## 500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik

### Refine

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (41)
- Article (23)
- Bachelor Thesis (5)
- Master's Thesis (5)
- Conference Proceeding (2)
- Habilitation (1)
- Preprint (1)
- Study Thesis (1)

#### Institute

- Institut für Strukturmechanik (ISM) (33)
- F. A. Finger-Institut für Baustoffkunde (FIB) (6)
- Professur Angewandte Mathematik (5)
- Professur Werkstoffe des Bauens (4)
- Bauhaus-Institut für zukunftsweisende Infrastruktursysteme (b.is) (3)
- Professur Bauchemie und Polymere Werkstoffe (3)
- Professur Modellierung und Simulation - Konstruktion (3)
- Professur Modellierung und Simulation - Mechanik (3)
- Professur Stochastik und Optimierung (3)
- Institut für Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau (IKI) (2)

#### Keywords

- Finite-Elemente-Methode (6)
- Isogeometric Analysis (6)
- Isogeometrische Analyse (5)
- Maschinelles Lernen (5)
- Gestaltoptimierung (4)
- Machine learning (4)
- OA-Publikationsfonds2020 (4)
- Peridynamik (4)
- Beton (3)
- Modellierung (3)

As machine vision-based inspection methods in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) continue to advance, the need for integrating resulting inspection and maintenance data into a centralised building information model for structures notably grows. Consequently, the modelling of found damages based on those images in a streamlined automated manner becomes increasingly important, not just for saving time and money spent on updating the model to include the latest information gathered through each inspection, but also to easily visualise them, provide all stakeholders involved with a comprehensive digital representation containing all the necessary information to fully understand the structure’s current condition, keep track of any progressing deterioration, estimate the reduced load bearing capacity of the damaged element in the model or simulate the propagation of cracks to make well-informed decisions interactively and facilitate maintenance actions that optimally extend the service life of the structure. Though significant progress has been recently made in information modelling of damages, the current devised methods for the geometrical modelling approach are cumbersome and time consuming to implement in a full-scale model. For crack damages, an approach for a feasible automated image-based modelling is proposed utilising neural networks, classical computer vision and computational geometry techniques with the aim of creating valid shapes to be introduced into the information model, including related semantic properties and attributes from inspection data (e.g., width, depth, length, date, etc.). The creation of such models opens the door for further possible uses ranging from more accurate structural analysis possibilities to simulation of damage propagation in model elements, estimating deterioration rates and allows for better documentation, data sharing, and realistic visualisation of damages in a 3D model.

