## 52 Maschinenbau, Energietechnik, Fertigungstechnik

### Refine

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (14)
- Article (3)

#### Institute

#### Keywords

- Finite-Elemente-Methode (4)
- Isogeometric Analysis (3)
- Batterie (2)
- Machine learning (2)
- Maschinelles Lernen (2)
- Optimierung (2)
- Phasenfeldmodell (2)
- Strukturdynamik (2)
- Abaqus (1)
- Akkumulator (1)

Finite Element Simulations of dynamically excited structures are mainly influenced by the mass, stiffness, and damping properties of the system, as well as external loads. The prediction quality of dynamic simulations of vibration-sensitive components depends significantly on the use of appropriate damping models. Damping phenomena have a decisive influence on the vibration amplitude and the frequencies of the vibrating structure. However, developing realistic damping models is challenging due to the multiple sources that cause energy dissipation, such as material damping, different types of friction, or various interactions with the environment.
This thesis focuses on thermoelastic damping, which is the main cause of material damping in homogeneous materials. The effect is caused by temperature changes due to mechanical strains. In vibrating structures, temperature gradients arise in adjacent tension and compression areas. Depending on the vibration frequency, they result in heat flows, leading to increased entropy and the irreversible transformation of mechanical energy into thermal energy.
The central objective of this thesis is the development of efficient simulation methods to incorporate thermoelastic damping in finite element analyses based on modal superposition. The thermoelastic loss factor is derived from the structure's mechanical mode shapes and eigenfrequencies. In subsequent analyses that are performed in the time and frequency domain, it is applied as modal damping.
Two approaches are developed to determine the thermoelastic loss in thin-walled plate structures, as well as three-dimensional solid structures. The realistic representation of the dissipation effects is verified by comparing the simulation results with experimentally determined data. Therefore, an experimental setup is developed to measure material damping, excluding other sources of energy dissipation.
The three-dimensional solid approach is based on the determination of the generated entropy and therefore the generated heat per vibration cycle, which is a measure for thermoelastic loss in relation to the total strain energy. For thin plate structures, the amount of bending energy in a modal deformation is calculated and summarized in the so-called Modal Bending Factor (MBF). The highest amount of thermoelastic loss occurs in the state of pure bending. Therefore, the MBF enables a quantitative classification of the mode shapes concerning the thermoelastic damping potential.
The results of the developed simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results and are appropriate to predict thermoelastic loss factors. Both approaches are based on modal superposition with the advantage of a high computational efficiency. Overall, the modeling of thermoelastic damping represents an important component in a comprehensive damping model, which is necessary to perform realistic simulations of vibration processes.

Compactly, this thesis encompasses two major parts to examine mechanical responses of polymer compounds and two dimensional materials:
1- Molecular dynamics approach is investigated to study transverse impact behavior of polymers, polymer compounds and two dimensional materials.
2- Large deflection of circular and rectangular membranes is examined by employing continuum mechanics approach.
Two dimensional materials (2D), including, Graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), exhibited new and promising physical and chemical properties, opening new opportunities to be utilized alone or to enhance the performance of conventional materials. These 2D materials have attracted tremendous attention owing to their outstanding physical properties, especially concerning transverse impact loading.
Polymers, with the backbone of carbon (organic polymers) or do not include carbon atoms in the backbone (inorganic polymers) like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), have extraordinary characteristics particularly their flexibility leads to various easy ways of forming and casting. These simple shape processing label polymers as an excellent material often used as a matrix in composites (polymer compounds).
In this PhD work, Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) is implemented to calculate transverse impact loading of 2D materials as well as polymer compounds reinforced with graphene sheets. In particular, MD was adopted to investigate perforation of the target and impact resistance force . By employing MD approach, the minimum velocity of the projectile that could create perforation and passes through the target is obtained. The largest investigation was focused on how graphene could enhance the impact properties of the compound. Also the purpose of this work was to discover the effect of the atomic arrangement of 2D materials on the impact problem. To this aim, the impact properties of two different 2D materials, graphene and MoS2, are studied. The simulation of chemical functionalization was carried out systematically, either with covalently bonded molecules or with non-bonded ones, focusing the following efforts on the covalently bounded species, revealed as the most efficient linkers.
To study transverse impact behavior by using classical MD approach , Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) software, that is well-known among most researchers, is employed. The simulation is done through predefined commands in LAMMPS. Generally these commands (atom style, pair style, angle style, dihedral style, improper style, kspace style, read data, fix, run, compute and so on) are used to simulate and run the model for the desired outputs. Depends on the particles and model types, suitable inter-atomic potentials (force fields) are considered. The ensembles, constraints and boundary conditions are applied depends upon the problem definition. To do so, atomic creation is needed. Python codes are developed to generate particles which explain atomic arrangement of each model. Each atomic arrangement introduced separately to LAMMPS for simulation. After applying constraints and boundary conditions, LAMMPS also include integrators like velocity-Verlet integrator or Brownian dynamics or other types of integrator to run the simulation and finally the outputs are emerged. The outputs are inspected carefully to appreciate the natural behavior of the problem. Appreciation of natural properties of the materials assist us to design new applicable materials.
In investigation on the large deflection of circular and rectangular membranes, which is related to the second part of this thesis, continuum mechanics approach is implemented. Nonlinear Föppl membrane theory, which carefully release nonlinear governing equations of motion, is considered to establish the non-linear partial differential equilibrium equations of the membranes under distributed and centric point loads. The Galerkin and energy methods are utilized to solve non-linear partial differential equilibrium equations of circular and rectangular plates respectively. Maximum deflection as well as stress through the film region, which are kinds of issue in many industrial applications, are obtained.

