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Die Arbeit leistet einen wissenschaftlichen Beitrag zur Erforschung der Einsatzmöglichkeiten eines Immobilienportfoliomanagements für öffentliche museale Schlösserverwaltungen in Deutschland. Insbesondere wird ein für deren Organisation spezifisches Modell zur Investitionssteuerung herausgearbeitet und dessen Anwendbarkeit in der Praxis mit Experten diskutiert.

Natural Urban Resilience: Understanding general urban resilience through Addis Ababa’s inner city
(2021)

This dissertation describes the urban actors and spatial practices that contribute to natural urban resilience in Addis Ababa’s inner city. Natural urban resilience is a non-strategical and bottom-up, everyday form of general urban resilience – an urban system’s ability to maintain its essential characteristics under any change. This study gains significance by exposing conceptual gaps in the current un-derstanding of general urban resilience and highlighting its unconvincing applicability to African cities. This study attains further relevance by highlighting the danger of the ongoing large-scale redevelopment of the inner city. The inner city has naturally formed, and its urban memory, spaces, and social cohesion contribute to its primarily low-income population’s resilience. This thesis argues that the inner city’s demolition poses an incalculable risk of maladaptation to future stresses and shocks for Addis Ababa. The city needs a balanced urban discourse that highlights the inner city’s qualities and suggests feasible urban transformation measures. “Natural Urban Resilience” contributes an empirical study to the debate by identifying those aspects of the inner city that contribute to general resilience and identifies feasible action areas. This study develops a qualitative research design for a single case study in Addis Ababa. The data is obtained through expert interviews, interviews with resi-dents, and the analysis of street scene photos, which are abstracted using Grounded Theory. That way, this thesis provides first-time knowledge about who and what generates urban resilience in the inner city of Addis Ababa and how. Furthermore, the study complements existing theories on general urban resilience. It provides a detailed understanding of the change mechanisms in resilience, of which it identifies four: adaptation, upgrading, mitigation, and resistance. It also adapts the adaptive cycle, a widely used concept in resilience thinking, conceptually for urban environments. The study concludes that the inner city’s continued redevelopment poses an incalculable threat to the entire city. Therefore, “Natural urban resilience” recommends carefully weighing any intervention in the inner city to promote Addis Ababa’s overall resilience. This dissertation proposes a pattern language for natural urban resilience to support these efforts and to translate the model of natural urban resilience into practice.