Biomembranes are selectively permeable barriers that separate the internal components of the cell from its surroundings. They have remarkable mechanical behavior which is characterized by many phenomena, but most noticeably their fluid-like in-plane behavior and solid-like out-of-plane behavior. Vesicles have been studied in the context of discrete models, such as Molecular Dynamics, Monte Carlo methods, Dissipative Particle Dynamics, and Brownian Dynamics. Those methods, however, tend to have high computational costs, which limited their uses for studying atomistic details. In order to broaden the scope of this research, we resort to the continuum models, where the atomistic details of the vesicles are neglected, and the focus shifts to the overall morphological evolution. Under the umbrella of continuum models, vesicles morphology has been studied extensively. However, most of those studies were limited to the mechanical response of vesicles by considering only the bending energy and aiming for the solution by minimizing the total energy of the system. Most of the literature is divided between two geometrical representation methods; the sharp interface methods and the diffusive interface methods. Both of those methods track the boundaries and interfaces implicitly. In this research, we focus our attention on solving two non-trivial problems. In the first one, we study a constrained Willmore problem coupled with an electrical field, and in the second one, we investigate the hydrodynamics of a vesicle doublet suspended in an external viscous fluid flow.
For the first problem, we solve a constrained Willmore problem coupled with an electrical field using isogeometric analysis to study the morphological evolution of vesicles subjected to static electrical fields. The model comprises two phases, the lipid bilayer, and the electrolyte. This two-phase problem is modeled using the phase-field method, which is a subclass of the diffusive interface methods mentioned earlier. The bending, flexoelectric, and dielectric energies of the model are reformulated using the phase-field parameter. A modified Augmented-Lagrangian (ALM) approach was used to satisfy the constraints while maintaining numerical stability and a relatively large time step. This approach guarantees the satisfaction of the constraints at each time step over the entire temporal domain.
In the second problem, we study the hydrodynamics of vesicle doublet suspended in an external viscous fluid flow. Vesicles in this part of the research are also modeled using the phase-field model. The bending energy and energies associated with enforcing the global volume and area are considered. In addition, the local inextensibility condition is ensured by introducing an additional equation to the system. To prevent the vesicles from numerically overlapping, we deploy an interaction energy definition to maintain a short-range repulsion between the vesicles. The fluid flow is modeled using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the vesicle evolution in time is modeled using two advection equations describing the process of advecting each vesicle by the fluid flow. To overcome the velocity-pressure saddle point system, we apply the Residual-Based Variational MultiScale (RBVMS) method to the Navier-Stokes equations and solve the coupled systems using isogeometric analysis. We study vesicle doublet hydrodynamics in shear flow, planar extensional flow, and parabolic flow under various configurations and boundary conditions.
The results reveal several interesting points about the electrodynamics and hydrodynamics responses of single vesicles and vesicle doublets. But first, it can be seen that isogeometric analysis as a numerical tool has the ability to model and solve 4th-order PDEs in a primal variational framework at extreme efficiency and accuracy due to the abilities embedded within the NURBS functions without the need to reduce the order of the PDE by creating an intermediate environment. Refinement whether by knot insertion, order increasing or both is far easier to obtain than traditional mesh-based methods. Given the wide variety of phenomena in natural sciences and engineering that are mathematically modeled by high-order PDEs, the isogeometric analysis is among the most robust methods to address such problems as the basis functions can easily attain high global continuity.
On the applicational side, we study the vesicle morphological evolution based on the electromechanical liquid-crystal model in 3D settings. This model describing the evolution of vesicles is composed of time-dependent, highly nonlinear, high-order PDEs, which are nontrivial to solve. Solving this problem requires robust numerical methods, such as isogeometric analysis. We concluded that the vesicle tends to deform under increasing magnitudes of electric fields from the original sphere shape to an oblate-like shape. This evolution is affected by many factors and requires fine-tuning of several parameters, mainly the regularization parameter which controls the thickness of the diffusive interface width. But it is most affected by the method used for enforcing the constraints. The penalty method in presence of an electrical field tends to lock on the initial phase-field and prevent any evolution while a modified version of the ALM has proven to be sufficiently stable and accurate to let the phase-field evolve while satisfying the constraints over time at each time step. We show additionally the effect of including the flexoelectric nature of the Biomembranes in the computation and how it affects the shape evolution as well as the effect of having different conductivity ratios. All the examples were solved based on a staggered scheme, which reduces the computational cost significantly.
For the second part of the research, we consider vesicle doublet suspended in a shear flow, in a planar extensional flow, and in a parabolic flow. When the vesicle doublet is suspended in a shear flow, it can either slip past each other or slide on top of each other based on the value of the vertical displacement, that is the vertical distance between the center of masses between the two vesicles, and the velocity profile applied. When the vesicle doublet is suspended in a planar extensional flow in a configuration that resembles a junction, the time in which both vesicles separate depends largely on the value of the vertical displacement after displacing as much fluid from between the two vesicles. However, when the vesicles are suspended in a tubular channel with a parabolic fluid flow, they develop a parachute-like shape upon converging towards each other before exiting the computational domain from the predetermined outlets. This shape however is affected largely by the height of the tubular channel in which the vesicle is suspended. The velocity essential boundary conditions are imposed weakly and strongly. The weak implementation of the boundary conditions was used when the velocity profile was defined on the entire boundary, while the strong implementation was used when the velocity profile was defined on a part of the boundary. The strong implementation of the essential boundary conditions was done by selectively applying it to the predetermined set of elements in a parallel-based code. This allowed us to simulate vesicle hydrodynamics in a computational domain with multiple inlets and outlets. We also investigate the hydrodynamics of oblate-like shape vesicles in a parabolic flow. This work has been done in 2D configuration because of the immense computational load resulting from a large number of degrees of freedom, but we are actively seeking to expand it to 3D settings and test a broader set of parameters and geometrical configurations.

This paper presents the development of an assessment scheme for a visual qualitative evaluation of nailed connections in existing structures, such as board trusses. In terms of further use and preservation, a quick visual inspection will help to evaluate the quality of a structure regarding its load-bearing capacity and deformation behaviour. Tests of old and new nailed joints in combination with a rating scheme point out the correlation between the load-bearing capacity and condition of a joint. Old joints of comparatively good condition tend to exhibit better results than those of poor condition. Moreover, aged joints are generally more load-bearing than newly assembled ones.

