## 510 Mathematik

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Numerical simulation of physical phenomena, like electro-magnetics, structural and fluid mechanics is essential for the cost- and time-efficient development of mechanical products at high quality. It allows to investigate the behavior of a product or a system far before the first prototype of a product is manufactured.
This thesis addresses the simulation of contact mechanics. Mechanical contacts appear in nearly every product of mechanical engineering. Gearboxes, roller bearings, valves and pumps are only some examples. Simulating these systems not only for the maximal/minimal stresses and strains but for the stress-distribution in case of tribo-contacts is a challenging task from a numerical point of view.
Classical procedures like the Finite Element Method suffer from the nonsmooth representation of contact surfaces with discrete Lagrange elements. On the one hand, an error due to the approximate description of the surface is introduced. On the other hand it is difficult to attain a robust contact search because surface normals can not be described in a unique form at element edges.
This thesis introduces therefore a novel approach, the adaptive isogeometric contact formulation based on polynomial Splines over hierarchical T-meshes (PHT-Splines), for the approximate solution of the non-linear contact problem. It provides a more accurate, robust and efficient solution compared to conventional methods. During the development of this method the focus was laid on the solution of static contact problems without friction in 2D and 3D in which the structures undergo small deformations.
The mathematical description of the problem entails a system of partial differential equations and boundary conditions which model the linear elastic behaviour of continua. Additionally, it comprises side conditions, the Karush-Kuhn-Tuckerconditions, to prevent the contacting structures from non-physical penetration. The mathematical model must be transformed into its integral form for approximation of the solution. Employing a penalty method, contact constraints are incorporated by adding the resulting equations in weak form to the overall set of equations. For an efficient space discretization of the bulk and especially the contact boundary of the structures, the principle of Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) is applied. Isogeometric Finite Element Methods provide several advantages over conventional Finite Element discretization. Surface approximation with Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) allow a robust numerical solution of the contact problem with high accuracy in terms of an exact geometry description including the surface smoothness.
The numerical evaluation of the contact integral is challenging due to generally non-conforming meshes of the contacting structures. In this work the highly accurate Mortar Method is applied in the isogeometric setting for the evaluation of contact contributions. This leads to an algebraic system of equations that is linearized and solved in sequential steps. This procedure is known as the Newton Raphson Method. Based on numerical examples, the advantages of the isogeometric approach
with classical refinement strategies, like the p- and h-refinement, are shown and the influence of relevant algorithmic parameters on the approximate solution of the contact problem is verified. One drawback of the Spline approximations of stresses though is that they lack accuracy at the contact edge where the structures change their boundary from contact to no contact and where the solution features a kink. The approximation with smooth Spline functions yields numerical artefacts in the form of non-physical oscillations.
This property of the numerical solution is not only a drawback for the
simulation of e.g. tribological contacts, it also influences the convergence properties of iterative solution procedures negatively. Hence, the NURBS discretized geometries are transformed to Polynomial Splines over Hierarchical T-meshes (PHT-Splines), for the local refinement along contact edges to reduce the artefact of pressure oscillations. NURBS have a tensor product structure which does not allow to refine only certain parts of the geometrical domain while leaving other parts unchanged. Due to the Bézier Extraction, lying behind the transformation from NURBS to PHT-Splines, the connected mesh structure is broken up into separate elements. This allows an efficient local refinement along the contact edge.
Before single elements are refined in a hierarchical form with cross-insertion, existing basis functions must be modified or eliminated. This process of truncation assures local and global linear independence of the refined basis which is needed for a unique approximate solution. The contact boundary is a priori unknown. Local refinement along the contact edge, especially for 3D problems, is for this reason not straight forward. In this work the use of an a posteriori error estimation procedure, the Super Convergent Recovery Solution Based Error Estimation Scheme, together with the Dörfler Marking Method is suggested for the spatial search of the contact edge.
Numerical examples show that the developed method improves the quality of solutions along the contact edge significantly compared to NURBS based approximate solutions. Also, the error in maximum contact pressures, which correlates with the pressure artefacts, is minimized by the adaptive local refinement.
In a final step the practicability of the developed solution algorithm is verified by an industrial application: The highly loaded mechanical contact between roller and cam in the drive train of a high-pressure fuel pump is considered.

