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- 2006 (173) (remove)

The aim of this paper is to present so-called discrete-continual boundary element method (DCBEM) of structural analysis. Its field of application comprises buildings constructions, structures and also parts and components for the residential, commercial and un-inhabitant structures with invariability of physical and geometrical parameters in some dimensions. We should mention here in particular such objects as beams, thin-walled bars, strip foundations, plates, shells, deep beams, high-rise buildings, extensional buildings, pipelines, rails, dams and others. DCBEM comes under group of semianalytical methods. Semianalytical formulations are contemporary mathematical models which currently becoming available for realization due to substantial speed-up of computer productivity. DCBEM is based on the theory of the pseudodifferential boundary equations. Corresponding pseudodifferential operators are discretely approximated using Fourier analysis or wavelet analysis. The main DCBEM advantages against the other methods of the numerical analysis is a double reduction in dimension of the problem (discrete numerical division applied not to the full region of the interest but only to the boundary of the region cross section, as a matter of fact one is solving an one-dimensional problem with the finite step on the boundary area of the region), one has opportunities to carrying out very detailed analysis of the specific chosen zones, simplified initial data preparation, simplistic and adaptive algorithms. There are two methods to define and conduct DCBEM analysis developed – indirect (IDCBEM) and direct (DDCBEM), thus indirect like in boundary element method (BEM) applied and used little bit more than direct.

The execution of project activities generally requires the use of (renewable) resources like machines, equipment or manpower. The resource allocation problem consists in assigning time intervals to the execution of the project activities while taking into account temporal constraints between activities emanating from technological or organizational requirements and costs incurred by the resource allocation. If the total procurement cost of the different renewable resources has to be minimized we speak of a resource investment problem. If the cost depends on the smoothness of the resource utilization over time the underlying problem is called a resource levelling problem. In this paper we consider a new tree-based enumeration method for solving resource investment and resource levelling problems exploiting some fundamental properties of spanning trees. The enumeration scheme is embedded in a branch-and-bound procedure using a workload-based lower bound and a depth first search. Preliminary computational results show that the proposed procedure is promising for instances with up to 30 activities.

We present an algebraically extended 2D image representation in this paper. In order to obtain more degrees of freedom, a 2D image is embedded into a certain geometric algebra. Combining methods of differential geometry, tensor algebra, monogenic signal and quadrature filter, the novel 2D image representation can be derived as the monogenic extension of a curvature tensor. The 2D spherical harmonics are employed as basis functions to construct the algebraically extended 2D image representation. From this representation, the monogenic signal and the monogenic curvature signal for modeling intrinsically one and two dimensional (i1D/i2D) structures are obtained as special cases. Local features of amplitude, phase and orientation can be extracted at the same time in this unique framework. Compared with the related work, our approach has the advantage of simultaneous estimation of local phase and orientation. The main contribution is the rotationally invariant phase estimation, which enables phase-based processing in many computer vision tasks.

Analysis of the reinforced concrete chimney geometry changes and their influence on the stresses in the chimney mantle was made. All the changes were introduced to a model chimney and compared. Relations between the stresses in the mantle of the chimney and the deformations determined by the change of the chimney's vertical axis geometry were investigated. The vertical axis of chimney was described by linear function (corresponding to the real rotation of the chimney together with the foundation), and by parabolic function (corresponding to the real dislocation of the chimney under the influence of the horizontal forces - wind). The positive stress pattern in the concrete as well as the negative stress pattern in the reinforcing steel have been presented. The two cases were compared. Analysis of the stress changes in the chimney mantle depending on the modification in the thickness of the mantle (the thickness of the chimney mantle was altered in the linear or the abrupt way) was carried out. The relation between the stresses and the chimney's diameter change from the bottom to the top of the chimney was investigated. All the analyses were conducted by means of a specially developed computer program created in Mathematica environment. The program makes it also possible to control calculations and to visualize the results of the calculations at every stage of the calculation process.

TOOL TO CHECK TOPOLOGY AND GEOMETRY FOR SPATIAL STRUCTURES ON BASIS OF THE EXTENDED MAXWELL'S RULE
(2006)

One of the simplest principle in the design of light-weight structures is to avoid bending. This can be achieved by dissolving girders into members acting purely in axial tension or compression. The employment of cables for the tensioned members leads to even lighter structures which are called cable-strut structures. They constitute a subclass of spatial structures. To give fast information about the general feasibility of an architectural concept employing cable-strut structures is a challenging task due to their sophisticated mechanical behavior. In this regard it is essential to control if the structure is stable and if pre-stress can be applied. This paper presents a tool using the spreadsheet software Microsoft (MS) Excel which can give such information. Therefore it is not necessary to purchase special software and the according time consuming training is much lower. The tool was developed on basis of the extended Maxwell's rule, which besides topology also considers the geometry of the structure. For this the rank of the node equilibrium matrix is crucial. Significance and determination of the rank and the implementation of the corresponding algorithms in MS Excel are described in the following. The presented tool is able to support the structural designer in an early stage of the project in finding a feasible architectural concept for cable-strut structures. As examples for the application of the software tool two special cable-strut structures, so called tensegrity structures, were examined for their mechanical behavior.