Die Diskussionen in der Politik und in der Gesellschaft über Klimawandel, globale Erwärmung oder Nachhaltigkeit, die schon noch länger anhält, werden nie ein Ende finden, solange die Probleme, auf denen sie basiert, unlösbar bleiben. Vorgeschlagene Lösungen werden meist nicht richtig umgesetzt. Im Zusammenhang mit dieser Problematik steigt aber das Verantwortungsgefühl für bessere Zukunftsstrategien immer mehr. Die in den letzten Jahren vorgekommenen Umweltkatastrophen, wie im Golf von Mexiko (April 2010) oder im Fukushima (März 2011) die noch aktuell sind, zeigen, dass der Primärenergieeinsatz oder die Transportproblematik nicht mehr nur die Sorge der Entwicklungsländer, sondern auch der Industrieländer ist. Die Bauwelt mit ihrem erheblichen Energiebedarf spielt bei der Festlegung der Zukunftsstrategien eine große Rolle.
Vor allem sind die Forschungen nach umweltfreundlichen Materialien, der Recyclebarkeit der eingesetzten Baumaterialien oder dem vernünftigen Nutzen der Naturressourcen die wichtigsten Schwerpunkte. In dieser Hinsicht bringt Lehm als Baumaterial viele Vorteile mit sich. Bei einem Artikel sagt der Lehmbauexperte Martin Rauch: “In heutiger Zeit und einem Kulturkreis, in dem Baugrund und Arbeitszeit unsere großen Kosten verursachen, findet der tradierte Lehmbau mit dem verbundenen großen Aufwand an menschlicher Arbeitszeit nur schwer seinen Platz. Über die Art der Bauweise wird auch die Entscheidung gefällt, wie und wo die Wertschöpfung erfolgt und ob der Einsatz des Budgets einen gesellschaftlichen Nutzen mit sich bringt. Im Vergleich zu einem Sichtbetonhaus können bei einem Stampflehmhaus 40% der Primärenergie ein gespart und dafür mehr lokale Arbeitsressourcen gebunden werden. Davon profitieren vor allem die lokalen Handwerker und mittelständischen Betriebe” Anatolien ist der Ort, wo man immer noch die tiefsten Wurzeln der Baukultur menschlicher Geschichte findet. Diese Baukultur, die in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten fast verlorengegangen ist, ist die Lehmbaukultur. In dieser Hinsicht beabsichtigt dieser Entwurf die Würde des Lehms in Anatolien wieder herzustellen und dadurch dessen Glaubwürdigkeit zurückzubringen.

Due to the development of new technologies and materials, optimized bridge design has recently gained more attention. The aim is to reduce the bridge components materials and the CO2 emission from the cement manufacturing process. Thus, most long-span bridges are designed to be with high flexibility, low structural damping, and longer and slender spans. Such designs lead, however, to aeroelastic challenges. Moreover, the consideration of both the structural and aeroelastic behavior in bridges leads to contradictory solutions as the structural constraints lead to deck prototypes with high depth which provide high inertia to material volume ratios. On the other hand, considering solely the aerodynamic requirements, slender airfoil-shaped bridge box girders are recommended since they prevent vortex shedding and exhibit minimum drag. Within this framework comes this study which provides approaches to find optimal bridge deck cross-sections while considering the aerodynamic effects. Shape optimization of deck cross-section is usually formulated to minimize the amount of material by finding adequate parameters such as the depth, the height, and the thickness and while ensuring the overall stability of the structure by the application of some constraints. Codes and studies have been implemented to analyze the wind phenomena and the structural responses towards bridge deck cross-sections where simplifications have been adopted due to the complexity and the uniqueness of such components besides the difficulty of obtaining a final model of the aerodynamic behavior. In this thesis, two main perspectives have been studied; the first is fully deterministic and presents a novel framework on generating optimal aerodynamic shapes for streamlined and trapezoidal cross-sections based on the meta-modeling approach. Single and multi-objective optimizations were both carried out and a Pareto Front is generated. The performance of the optimal designs is checked afterwards. In the second part, a new strategy based on Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) to mitigate the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) on the Trans-Tokyo Bay bridge is proposed. Small changes in the leading and trailing edges are presented and uncertainties are considered in the structural system. Probabilistic constraints based on polynomial regression are evaluated and the problem is solved while applying the Reliability Index Approach (RIA) and the Performance Measure Approach (PMA). The results obtained in the first part showed that the aspect ratio has a significant effect on the aerodynamic behavior where deeper cross-sections have lower resistance against flutter and should be avoided. In the second part, the adopted RBDO approach succeeded to mitigate the VIV, and it is proven that designs with narrow or prolonged bottom-base length and featuring an abrupt surface change in the leading and trailing edges can lead to high vertical vibration amplitude. It is expected that this research will help engineers with the selections of the adequate deck cross-section layout, and encourage researchers to apply concepts of optimization regarding this field and develop the presented approaches for further studies.