In this paper, we present an open-source code for the first-order and higher-order nonlocal operator method (NOM) including a detailed description of the implementation. The NOM is based on so-called support, dual-support, nonlocal operators, and an operate energy functional ensuring stability. The nonlocal operator is a generalization of the conventional differential operators. Combined with the method of weighed residuals and variational principles, NOM establishes the residual and tangent stiffness matrix of operate energy functional through some simple matrix without the need of shape functions as in other classical computational methods such as FEM. NOM only requires the definition of the energy drastically simplifying its implementation. The implementation in this paper is focused on linear elastic solids for sake of conciseness through the NOM can handle more complex nonlinear problems. The NOM can be very flexible and efficient to solve partial differential equations (PDEs), it’s also quite easy for readers to use the NOM and extend it to solve other complicated physical phenomena described by one or a set of PDEs. Finally, we present some classical benchmark problems including the classical cantilever beam and plate-with-a-hole problem, and we also make an extension of this method to solve complicated problems including phase-field fracture modeling and gradient elasticity material.

This paper presents numerical analysis of the discrete fundamental solution of the discrete Laplace operator on a rectangular lattice. Additionally, to provide estimates in interior and exterior domains, two different regularisations of the discrete fundamental solution are considered. Estimates for the absolute difference and lp-estimates are constructed for both regularisations. Thus, this work extends the classical results in the discrete potential theory to the case of a rectangular lattice and serves as a basis for future convergence analysis of the method of discrete potentials on rectangular lattices.

Modern cryptography has become an often ubiquitous but essential part of our daily lives. Protocols for secure authentication and encryption protect our communication with various digital services, from private messaging, online shopping, to bank transactions or exchanging sensitive information. Those high-level protocols can naturally be only as secure as the authentication or encryption schemes underneath. Moreover, on a more detailed level, those schemes can also at best inherit the security of their underlying primitives. While widespread standards in modern symmetric-key cryptography, such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), have shown to resist analysis until now, closer analysis and design of related primitives can deepen our understanding.
The present thesis consists of two parts that portray six contributions: The first part considers block-cipher cryptanalysis of the round-reduced AES, the AES-based tweakable block cipher Kiasu-BC, and TNT. The second part studies the design, analysis, and implementation of provably secure authenticated encryption schemes.
In general, cryptanalysis aims at finding distinguishable properties in the output distribution. Block ciphers are a core primitive of symmetric-key cryptography which are useful for the construction of various higher-level schemes, ranging from authentication, encryption, authenticated encryption up to integrity protection. Therefore, their analysis is crucial to secure cryptographic schemes at their lowest level. With rare exceptions, block-cipher cryptanalysis employs a systematic strategy of investigating known attack techniques. Modern proposals are expected to be evaluated against these techniques. The considerable effort for evaluation, however, demands efforts not only from the designers but also from external sources.
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is one of the most widespread block ciphers nowadays. Therefore, it is naturally an interesting target for further analysis. Tweakable block ciphers augment the usual inputs of a secret key and a public plaintext by an additional public input called tweak. Among various proposals through the previous decade, this thesis identifies Kiasu-BC as a noteworthy attempt to construct a tweakable block cipher that is very close to the AES. Hence, its analysis intertwines closely with that of the AES and illustrates the impact of the tweak on its security best. Moreover, it revisits a generic tweakable block cipher Tweak-and-Tweak (TNT) and its instantiation based on the round-reduced AES.
The first part investigates the security of the AES against several forms of differential cryptanalysis, developing distinguishers on four to six (out of ten) rounds of AES. For Kiasu-BC, it exploits the additional freedom in the tweak to develop two forms of differential-based attacks: rectangles and impossible differentials. The results on Kiasu-BC consider an additional round compared to attacks on the (untweaked) AES. The authors of TNT had provided an initial security analysis that still left a gap between provable guarantees and attacks. Our analysis conducts a considerable step towards closing this gap. For TNT-AES - an instantiation of TNT built upon the AES round function - this thesis further shows how to transform our distinguisher into a key-recovery attack.
Many applications require the simultaneous authentication and encryption of transmitted data. Authenticated encryption (AE) schemes provide both properties. Modern AE schemes usually demand a unique public input called nonce that must not repeat. Though, this requirement cannot always be guaranteed in practice. As part of a remedy, misuse-resistant and robust AE tries to reduce the impact of occasional misuses. However, robust AE considers not only the potential reuse of nonces. Common authenticated encryption also demanded that the entire ciphertext would have to be buffered until the authentication tag has been successfully verified. In practice, this approach is difficult to ensure since the setting may lack the resources for buffering the messages. Moreover, robustness guarantees in the case of misuse are valuable features.
The second part of this thesis proposes three authenticated encryption schemes: RIV, SIV-x, and DCT. RIV is robust against nonce misuse and the release of unverified plaintexts. Both SIV-x and DCT provide high security independent from nonce repetitions. As the core under SIV-x, this thesis revisits the proof of a highly secure parallel MAC, PMAC-x, revises its details, and proposes SIV-x as a highly secure authenticated encryption scheme. Finally, DCT is a generic approach to have n-bit secure deterministic AE but without the need of expanding the ciphertext-tag string by more than n bits more than the plaintext.
From its first part, this thesis aims to extend the understanding of the (1) cryptanalysis of round-reduced AES, as well as the understanding of (2) AES-like tweakable block ciphers. From its second part, it demonstrates how to simply extend known approaches for (3) robust nonce-based as well as (4) highly secure deterministic authenticated encryption.