In the last two decades, Peridynamics (PD) attracts much attention in the field of fracture mechanics. One key feature of PD is the nonlocality, which is quite different from the ideas in conventional methods such as FEM and meshless method. However, conventional PD suffers from problems such as constant horizon, explicit algorithm, hourglass mode. In this thesis, by examining the nonlocality with scrutiny, we proposed several new concepts such as dual-horizon (DH) in PD, dual-support (DS) in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), nonlocal operators and operator energy functional. The conventional PD (SPH) is incorporated in the DH-PD (DS-SPH), which can adopt an inhomogeneous discretization and inhomogeneous support domains. The DH-PD (DS-SPH) can be viewed as some fundamental improvement on the conventional PD (SPH). Dual formulation of PD and SPH allows h-adaptivity while satisfying the conservations of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy. By developing the concept of nonlocality further, we introduced the nonlocal operator method as a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with energy functional of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on dual-support concept are derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulation of the nonlocal theory. At last, we developed the higher order nonlocal operator method which is capable of solving higher order partial differential equations on arbitrary domain in higher dimensional space. Since the concepts are developed gradually, we described our findings chronologically.
In chapter 2, we developed a DH-PD formulation that includes varying horizon sizes and solves the "ghost force" issue. The concept of dual-horizon considers the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation fulfills both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum exactly with arbitrary particle discretization. All three peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based peridynamics can be implemented within the DH-PD framework. A simple adaptive refinement procedure (h-adaptivity) is proposed reducing the computational cost. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthoff-Winkler experiment and plate with branching cracks are tested to demonstrate the capability of the method.
In chapter 3, a nonlocal operator method (NOM) based on the variational principle is proposed for the solution of waveguide problem in computational electromagnetic field. Common differential operators as well as the variational forms are defined within the context of nonlocal operators. The present nonlocal formulation allows the assembling of the tangent stiffness matrix with ease, which is necessary for the eigenvalue analysis of the waveguide problem. The present formulation is applied to solve 1D Schrodinger equation, 2D electrostatic problem and the differential electromagnetic vector wave equations based on electric fields.
In chapter 4, a general nonlocal operator method is proposed which is applicable for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) of mechanical problems. The nonlocal operator can be regarded as the integral form, ``equivalent'' to the differential form in the sense of a nonlocal interaction model. The variation of a nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role as the derivatives of the shape functions in the meshless methods or those of the finite element method. Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease. The nonlocal operator method is enhanced here also with an operator energy functional to satisfy the linear consistency of the field. A highlight of the present method is the functional derived based on the nonlocal operator can convert the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplications using the predefined nonlocal operators. The nonlocal strong forms of different functionals can be obtained easily via the concept of support and dual-support. Several numerical examples of different types of PDEs are presented.
In chapter 5, we extended the NOM to higher order scheme by using a higher order Taylor series expansion of the unknown field. Such a higher order scheme improves the original NOM in chapter 3 and chapter 4, which can only achieve one-order convergence. The higher order NOM obtains all partial derivatives with specified maximal order simultaneously without resorting to shape functions. The functional based on the nonlocal operators converts the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplication on the nonlocal operator matrix. Several numerical examples solved by strong form or weak form are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
In chapter 6, the NOM proposed as a particle-based method in chapter 3,4,5, has difficulty in imposing accurately the boundary conditions of various orders. In this paper, we converted the particle-based NOM into a scheme with interpolation property. The new scheme describes partial derivatives of various orders at a point by the nodes in the support and takes advantage of the background mesh for numerical integration. The boundary conditions are enforced via the modified variational principle. The particle-based NOM can be viewed a special case of NOM with interpolation property when nodal integration is used. The scheme based on numerical integration greatly improves the stability of the method, as a consequence, the operator energy functional in particle-based NOM is not required. We demonstrated the capabilities of current method by solving the gradient solid problems and comparing the numerical results with the available exact solutions.
In chapter 7, we derived the DS-SPH in solid within the framework of variational principle. The tangent stiffness matrix of SPH can be obtained with ease, and can be served as the basis for the present implicit SPH. We proposed an hourglass energy functional, which allows the direct derivation of hourglass force and hourglass tangent stiffness matrix. The dual-support is {involved} in all derivations based on variational principles and is automatically satisfied in the assembling of stiffness matrix. The implementation of stiffness matrix comprises with two steps, the nodal assembly based on deformation gradient and global assembly on all nodes. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the method.

This dissertation investigates the interactions between urban form, allocation of activities, and pedestrian movement in the context of urban planning. The ability to assess the long-term impact of urban planning decisions on what people do and how they get there is of central importance, with various disciplines addressing this topic. This study focuses on approaches proposed by urban morphologists, urban economists, and transportation planners, each aiming the attention at a different part of the form-activity-movement interaction. Even though there is no doubt about the advantages of these highly focused approaches, it remains unclear what is the cost of ignoring the effect of some interactions while considering others. The general aim of this dissertation is to empirically test the validity of the individual models and quantify the impact of this isolationist approach on their precision and bias.
For this purpose, we propose a joined form-activity-movement interaction model and conduct an empirical study in Weimar, Germany. We estimate how the urban form and activities affect movement as well as how movement and urban form affect activities. By estimating these effects in isolation and simultaneously, we assess the bias of the individual models.
On the one hand, the empirical study results confirm the significance of all interactions suggested by the individual models. On the other hand, we were able to show that when these interactions are estimated in isolation, the resulting predictions are biased. To conclude, we do not question the knowledge brought by transportation planners, urban morphologists, and urban economists. However, we argue that it might be of little use on its own.
We see the relevance of this study as being twofold. On the one hand, we proposed a novel methodological framework for the simultaneous estimation of the form-activity-movement interactions. On the other hand, we provide empirical evidence about the strengths and limitations of current approaches.