Isogeometric analysis (IGA) is a numerical method for solving partial differential equations (PDEs), which was introduced with the aim of integrating finite element analysis with computer-aided design systems. The main idea of the method is to use the same spline basis functions which describe the geometry in CAD systems for the approximation of solution fields in the finite element method (FEM). Originally, NURBS which is a standard technology employed in CAD systems was adopted as basis functions in IGA but there were several variants of IGA using other technologies such as T-splines, PHT splines, and subdivision surfaces as basis functions. In general, IGA offers two key advantages over classical FEM: (i) by describing the CAD geometry exactly using smooth, high-order spline functions, the mesh generation process is simplified and the interoperability between CAD and FEM is improved, (ii) IGA can be viewed as a high-order finite element method which offers basis functions with high inter-element continuity and therefore can provide a primal variational formulation of high-order PDEs in a straightforward fashion. The main goal of this thesis is to further advance isogeometric analysis by exploiting these major advantages, namely precise geometric modeling and the use of smooth high-order splines as basis functions, and develop robust computational methods for problems with complex geometry and/or complex multi-physics.
As the first contribution of this thesis, we leverage the precise geometric modeling of isogeometric analysis and propose a new method for its coupling with meshfree discretizations. We exploit the strengths of both methods by using IGA to provide a smooth, geometrically-exact surface discretization of the problem domain boundary, while the Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) discretization is used to provide the volumetric discretization of the domain interior. The coupling strategy is based upon the higher-order consistency or reproducing conditions that are directly imposed in the physical domain. The resulting coupled method enjoys several favorable features: (i) it preserves the geometric exactness of IGA, (ii) it circumvents the need for global volumetric parameterization of the problem domain, (iii) it achieves arbitrary-order approximation accuracy while preserving higher-order smoothness of the discretization. Several numerical examples are solved to show the optimal convergence properties of the coupled IGA–RKPM formulation, and to demonstrate its effectiveness in constructing volumetric discretizations for complex-geometry objects.
As for the next contribution, we exploit the use of smooth, high-order spline basis functions in IGA to solve high-order surface PDEs governing the morphological evolution of vesicles. These governing equations are often consisted of geometric PDEs, high-order PDEs on stationary or evolving surfaces, or a combination of them. We propose an isogeometric formulation for solving these PDEs. In the context of geometric PDEs, we consider phase-field approximations of mean curvature flow and Willmore flow problems and numerically study the convergence behavior of isogeometric analysis for these problems. As a model problem for high-order PDEs on stationary surfaces, we consider the Cahn–Hilliard equation on a sphere, where the surface is modeled using a phase-field approach. As for the high-order PDEs on evolving surfaces, a phase-field model of a deforming multi-component vesicle, which consists of two fourth-order nonlinear PDEs, is solved using the isogeometric analysis in a primal variational framework. Through several numerical examples in 2D, 3D and axisymmetric 3D settings, we show the robustness of IGA for solving the considered phase-field models.
Finally, we present a monolithic, implicit formulation based on isogeometric analysis and generalized-alpha time integration for simulating hydrodynamics of vesicles according to a phase-field model. Compared to earlier works, the number of equations of the phase-field model which need to be solved is reduced by leveraging high continuity of NURBS functions, and the algorithm is extended to 3D settings. We use residual-based variational multi-scale method (RBVMS) for solving Navier–Stokes equations, while the rest of PDEs in the phase-field model are treated using a standard Galerkin-based IGA. We introduce the resistive immersed surface (RIS) method into the formulation which can be employed for an implicit description of complex geometries using a diffuse-interface approach. The implementation highlights the robustness of the RBVMS method for Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flows with non-trivial localized forcing terms including bending and tension forces of the vesicle. The potential of the phase-field model and isogeometric analysis for accurate simulation of a variety of fluid-vesicle interaction problems in 2D and 3D is demonstrated.

