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While Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is widely adopted across various sectors, it raises a question on its meagre utilisation in the housing sector. This paper, therefore, gauges the perspective of the stakeholders in the building industry towards the application of PPP in various building sectors together with housing. It assesses the performance reliability
of PPP for housing by learning possible take-aways from other sectors. The role of key
stakeholders in the industry becomes highly responsible for an informed understanding and
decision-making. To this end, a two-tier investigation was conducted including surveys and expert interviews, with several stakeholders in the PPP industry in Europe, involving the public sector, private sector, consultants, as well as other community/user representatives.
The survey results demonstrated the success rate with PPPs, major factors important for PPPs such as profitability or end-user acceptability, the prevalent practices and trends in the PPP world, and the majority of support expressed in favour of the suitability of PPP for housing. The interviews added more detailed dimensions to the understanding of the PPP industry, its functioning and enabling the formation of a comprehensive outlook. The results present the perspective, approaches, and experiences of stakeholders over PPP practices,
current trends and scenarios and their take on PPP in housing. It shall aid in understanding the challenges prevalent in the PPP approach for implementation in housing and
enable the policymakers and industry stakeholders to make provisions for higher uptake to accelerate housing provision.

In the last two decades, Peridynamics (PD) attracts much attention in the field of fracture mechanics. One key feature of PD is the nonlocality, which is quite different from the ideas in conventional methods such as FEM and meshless method. However, conventional PD suffers from problems such as constant horizon, explicit algorithm, hourglass mode. In this thesis, by examining the nonlocality with scrutiny, we proposed several new concepts such as dual-horizon (DH) in PD, dual-support (DS) in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), nonlocal operators and operator energy functional. The conventional PD (SPH) is incorporated in the DH-PD (DS-SPH), which can adopt an inhomogeneous discretization and inhomogeneous support domains. The DH-PD (DS-SPH) can be viewed as some fundamental improvement on the conventional PD (SPH). Dual formulation of PD and SPH allows h-adaptivity while satisfying the conservations of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy. By developing the concept of nonlocality further, we introduced the nonlocal operator method as a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with energy functional of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on dual-support concept are derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulation of the nonlocal theory. At last, we developed the higher order nonlocal operator method which is capable of solving higher order partial differential equations on arbitrary domain in higher dimensional space. Since the concepts are developed gradually, we described our findings chronologically.
In chapter 2, we developed a DH-PD formulation that includes varying horizon sizes and solves the "ghost force" issue. The concept of dual-horizon considers the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation fulfills both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum exactly with arbitrary particle discretization. All three peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based peridynamics can be implemented within the DH-PD framework. A simple adaptive refinement procedure (h-adaptivity) is proposed reducing the computational cost. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthoff-Winkler experiment and plate with branching cracks are tested to demonstrate the capability of the method.
In chapter 3, a nonlocal operator method (NOM) based on the variational principle is proposed for the solution of waveguide problem in computational electromagnetic field. Common differential operators as well as the variational forms are defined within the context of nonlocal operators. The present nonlocal formulation allows the assembling of the tangent stiffness matrix with ease, which is necessary for the eigenvalue analysis of the waveguide problem. The present formulation is applied to solve 1D Schrodinger equation, 2D electrostatic problem and the differential electromagnetic vector wave equations based on electric fields.
In chapter 4, a general nonlocal operator method is proposed which is applicable for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) of mechanical problems. The nonlocal operator can be regarded as the integral form, ``equivalent'' to the differential form in the sense of a nonlocal interaction model. The variation of a nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role as the derivatives of the shape functions in the meshless methods or those of the finite element method. Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease. The nonlocal operator method is enhanced here also with an operator energy functional to satisfy the linear consistency of the field. A highlight of the present method is the functional derived based on the nonlocal operator can convert the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplications using the predefined nonlocal operators. The nonlocal strong forms of different functionals can be obtained easily via the concept of support and dual-support. Several numerical examples of different types of PDEs are presented.
In chapter 5, we extended the NOM to higher order scheme by using a higher order Taylor series expansion of the unknown field. Such a higher order scheme improves the original NOM in chapter 3 and chapter 4, which can only achieve one-order convergence. The higher order NOM obtains all partial derivatives with specified maximal order simultaneously without resorting to shape functions. The functional based on the nonlocal operators converts the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplication on the nonlocal operator matrix. Several numerical examples solved by strong form or weak form are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
In chapter 6, the NOM proposed as a particle-based method in chapter 3,4,5, has difficulty in imposing accurately the boundary conditions of various orders. In this paper, we converted the particle-based NOM into a scheme with interpolation property. The new scheme describes partial derivatives of various orders at a point by the nodes in the support and takes advantage of the background mesh for numerical integration. The boundary conditions are enforced via the modified variational principle. The particle-based NOM can be viewed a special case of NOM with interpolation property when nodal integration is used. The scheme based on numerical integration greatly improves the stability of the method, as a consequence, the operator energy functional in particle-based NOM is not required. We demonstrated the capabilities of current method by solving the gradient solid problems and comparing the numerical results with the available exact solutions.
In chapter 7, we derived the DS-SPH in solid within the framework of variational principle. The tangent stiffness matrix of SPH can be obtained with ease, and can be served as the basis for the present implicit SPH. We proposed an hourglass energy functional, which allows the direct derivation of hourglass force and hourglass tangent stiffness matrix. The dual-support is {involved} in all derivations based on variational principles and is automatically satisfied in the assembling of stiffness matrix. The implementation of stiffness matrix comprises with two steps, the nodal assembly based on deformation gradient and global assembly on all nodes. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the method.