Although it is impractical to avert subsequent natural disasters, advances in simulation science and seismological studies make it possible to lessen the catastrophic damage. There currently exists in many urban areas a large number of structures, which are prone to damage by earthquakes. These were constructed without the guidance of a national seismic code, either before it existed or before it was enforced. For instance, in Istanbul, Turkey, as a high seismic area, around 90% of buildings are substandard, which can be generalized into other earthquakeprone regions in Turkey. The reliability of this building stock resulting from earthquake-induced collapse is currently uncertain. Nonetheless, it is also not feasible to perform a detailed seismic vulnerability analysis on each building as a solution to the scenario, as it will be too complicated and expensive. This indicates the necessity of a reliable, rapid, and computationally easy method for seismic vulnerability assessment, commonly known as Rapid Visual Screening (RVS). In RVS methodology, an observational survey of buildings is performed, and according to the data collected during the visual inspection, a structural score is calculated without performing any structural calculations to determine the expected damage of a building and whether the building needs detailed assessment. Although this method might save time and resources due to the subjective/qualitative judgments of experts who performed the inspection, the evaluation process is dominated by vagueness and uncertainties, where the vagueness can be handled adequately through the fuzzy set theory but do not cover all sort of uncertainties due to its crisp membership functions. In this study, a novel method of rapid visual hazard safety assessment of buildings against earthquake is introduced in which an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2FLS) is used to cover uncertainties. In addition, the proposed method provides the possibility to evaluate the earthquake risk of the building by considering factors related to the building importance and exposure. A smartphone app prototype of the method has been introduced. For validation of the proposed method, two case studies have been selected, and the result of the analysis presents the robust efficiency of the proposed method.

Housing estates were fundamentally conceived upon state socialist utopia ideas to provide standard housing for citizens. While former state socialist housing estates have been extensively researched in the field of architecture, urban and sociology studies, there is still a gap in identifying how production processes affect morphological changes during the post-socialist era. This thesis compares the processes in the production of the largest housing estates of Marzahn in GDR and Petržalka in Czechoslovakia from 1970 to 1989 through contextual analysis of primary and secondary sources, which include visual maps, diagrams from professional architecture and planning journals, government documents and textbooks, as well as academic journals, books and newspaper articles. Then it discusses how these processes inadvertently created conducive conditions affecting their development in the market economy after 1989. It then interprets the results through application of Actor-Network Theory and Historical Institutionalism, while conceptualising them through David Harvey’s dialectical utopianism theory. Harvey (2000) delineates two types of utopia, one of spatial form and one of process. The former refers to materialised ideals in physical forms whereas the latter refers to the ongoing process of spatializing. The thesis aims to show how the production of Marzahn in GDR was more path dependent on policies established in 1950s and 1960s whereas Petržalka was a product of new Czechoslovakian policies in 1970s, changing aspects of the urban planning process, a manifestation of a more emphatic technocratic thinking on a wider scale. This ultimately influences the trajectories of development after 1989, showing more effects in Petržalka.