The growing complexity of modern engineering problems necessitates development of advanced numerical methods. In particular, methods working directly with discrete structures, and thus, representing exactly some important properties of the solution on a lattice and not just approximating the continuous properties, become more and more popular nowadays. Among others, discrete potential theory and discrete function theory provide a variety of methods, which are discrete counterparts of the classical continuous methods for solving boundary value problems. A lot of results related to the discrete potential and function theories have been presented in recent years. However, these results are related to the discrete theories constructed on square lattices, and, thus, limiting their practical applicability and
potentially leading to higher computational costs while discretising realistic domains.
This thesis presents an extension of the discrete potential theory and discrete function theory to rectangular lattices. As usual in the discrete theories, construction of discrete operators is strongly influenced by a definition of discrete geometric setting. For providing consistent constructions throughout the whole thesis, a detailed discussion on the discrete geometric setting is presented in the beginning. After that, the discrete fundamental solution of the discrete Laplace operator on a rectangular lattice, which is the core of the discrete potential theory, its numerical analysis, and practical calculations are presented. By using the discrete fundamental solution of the discrete Laplace operator on a rectangular lattice, the discrete potential theory is then constructed for interior and exterior settings. Several discrete interior and exterior boundary value problems are then solved. Moreover, discrete transmission problems are introduced and several numerical examples of these problems are discussed. Finally, a discrete fundamental solution of the discrete Cauchy-Riemann operator on a rectangular lattice is constructed, and basics of the discrete function theory on a rectangular lattice are provided. This work indicates that the discrete theories provide
solution methods with very good numerical properties to tackle various boundary value problems, as well as transmission problems coupling interior and exterior problems. The results presented in this thesis provide a basis for further development of discrete theories on irregular lattices.

The computational costs of newly developed numerical simulation play a critical role in their acceptance within both academic use and industrial employment. Normally, the refinement of a method in the area of interest reduces the computational cost. This is unfortunately not true for most nonlocal simulation, since refinement typically increases the size of the material point neighborhood. Reducing the discretization size while keep- ing the neighborhood size will often require extra consideration. Peridy- namic (PD) is a newly developed numerical method with nonlocal nature. Its straightforward integral form equation of motion allows simulating dy- namic problems without any extra consideration required. The formation of crack and its propagation is known as natural to peridynamic. This means that discontinuity is a result of the simulation and does not demand any post-processing. As with other nonlocal methods, PD is considered an expensive method. The refinement of the nodal spacing while keeping the neighborhood size (i.e., horizon radius) constant, emerges to several nonphysical phenomena.
This research aims to reduce the peridynamic computational and imple- mentation costs. A novel refinement approach is introduced. The pro- posed approach takes advantage of the PD flexibility in choosing the shape of the horizon by introducing multiple domains (with no intersections) to the nodes of the refinement zone. It will be shown that no ghost forces will be created when changing the horizon sizes in both subdomains. The approach is applied to both bond-based and state-based peridynamic and verified for a simple wave propagation refinement problem illustrating the efficiency of the method. Further development of the method for higher dimensions proves to have a direct relationship with the mesh sensitivity of the PD. A method for solving the mesh sensitivity of the PD is intro- duced. The application of the method will be examined by solving a crack propagation problem similar to those reported in the literature.
New software architecture is proposed considering both academic and in- dustrial use. The available simulation tools for employing PD will be collected, and their advantages and drawbacks will be addressed. The challenges of implementing any node base nonlocal methods while max- imizing the software flexibility to further development and modification
will be discussed and addressed. A software named Relation-Based Sim- ulator (RBS) is developed for examining the proposed architecture. The exceptional capabilities of RBS will be explored by simulating three dis- tinguished models. RBS is available publicly and open to further develop- ment. The industrial acceptance of the RBS will be tested by targeting its performance on one Mac and two Linux distributions.