Broadband dielectric measurement methods based on vector network analyzer coupled with coaxial transmission line cell (CC) and open-ended coaxial probe (OC) are simply reviewed, by which the dielectric behaviors in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 3 GHz of two practical geomaterials are investigated. Kaolin after modified compaction with different water contents is measured by using CC. The results are consistent with previous study on standardized compacted kaolin and suggest that the dielectric properties at frequencies below 100 MHz are not only a function of water content but also functions of other soil state parameters including dry density. The hydration process of a commercial grout is monitored in real time by using OC. It is found that the time dependent dielectric properties can accurately reveal the different stages of the hydration process. These measurement results demonstrate the practicability of the introduced methods in determining dielectric properties of soft geomaterials.

This dissertation investigates the interactions between urban form, allocation of activities, and pedestrian movement in the context of urban planning. The ability to assess the long-term impact of urban planning decisions on what people do and how they get there is of central importance, with various disciplines addressing this topic. This study focuses on approaches proposed by urban morphologists, urban economists, and transportation planners, each aiming the attention at a different part of the form-activity-movement interaction. Even though there is no doubt about the advantages of these highly focused approaches, it remains unclear what is the cost of ignoring the effect of some interactions while considering others. The general aim of this dissertation is to empirically test the validity of the individual models and quantify the impact of this isolationist approach on their precision and bias.
For this purpose, we propose a joined form-activity-movement interaction model and conduct an empirical study in Weimar, Germany. We estimate how the urban form and activities affect movement as well as how movement and urban form affect activities. By estimating these effects in isolation and simultaneously, we assess the bias of the individual models.
On the one hand, the empirical study results confirm the significance of all interactions suggested by the individual models. On the other hand, we were able to show that when these interactions are estimated in isolation, the resulting predictions are biased. To conclude, we do not question the knowledge brought by transportation planners, urban morphologists, and urban economists. However, we argue that it might be of little use on its own.
We see the relevance of this study as being twofold. On the one hand, we proposed a novel methodological framework for the simultaneous estimation of the form-activity-movement interactions. On the other hand, we provide empirical evidence about the strengths and limitations of current approaches.