In the last decades, Finite Element Method has become the main method in statics and dynamics analysis in engineering practice. For current problems, this method provides a faster, more flexible solution than the analytic approach. Prognoses of complex engineer problems that used to be almost impossible to solve are now feasible.
Although the finite element method is a robust tool, it leads to new questions about engineering solutions. Among these new problems, it is possible to divide into two major groups: the first group is regarding computer performance; the second one is related to understanding the digital solution.
Simultaneously with the development of the finite element method for numerical solutions, a theory between beam theory and shell theory was developed: Generalized Beam Theory, GBT. This theory has not only a systematic and analytical clear presentation of complicated structural problems, but also a compact and elegant calculation approach that can improve computer performance.
Regrettably, GBT was not internationally known since the most publications of this theory were written in German, especially in the first years. Only in recent years, GBT has gradually become a fertile research topic, with developments from linear to non-linear analysis.
Another reason for the misuse of GBT is the isolated application of the theory. Although recently researches apply finite element method to solve the GBT's problems numerically, the coupling between finite elements of GBT and other theories (shell, solid, etc) is not the subject of previous research. Thus, the main goal of this dissertation is the coupling between GBT and shell/membrane elements. Consequently, one achieves the benefits of both sides: the versatility of shell elements with the high performance of GBT elements.
Based on the assumptions of GBT, this dissertation presents how the separation of variables leads to two calculation's domains of a beam structure: a cross-section modal analysis and the longitudinal amplification axis. Therefore, there is the possibility of applying the finite element method not only in the cross-section analysis, but also the development for an exact GBT's finite element in the longitudinal direction.
For the cross-section analysis, this dissertation presents the solution of the quadratic eigenvalue problem with an original separation between plate and membrane mechanism. Subsequently, one obtains a clearer representation of the deformation mode, as well as a reduced quadratic eigenvalue problem.
Concerning the longitudinal direction, this dissertation develops the novel exact elements, based on hyperbolic and trigonometric shape functions. Although these functions do not have trivial expressions, they provide a recursive procedure that allows periodic derivatives to systematise the development of stiffness matrices. Also, these shape functions enable a single-element discretisation of the beam structure and ensure a smooth stress field.
From these developments, this dissertation achieves the formulation of its primary objective: the connection of GBT and shell elements in a mixed model. Based on the displacement field, it is possible to define the coupling equations applied in the master-slave method. Therefore, one can model the structural connections and joints with finite shell elements and the structural beams and columns with GBT finite element.
As a side effect, the coupling equations limit the displacement field of the shell elements under the assumptions of GBT, in particular in the neighbourhood of the coupling cross-section.
Although these side effects are almost unnoticeable in linear analysis, they lead to cumulative errors in non-linear analysis. Therefore, this thesis finishes with the evaluation of the mixed GBT-shell models in non-linear analysis.

This thesis presents the advances and applications of phase field modeling in fracture analysis. In this approach, the sharp crack surface topology in a solid is approximated by a diffusive crack zone governed by a scalar auxiliary variable. The uniqueness of phase field modeling is that the crack paths are automatically determined as part of the solution and no interface tracking is required. The damage parameter varies continuously over the domain. But this flexibility comes with associated difficulties: (1) a very fine spatial discretization is required to represent sharp local gradients correctly; (2) fine discretization results in high computational cost; (3) computation of higher-order derivatives for improved convergence rates and (4) curse of dimensionality in conventional numerical integration techniques. As a consequence, the practical applicability of phase field models is severely limited.
The research presented in this thesis addresses the difficulties of the conventional numerical integration techniques for phase field modeling in quasi-static brittle fracture analysis. The first method relies on polynomial splines over hierarchical T-meshes (PHT-splines) in the framework of isogeometric analysis (IGA). An adaptive h-refinement scheme is developed based on the variational energy formulation of phase field modeling. The fourth-order phase field model provides increased regularity in the exact solution of the phase field equation and improved convergence rates for numerical solutions on a coarser discretization, compared to the second-order model. However, second-order derivatives of the phase field are required in the fourth-order model. Hence, at least a minimum of C1 continuous basis functions are essential, which is achieved using hierarchical cubic B-splines in IGA. PHT-splines enable the refinement to remain local at singularities and high gradients, consequently reducing the computational cost greatly. Unfortunately, when modeling complex geometries, multiple parameter spaces (patches) are joined together to describe the physical domain and there is typically a loss of continuity at the patch boundaries. This decrease of smoothness is dictated by the geometry description, where C0 parameterizations are normally used to deal with kinks and corners in the domain. Hence, the application of the fourth-order model is severely restricted. To overcome the high computational cost for the second-order model, we develop a dual-mesh adaptive h-refinement approach. This approach uses a coarser discretization for the elastic field and a finer discretization for the phase field. Independent refinement strategies have been used for each field.
The next contribution is based on physics informed deep neural networks. The network is trained based on the minimization of the variational energy of the system described by general non-linear partial differential equations while respecting any given law of physics, hence the name physics informed neural network (PINN). The developed approach needs only a set of points to define the geometry, contrary to the conventional mesh-based discretization techniques. The concept of `transfer learning' is integrated with the developed PINN approach to improve the computational efficiency of the network at each displacement step. This approach allows a numerically stable crack growth even with larger displacement steps. An adaptive h-refinement scheme based on the generation of more quadrature points in the damage zone is developed in this framework. For all the developed methods, displacement-controlled loading is considered. The accuracy and the efficiency of both methods are studied numerically showing that the developed methods are powerful and computationally efficient tools for accurately predicting fractures.