This study aims to evaluate a new approach in modeling gully erosion susceptibility (GES) based on a deep learning neural network (DLNN) model and an ensemble particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with DLNN (PSO-DLNN), comparing these approaches with common artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) models in Shirahan watershed, Iran. For this purpose, 13 independent variables affecting GES in the study area, namely, altitude, slope, aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, drainage density, distance from a river, land use, soil, lithology, rainfall, stream power index (SPI), and topographic wetness index (TWI), were prepared. A total of 132 gully erosion locations were identified during field visits. To implement the proposed model, the dataset was divided into the two categories of training (70%) and testing (30%). The results indicate that the area under the curve (AUC) value from receiver operating characteristic (ROC) considering the testing datasets of PSO-DLNN is 0.89, which indicates superb accuracy. The rest of the models are associated with optimal accuracy and have similar results to the PSO-DLNN model; the AUC values from ROC of DLNN, SVM, and ANN for the testing datasets are 0.87, 0.85, and 0.84, respectively. The efficiency of the proposed model in terms of prediction of GES was increased. Therefore, it can be concluded that the DLNN model and its ensemble with the PSO algorithm can be used as a novel and practical method to predict gully erosion susceptibility, which can help planners and managers to manage and reduce the risk of this phenomenon.

In this study, a new approach to basis of intelligent systems and machine learning algorithms is introduced for solving singular multi-pantograph differential equations (SMDEs). For the first time, a type-2 fuzzy logic based approach is formulated to find an approximated solution. The rules of the suggested type-2 fuzzy logic system (T2-FLS) are optimized by the square root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) such that the proposed fineness function to be minimized. Furthermore, the stability and boundedness of the estimation error is proved by novel approach on basis of Lyapunov theorem. The accuracy and robustness of the suggested algorithm is verified by several statistical examinations. It is shown that the suggested method results in an accurate solution with rapid convergence and a lower computational cost.

In this research, an attempt was made to reduce the dimension of wavelet-ANFIS/ANN (artificial neural network/adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) models toward reliable forecasts as well as to decrease computational cost. In this regard, the principal component analysis was performed on the input time series decomposed by a discrete wavelet transform to feed the ANN/ANFIS models. The models were applied for dissolved oxygen (DO) forecasting in rivers which is an important variable affecting aquatic life and water quality. The current values of DO, water surface temperature, salinity, and turbidity have been considered as the input variable to forecast DO in a three-time step further. The results of the study revealed that PCA can be employed as a powerful tool for dimension reduction of input variables and also to detect inter-correlation of input variables. Results of the PCA-wavelet-ANN models are compared with those obtained from wavelet-ANN models while the earlier one has the advantage of less computational time than the later models. Dealing with ANFIS models, PCA is more beneficial to avoid wavelet-ANFIS models creating too many rules which deteriorate the efficiency of the ANFIS models. Moreover, manipulating the wavelet-ANFIS models utilizing PCA leads to a significant decreasing in computational time. Finally, it was found that the PCA-wavelet-ANN/ANFIS models can provide reliable forecasts of dissolved oxygen as an important water quality indicator in rivers.