Although it is impractical to avert subsequent natural disasters, advances in simulation science and seismological studies make it possible to lessen the catastrophic damage. There currently exists in many urban areas a large number of structures, which are prone to damage by earthquakes. These were constructed without the guidance of a national seismic code, either before it existed or before it was enforced. For instance, in Istanbul, Turkey, as a high seismic area, around 90% of buildings are substandard, which can be generalized into other earthquakeprone regions in Turkey. The reliability of this building stock resulting from earthquake-induced collapse is currently uncertain. Nonetheless, it is also not feasible to perform a detailed seismic vulnerability analysis on each building as a solution to the scenario, as it will be too complicated and expensive. This indicates the necessity of a reliable, rapid, and computationally easy method for seismic vulnerability assessment, commonly known as Rapid Visual Screening (RVS). In RVS methodology, an observational survey of buildings is performed, and according to the data collected during the visual inspection, a structural score is calculated without performing any structural calculations to determine the expected damage of a building and whether the building needs detailed assessment. Although this method might save time and resources due to the subjective/qualitative judgments of experts who performed the inspection, the evaluation process is dominated by vagueness and uncertainties, where the vagueness can be handled adequately through the fuzzy set theory but do not cover all sort of uncertainties due to its crisp membership functions. In this study, a novel method of rapid visual hazard safety assessment of buildings against earthquake is introduced in which an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2FLS) is used to cover uncertainties. In addition, the proposed method provides the possibility to evaluate the earthquake risk of the building by considering factors related to the building importance and exposure. A smartphone app prototype of the method has been introduced. For validation of the proposed method, two case studies have been selected, and the result of the analysis presents the robust efficiency of the proposed method.

Stadtpolitik für alle
(2021)

Die Corona-Krise hat die Erosion städtischer Solidarität offen zu Tage treten lassen. Dagegen bringen Anton Brokow-Loga und Frank Eckardt in dieser Schrift die praktische Utopie einer solidarischen Postwachstumsstadt „auf den Punkt“.
Vom Commoning über die Umverteilung der städtischen Flächen bis zu einer sozial-ökologischen Verkehrswende: Eine progressive Stadtpolitik für alle überwindet bisheriges Schubladendenken. Sie setzt stattdessen auf heterogene Zusammenhänge und ungewöhnliche Bündnisse. Zu dem hier umrissenen Vorhaben gehört auch, eine basisdemokratisch orientierte Stadtpolitik mit dem Ziel einer umfassenden Transformation von Stadt und Gesellschaft zu verknüpfen.
Wie kann ein Blick auf die kommunale Ebene helfen, globalen Ungerechtigkeiten zu begegnen? Welchen Weg weisen munizipalistische Plattformen und Vergemeinschaftungen jenseits von Privat- oder Staatseigentum?

In vielen Leichtbauanwendungen ist der begrenzende Faktor die Schwingungsanfälligkeit der Bauteile. Eine Möglichkeit der Begrenzung von Schwingungsamplituden ist der gezielte Einsatz von Reibungsdämpfung in Leichtbaustrukturen. In dieser Arbeit wird der Einfluss dieser Art von Energiedissipation auf Leichtmetallstrukturen sowie topologieoptimierte Bauteil untersucht. Betrachtet werden dabei die Positionierung, Dimensionierung sowie die Reibeigenschaften dissipativer Elemente.

Housing estates were fundamentally conceived upon state socialist utopia ideas to provide standard housing for citizens. While former state socialist housing estates have been extensively researched in the field of architecture, urban and sociology studies, there is still a gap in identifying how production processes affect morphological changes during the post-socialist era. This thesis compares the processes in the production of the largest housing estates of Marzahn in GDR and Petržalka in Czechoslovakia from 1970 to 1989 through contextual analysis of primary and secondary sources, which include visual maps, diagrams from professional architecture and planning journals, government documents and textbooks, as well as academic journals, books and newspaper articles. Then it discusses how these processes inadvertently created conducive conditions affecting their development in the market economy after 1989. It then interprets the results through application of Actor-Network Theory and Historical Institutionalism, while conceptualising them through David Harvey’s dialectical utopianism theory. Harvey (2000) delineates two types of utopia, one of spatial form and one of process. The former refers to materialised ideals in physical forms whereas the latter refers to the ongoing process of spatializing. The thesis aims to show how the production of Marzahn in GDR was more path dependent on policies established in 1950s and 1960s whereas Petržalka was a product of new Czechoslovakian policies in 1970s, changing aspects of the urban planning process, a manifestation of a more emphatic technocratic thinking on a wider scale. This ultimately influences the trajectories of development after 1989, showing more effects in Petržalka.

