of the important categories of multifield problems which deals with the effect of mechanical and thermal disturbances on an elastic body. In other words, thermoelasticity encompasses the phenomena that describe the elastic and thermal behavior of solids and their interactions under thermo-mechanical loadings. Since providing an analytical solution for general coupled thermoelasticity problems is mathematically complicated, the development of alternative numerical solution techniques seems essential.
Due to the nature of numerical analysis methods, presence of error in results is inevitable, therefore in any numerical simulation, the main concern is the accuracy of the approximation. There are different error estimation (EE) methods to assess the overall quality of numerical approximation. In many real-life numerical simulations, not only the overall error, but also the local error or error in a particular quantity of interest is of main interest. The error estimation techniques which are developed to evaluate the error in the quantity of interest are known as “goal-oriented” error estimation (GOEE) methods.
This project, for the first time, investigates the classical a posteriori error estimation and goal-oriented a posteriori error estimation in 2D/3D thermoelasticity problems. Generally, the a posteriori error estimation techniques can be categorized into two major branches of recovery-based and residual-based error estimators. In this research, application of both recovery- and residual-based error estimators in thermoelasticity are studied. Moreover, in order to reduce the error in the quantity of interest efficiently and optimally in 2D and 3D thermoelastic problems, goal-oriented adaptive mesh refinement is performed.
As the first application category, the error estimation in classical Thermoelasticity (CTE) is investigated. In the first step, a rh-adaptive thermo-mechanical formulation based on goal-oriented error estimation is proposed.The developed goal-oriented error estimation relies on different stress recovery techniques, i.e., the superconvergent patch recovery (SPR), L2-projection patch recovery (L2-PR), and weighted superconvergent patch recovery (WSPR). Moreover, a new adaptive refinement strategy (ARS) is presented that minimizes the error in a quantity of interest and refines the discretization such that the error is equally distributed in the refined mesh. The method is validated by numerous numerical examples where an analytical solution or reference solution is available.
After investigating error estimation in classical thermoelasticity and evaluating the quality of presented error estimators, we extended the application of the developed goal-oriented error estimation and the associated adaptive refinement technique to the classical fully coupled dynamic thermoelasticity. In this part, we present an adaptive method for coupled dynamic thermoelasticity problems based on goal-oriented error estimation. We use dimensionless variables in the finite element formulation and for the time integration we employ the acceleration-based Newmark-_ method. In this part, the SPR, L2-PR, and WSPR recovery methods are exploited to estimate the error in the quantity of interest (QoI). By using
adaptive refinement in space, the error in the quantity of interest is minimized. Therefore, the discretization is refined such that the error is equally distributed in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method by numerous numerical examples.
After studying the recovery-based error estimators, we investigated the residual-based error estimation in thermoelasticity. In the last part of this research, we present a 3D adaptive method for thermoelastic problems based on goal-oriented error estimation where the error is measured with respect to a pointwise quantity of interest. We developed a method for a posteriori error estimation and mesh adaptation based on dual weighted residual (DWR) method relying on the duality principles and consisting of an adjoint problem solution. Here, we consider the application of the derived estimator and mesh refinement to two-/three-dimensional (2D/3D) thermo-mechanical multifield problems. In this study, the goal is considered to be given by singular pointwise functions, such as the point value or point value derivative at a specific point of interest (PoI). An adaptive algorithm has been adopted to refine the mesh to minimize the goal in the quantity of interest.
The mesh adaptivity procedure based on the DWR method is performed by adaptive local h-refinement/coarsening with allowed hanging nodes. According to the proposed DWR method, the error contribution of each element is evaluated. In the refinement process, the contribution of each element to the goal error is considered as the mesh refinement criterion.
In this study, we substantiate the accuracy and performance of this method by several numerical examples with available analytical solutions. Here, 2D and 3D problems under thermo-mechanical loadings are considered as benchmark problems. To show how accurately the derived estimator captures the exact error in the evaluation of the pointwise quantity of interest, in all examples, considering the analytical solutions, the goal error effectivity index as a standard measure of the quality of an estimator is calculated. Moreover, in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method and show the optimal behavior of the employed refinement method, the results of different conventional error estimators and refinement techniques (e.g., global uniform refinement, Kelly, and weighted Kelly techniques) are used for comparison.

The Marmara Region (NW Turkey) has experienced significant earthquakes (M > 7.0) to date. A destructive earthquake is also expected in the region. To determine the effect of the specific design spectrum, eleven provinces located in the region were chosen according to the Turkey Earthquake Building Code updated in 2019. Additionally, the differences between the previous and updated regulations of the country were investigated. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) were obtained for each province by using earthquake ground motion levels with 2%, 10%, 50%, and 68% probability of exceedance in 50-year periods. The PGA values in the region range from 0.16 to 0.7 g for earthquakes with a return period of 475 years. For each province, a sample of a reinforced-concrete building having two different numbers of stories with the same ground and structural characteristics was chosen. Static adaptive pushover analyses were performed for the sample reinforced-concrete building using each province’s design spectrum. The variations in the earthquake and structural parameters were investigated according to different geographical locations. It was determined that the site-specific design spectrum significantly influences target displacements for performance-based assessments of buildings due to seismicity characteristics of the studied geographic location.