Das Hauptziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, eine stetige Kopplung zwischen der ananlytischen und numerischen Lösung von Randwertaufgaben mit Singularitäten zu realisieren. Durch die inter-polationsbasierte gekoppelte Methode kann eine globale C0 Stetigkeit erzielt werden. Für diesen Zweck wird ein spezielle ﬁnite Element (Kopplungselement) verwendet, das die Stetigkeit der Lösung sowohl mit dem analytischen Element als auch mit den normalen CST Elementen gewährleistet.
Die interpolationsbasierte gekoppelte Methode ist zwar für beliebige Knotenanzahl auf dem Interface ΓAD anwendbar, aber es konnte durch die Untersuchung von der Interpolationsmatrix und numerische Simulationen festgestellt werden, dass sie schlecht konditioniert ist. Um das Problem mit den numerischen Instabilitäten zu bewältigen, wurde eine approximationsbasierte Kopplungsmethode entwickelt und untersucht. Die Stabilität dieser Methode wurde anschließend anhand der Untersuchung von der Gramschen Matrix des verwendeten Basissystems auf zwei Intervallen [−π,π] und [−2π,2π] beurteilt. Die Gramsche Matrix auf dem Intervall [−2π,2π] hat einen günstigeren Konditionszahl in der Abhängigkeit von der Anzahl der Kopplungsknoten auf dem Interface aufgewiesen. Um die dazu gehörigen numerischen Instabilitäten ausschließen zu können wird das Basissystem mit Hilfe vom Gram-Schmidtschen Orthogonalisierungsverfahren auf beiden Intervallen orthogonalisiert. Das orthogonale Basissystem lässt sich auf dem Intervall [−2π,2π] mit expliziten Formeln schreiben. Die Methode des konsistentes Sampling, die häuﬁg in der Nachrichtentechnik verwendet wird, wurde zur Realisierung von der approximationsbasierten Kopplung herangezogen. Eine Beschränkung dieser Methode ist es, dass die Anzahl der Sampling-Basisfunktionen muss gleich der Anzahl der Wiederherstellungsbasisfunktionen sein. Das hat dazu geführt, dass das eingeführt Basissys-tem (mit 2 n Basisfunktionen) nur mit n Basisfunktion verwendet werden kann.
Zur Lösung diese Problems wurde ein alternatives Basissystems (Variante 2) vorgestellt. Für die Verwendung dieses Basissystems ist aber eine Transformationsmatrix M nötig und bei der Orthogonalisierung des Basissystems auf dem Intervall [−π,π] kann die Herleitung von dieser Matrix kompliziert und aufwendig sein. Die Formfunktionen wurden anschließend für die beiden Varianten hergeleitet und graﬁsch (für n = 5) dargestellt und wurde gezeigt, dass diese Funktionen die Anforderungen an den Formfunktionen erfüllen und können somit für die FE- Approximation verwendet werden.
Anhand numerischer Simulationen, die mit der Variante 1 (mit Orthogonalisierung auf dem Intervall [−2π,2π]) durchgeführt wurden, wurden die grundlegenden Fragen (Beispielsweise: Stetigkeit der Verformungen auf dem Interface ΓAD, Spannungen auf dem analytischen Gebiet) über-
prüft.

FCS-MBFLEACH: Designing an Energy-Aware Fault Detection System for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks
(2019)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) include large-scale sensor nodes that are densely distributed over a geographical region that is completely randomized for monitoring, identifying, and analyzing physical events. The crucial challenge in wireless sensor networks is the very high dependence of the sensor nodes on limited battery power to exchange information wirelessly as well as the non-rechargeable battery of the wireless sensor nodes, which makes the management and monitoring of these nodes in terms of abnormal changes very difficult. These anomalies appear under faults, including hardware, software, anomalies, and attacks by raiders, all of which affect the comprehensiveness of the data collected by wireless sensor networks. Hence, a crucial contraption should be taken to detect the early faults in the network, despite the limitations of the sensor nodes. Machine learning methods include solutions that can be used to detect the sensor node faults in the network. The purpose of this study is to use several classification methods to compute the fault detection accuracy with different densities under two scenarios in regions of interest such as MB-FLEACH, one-class support vector machine (SVM), fuzzy one-class, or a combination of SVM and FCS-MBFLEACH methods. It should be noted that in the study so far, no super cluster head (SCH) selection has been performed to detect node faults in the network. The simulation outcomes demonstrate that the FCS-MBFLEACH method has the best performance in terms of the accuracy of fault detection, false-positive rate (FPR), average remaining energy, and network lifetime compared to other classification methods.

The aim of this paper is to present so-called discrete-continual boundary element method (DCBEM) of structural analysis. Its field of application comprises buildings constructions, structures and also parts and components for the residential, commercial and un-inhabitant structures with invariability of physical and geometrical parameters in some dimensions. We should mention here in particular such objects as beams, thin-walled bars, strip foundations, plates, shells, deep beams, high-rise buildings, extensional buildings, pipelines, rails, dams and others. DCBEM comes under group of semianalytical methods. Semianalytical formulations are contemporary mathematical models which currently becoming available for realization due to substantial speed-up of computer productivity. DCBEM is based on the theory of the pseudodifferential boundary equations. Corresponding pseudodifferential operators are discretely approximated using Fourier analysis or wavelet analysis. The main DCBEM advantages against the other methods of the numerical analysis is a double reduction in dimension of the problem (discrete numerical division applied not to the full region of the interest but only to the boundary of the region cross section, as a matter of fact one is solving an one-dimensional problem with the finite step on the boundary area of the region), one has opportunities to carrying out very detailed analysis of the specific chosen zones, simplified initial data preparation, simplistic and adaptive algorithms. There are two methods to define and conduct DCBEM analysis developed – indirect (IDCBEM) and direct (DDCBEM), thus indirect like in boundary element method (BEM) applied and used little bit more than direct.