In the last decades, Finite Element Method has become the main method in statics and dynamics analysis in engineering practice. For current problems, this method provides a faster, more flexible solution than the analytic approach. Prognoses of complex engineer problems that used to be almost impossible to solve are now feasible.
Although the finite element method is a robust tool, it leads to new questions about engineering solutions. Among these new problems, it is possible to divide into two major groups: the first group is regarding computer performance; the second one is related to understanding the digital solution.
Simultaneously with the development of the finite element method for numerical solutions, a theory between beam theory and shell theory was developed: Generalized Beam Theory, GBT. This theory has not only a systematic and analytical clear presentation of complicated structural problems, but also a compact and elegant calculation approach that can improve computer performance.
Regrettably, GBT was not internationally known since the most publications of this theory were written in German, especially in the first years. Only in recent years, GBT has gradually become a fertile research topic, with developments from linear to non-linear analysis.
Another reason for the misuse of GBT is the isolated application of the theory. Although recently researches apply finite element method to solve the GBT's problems numerically, the coupling between finite elements of GBT and other theories (shell, solid, etc) is not the subject of previous research. Thus, the main goal of this dissertation is the coupling between GBT and shell/membrane elements. Consequently, one achieves the benefits of both sides: the versatility of shell elements with the high performance of GBT elements.
Based on the assumptions of GBT, this dissertation presents how the separation of variables leads to two calculation's domains of a beam structure: a cross-section modal analysis and the longitudinal amplification axis. Therefore, there is the possibility of applying the finite element method not only in the cross-section analysis, but also the development for an exact GBT's finite element in the longitudinal direction.
For the cross-section analysis, this dissertation presents the solution of the quadratic eigenvalue problem with an original separation between plate and membrane mechanism. Subsequently, one obtains a clearer representation of the deformation mode, as well as a reduced quadratic eigenvalue problem.
Concerning the longitudinal direction, this dissertation develops the novel exact elements, based on hyperbolic and trigonometric shape functions. Although these functions do not have trivial expressions, they provide a recursive procedure that allows periodic derivatives to systematise the development of stiffness matrices. Also, these shape functions enable a single-element discretisation of the beam structure and ensure a smooth stress field.
From these developments, this dissertation achieves the formulation of its primary objective: the connection of GBT and shell elements in a mixed model. Based on the displacement field, it is possible to define the coupling equations applied in the master-slave method. Therefore, one can model the structural connections and joints with finite shell elements and the structural beams and columns with GBT finite element.
As a side effect, the coupling equations limit the displacement field of the shell elements under the assumptions of GBT, in particular in the neighbourhood of the coupling cross-section.
Although these side effects are almost unnoticeable in linear analysis, they lead to cumulative errors in non-linear analysis. Therefore, this thesis finishes with the evaluation of the mixed GBT-shell models in non-linear analysis.

Complex vortex flow patterns around bridge piers, especially during floods, cause scour process that can result in the failure of foundations. Abutment scour is a complex three-dimensional phenomenon that is difficult to predict especially with traditional formulas obtained using empirical approaches such as regressions. This paper presents a test of a standalone Kstar model with five novel hybrid algorithm of bagging (BA-Kstar), dagging (DA-Kstar), random committee (RC-Kstar), random subspace (RS-Kstar), and weighted instance handler wrapper (WIHWKstar) to predict scour depth (ds) for clear water condition. The dataset consists of 99 scour depth data from flume experiments (Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005) using abutment shapes such as vertical, semicircular and 45◦ wing. Four dimensionless parameter of relative flow depth (h/l), excess abutment Froude number (Fe), relative sediment size (d50/l) and relative submergence (d50/h) were considered for the prediction of relative scour depth (ds/l). A portion of the dataset was used for the calibration (70%), and the remaining used for model validation. Pearson correlation coefficients helped deciding relevance of the input parameters combination and finally four different combinations of input parameters were used. The performance of the models was assessed visually and with quantitative metrics. Overall, the best input combination for vertical abutment shape is the combination of Fe, d50/l and h/l, while for semicircular and 45◦ wing the combination of the Fe and d50/l is the most effective input parameter combination. Our results show that incorporating Fe, d50/l and h/l lead to higher performance while involving d50/h reduced the models prediction power for vertical abutment shape and for semicircular and 45◦ wing involving h/l and d50/h lead to more error. The WIHW-Kstar provided the highest performance in scour depth prediction around vertical abutment shape while RC-Kstar model outperform of other models for scour depth prediction around semicircular and 45◦ wing.