The computational costs of newly developed numerical simulation play a critical role in their acceptance within both academic use and industrial employment. Normally, the refinement of a method in the area of interest reduces the computational cost. This is unfortunately not true for most nonlocal simulation, since refinement typically increases the size of the material point neighborhood. Reducing the discretization size while keep- ing the neighborhood size will often require extra consideration. Peridynamic (PD) is a newly developed numerical method with nonlocal nature. Its straightforward integral form equation of motion allows simulating dynamic problems without any extra consideration required. The formation of crack and its propagation is known as natural to peridynamic. This means that discontinuity is a result of the simulation and does not demand any post-processing. As with other nonlocal methods, PD is considered an expensive method. The refinement of the nodal spacing while keeping the neighborhood size (i.e., horizon radius) constant, emerges to several nonphysical phenomena.
This research aims to reduce the peridynamic computational and imple- mentation costs. A novel refinement approach is introduced. The pro- posed approach takes advantage of the PD flexibility in choosing the shape of the horizon by introducing multiple domains (with no intersections) to the nodes of the refinement zone. It will be shown that no ghost forces will be created when changing the horizon sizes in both subdomains. The approach is applied to both bond-based and state-based peridynamic and verified for a simple wave propagation refinement problem illustrating the efficiency of the method. Further development of the method for higher dimensions proves to have a direct relationship with the mesh sensitivity of the PD. A method for solving the mesh sensitivity of the PD is intro- duced. The application of the method will be examined by solving a crack propagation problem similar to those reported in the literature.
New software architecture is proposed considering both academic and in- dustrial use. The available simulation tools for employing PD will be collected, and their advantages and drawbacks will be addressed. The challenges of implementing any node base nonlocal methods while max- imizing the software flexibility to further development and modification will be discussed and addressed. A software named Relation-Based Sim- ulator (RBS) is developed for examining the proposed architecture. The exceptional capabilities of RBS will be explored by simulating three distinguished models. RBS is available publicly and open to further develop- ment. The industrial acceptance of the RBS will be tested by targeting its performance on one Mac and two Linux distributions.

Finite Element Simulations of dynamically excited structures are mainly influenced by the mass, stiffness, and damping properties of the system, as well as external loads. The prediction quality of dynamic simulations of vibration-sensitive components depends significantly on the use of appropriate damping models. Damping phenomena have a decisive influence on the vibration amplitude and the frequencies of the vibrating structure. However, developing realistic damping models is challenging due to the multiple sources that cause energy dissipation, such as material damping, different types of friction, or various interactions with the environment.
This thesis focuses on thermoelastic damping, which is the main cause of material damping in homogeneous materials. The effect is caused by temperature changes due to mechanical strains. In vibrating structures, temperature gradients arise in adjacent tension and compression areas. Depending on the vibration frequency, they result in heat flows, leading to increased entropy and the irreversible transformation of mechanical energy into thermal energy.
The central objective of this thesis is the development of efficient simulation methods to incorporate thermoelastic damping in finite element analyses based on modal superposition. The thermoelastic loss factor is derived from the structure's mechanical mode shapes and eigenfrequencies. In subsequent analyses that are performed in the time and frequency domain, it is applied as modal damping.
Two approaches are developed to determine the thermoelastic loss in thin-walled plate structures, as well as three-dimensional solid structures. The realistic representation of the dissipation effects is verified by comparing the simulation results with experimentally determined data. Therefore, an experimental setup is developed to measure material damping, excluding other sources of energy dissipation.
The three-dimensional solid approach is based on the determination of the generated entropy and therefore the generated heat per vibration cycle, which is a measure for thermoelastic loss in relation to the total strain energy. For thin plate structures, the amount of bending energy in a modal deformation is calculated and summarized in the so-called Modal Bending Factor (MBF). The highest amount of thermoelastic loss occurs in the state of pure bending. Therefore, the MBF enables a quantitative classification of the mode shapes concerning the thermoelastic damping potential.
The results of the developed simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results and are appropriate to predict thermoelastic loss factors. Both approaches are based on modal superposition with the advantage of a high computational efficiency. Overall, the modeling of thermoelastic damping represents an important component in a comprehensive damping model, which is necessary to perform realistic simulations of vibration processes.