Transformation of the Environment: Influence of “Urban Reagents.” German and Russian Case Studies
(2021)

An urban regeneration manifests itself through urban objects operating as change agents. The en-tailed diverse effects on the surroundings demonstrate experimental origin - an experiment as a preplanned but unpredictable method. An understanding of influences and features of urban ob-jects requires scrutiny due to a high potential of the elements to force an alteration and reactions. This dissertation explores the transformation of the milieu and mechanisms of this transformation.

Die zu beobachtenden kürzeren Produktlebenszyklen und eine schnellere Marktdurchdringung von Produkttechnologien erfordern adaptive und leistungsfähige Produktionsanlagen. Die Adaptivität ermöglicht eine Anpassung der Produktionsanlage an neue Produkte, und die Leistungsfähigkeit der Anlage stellt sicher, dass ausreichend Produkte in kurzer Zeit und zu geringen Kosten hergestellt werden können. Durch eine Modularisierung der Produktionsanlage kann die Adaptivität erreicht werden. Jedoch erfordert heutzutage jede Adaption manuellen Aufwand, z.B. zur Anpassung von proprietären Signalen oder zur Anpassung übergeordneter Funktionen. Dadurch sinkt die Leistungsfähigkeit der Anlage.
Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Interoperabilität in Bezug auf die Informationsverwendung in modularen Produktionsanlagen zu gewährleisten. Dazu werden Informationen durch semantische Modelle beschrieben. Damit wird ein einheitlicher Informationszugriff ermöglicht, und übergeordnete Funktionen erhalten Zugriff auf alle Informationen der Produktionsmodule, unabhängig von dem Typ, dem Hersteller und dem Alter des Moduls. Dadurch entfällt der manuelle Aufwand bei Anpassungen des modularen Produktionssystems, wodurch die Leistungsfähigkeit der Anlage gesteigert und Stillstandszeiten reduziert werden.
Nach dem Ermitteln der Anforderungen an einen Modellierungsformalismus wurden potentielle Formalismen mit den Anforderungen abgeglichen. OWL DL stellte sich als geeigneter Formalismus heraus und wurde für die Erstellung des semantischen Modells in dieser Arbeit verwendet. Es wurde exemplarisch ein semantisches Modell für die drei Anwendungsfälle Interaktion, Orchestrierung und Diagnose erstellt. Durch einen Vergleich der Modellierungselemente von unterschiedlichen Anwendungsfällen wurde die Allgemeingültigkeit des Modells bewertet. Dabei wurde gezeigt, dass die Erreichung eines allgemeinen Modells für technische Anwendungsfälle möglich ist und lediglich einige Hundert Begriffe benötigt.
Zur Evaluierung der erstellten Modelle wurde ein wandlungsfähiges Produktionssystem der SmartFactoryOWL verwendet, an dem die Anwendungsfälle umgesetzt wurden. Dazu wurde eine Laufzeitumgebung erstellt, die die semantischen Modelle der einzelnen Module zu einem Gesamtmodell vereint, Daten aus der Anlage in das Modell überträgt und eine Schnittstelle für die Services bereitstellt. Die Services realisieren übergeordnete Funktionen und verwenden die Informationen des semantischen Modells. In allen drei Anwendungsfällen wurden die semantischen Modelle korrekt zusammengefügt und mit den darin enthaltenen Informationen konnte die Aufgabe des jeweiligen Anwendungsfalles ohne zusätzlichen manuellen Aufwand gelöst werden.