Material failure can be tackled by so-called nonlocal models, which introduce an intrinsic length scale into the formulation and, in the case of material failure, restore the well-posedness of the underlying boundary value problem or initial boundary value problem. Among nonlocal models, peridynamics (PD) has attracted a lot of attention as it allows the natural transition from continuum to discontinue and thus allows modeling of discrete cracks without the need to describe and track the crack topology, which has been a major obstacle in traditional discrete crack approaches. This is achieved by replacing the divergence of the Cauchy stress tensor through an integral over so-called bond forces, which account for the interaction of particles. A quasi-continuum approach is then used to calibrate the material parameters of the bond forces, i.e., equating the PD energy with the energy of a continuum. One major issue for the application of PD to general complex problems is that they are limited to fairly simple material behavior and pure mechanical problems based on explicit time integration. PD has been extended to other applications but losing simultaneously its simplicity and ease in modeling material failure. Furthermore, conventional PD suffers from instability and hourglass modes that require stabilization. It also requires the use of constant horizon sizes, which drastically reduces its computational efficiency. The latter issue was resolved by the so-called dual-horizon peridynamics (DH-PD) formulation and the introduction of the duality of horizons.
Within the nonlocal operator method (NOM), the concept of nonlocality is further extended and can be considered a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with the energy functionals of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on the dual-support concept can be derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulations of the nonlocal theory. While traditional integral equations are formulated in an integral domain, the dual-support approaches are based on dual integral domains. One prominent feature of NOM is its compatibility with variational and weighted residual methods. The NOM yields a direct numerical implementation based on the weighted residual method for many physical problems without the need for shape functions. Only the definition of the energy or boundary value problem is needed to drastically facilitate the implementation. The nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role to the derivatives of the shape functions in meshless methods and finite element methods (FEM). Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease by a series of matrix multiplications. In addition, NOM can be used to derive many nonlocal models in strong form.
The principal contributions of this dissertation are the implementation and application of NOM, and also the development of approaches for dealing with fractures within the NOM, mostly for dynamic fractures. The primary coverage and results of the dissertation are as follows:
-The first/higher-order implicit NOM and explicit NOM, including a detailed description of the implementation, are presented. The NOM is based on so-called support, dual-support, nonlocal operators, and an operate energy functional ensuring stability. The nonlocal operator is a generalization of the conventional differential operators. Combining with the method of weighted residuals and variational principles, NOM establishes the residual and tangent stiffness matrix of operate energy functional through some simple matrix without the need of shape functions as in other classical computational methods such as FEM. NOM only requires the definition of the energy drastically simplifying its implementation. For the sake of conciseness, the implementation in this chapter is focused on linear elastic solids only, though the NOM can handle more complex nonlinear problems. An explicit nonlocal operator method for the dynamic analysis of elasticity solid problems is also presented. The explicit NOM avoids the calculation of the tangent stiffness matrix as in the implicit NOM model. The explicit scheme comprises the Verlet-velocity algorithm. The NOM can be very flexible and efficient for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). It's also quite easy for readers to use the NOM and extend it to solve other complicated physical phenomena described by one or a set of PDEs. Several numerical examples are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
-A nonlocal operator method for the dynamic analysis of (thin) Kirchhoff plates is proposed. The nonlocal Hessian operator is derived from a second-order Taylor series expansion. NOM is higher-order continuous, which is exploited for thin plate analysis that requires $C^1$ continuity. The nonlocal dynamic governing formulation and operator energy functional for Kirchhoff plates are derived from a variational principle. The Verlet-velocity algorithm is used for time discretization. After confirming the accuracy of the nonlocal Hessian operator, several numerical examples are simulated by the nonlocal dynamic Kirchhoff plate formulation.
-A nonlocal fracture modeling is developed and applied to the simulation of quasi-static and dynamic fractures using the NOM. The phase field's nonlocal weak and associated strong forms are derived from a variational principle. The NOM requires only the definition of energy. We present both a nonlocal implicit phase field model and a nonlocal explicit phase field model for fracture; the first approach is better suited for quasi-static fracture problems, while the key application of the latter one is dynamic fracture. To demonstrate the performance of the underlying approach, several benchmark examples for quasi-static and dynamic fracture are solved.