Das Ziel der Arbeit ist, eine mögliche Verbesserung der Güte der Lebensdauervorhersage für Gusseisenwerkstoffe mit Kugelgraphit zu erreichen, wobei die Gießprozesse verschiedener Hersteller berücksichtigt werden.
Im ersten Schritt wurden Probenkörper aus GJS500 und GJS600 von mehreren Gusslieferanten gegossen und daraus Schwingproben erstellt.
Insgesamt wurden Schwingfestigkeitswerte der einzelnen gegossenen Proben sowie der Proben des Bauteils von verschiedenen Gussherstellern weltweit entweder durch direkte Schwingversuche oder durch eine Sammlung von Betriebsfestigkeitsversuchen bestimmt.
Dank der metallografischen Arbeit und Korrelationsanalyse konnten drei wesentliche Parameter zur Bestimmung der lokalen Dauerfestigkeit festgestellt werden: 1. statische Festigkeit, 2. Ferrit- und Perlitanteil der Mikrostrukturen und 3. Kugelgraphitanzahl pro Flächeneinheit.
Basierend auf diesen Erkenntnissen wurde ein neues Festigkeitsverhältnisdiagramm (sogenanntes Sd/Rm-SG-Diagramm) entwickelt.
Diese neue Methodik sollte vor allem ermöglichen, die Bauteildauerfestigkeit auf der Grundlage der gemessenen oder durch eine Gießsimulation vorhersagten lokalen Zugfestigkeitswerte sowie Mikrogefügenstrukturen besser zu prognostizieren.
Mithilfe der Versuche sowie der Gießsimulation ist es gelungen, unterschiedliche Methoden der Lebensdauervorhersage unter Berücksichtigung der Herstellungsprozesse weiterzuentwickeln.

Die vorliegende Arbeit richtet sich an Ingenieur*innen und Wissenschaftler*innen der technischen Gebäudeausrüstung. Sie greift einen sich abzeichnenden Änderungsbedarf in der Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitsbewertung von Gebäuden und wärmetechnischen Anlagen auf. Der aktuell genutzte nicht erneuerbare Primärenergiebedarf wird insbesondere hinsichtlich künftiger politischer Klima- und Umweltschutzziele als alleinige Bewertungsgröße nicht ausreichend sein. Die mit dieser Arbeit vorgestellte Ökoeffizienzbewertungsmethode kann als geeignetes Instrument zur Lösung der Probleme beitragen. Sie ermöglicht systematische, ganzheitliche Bewertungen und reproduzierbare Vergleiche wärmetechnischer Anlagen bezüglich ihrer ökologischen und ökonomischen Nachhaltigkeit. Die wesentlichsten Neuentwicklungen sind die spezifische Umweltleistung, in Erweiterung zum genutzten Primärenergiefaktor, und der Ökoeffizienzindikator UWI.

In the last two decades, Peridynamics (PD) attracts much attention in the field of fracture mechanics. One key feature of PD is the nonlocality, which is quite different from the ideas in conventional methods such as FEM and meshless method. However, conventional PD suffers from problems such as constant horizon, explicit algorithm, hourglass mode. In this thesis, by examining the nonlocality with scrutiny, we proposed several new concepts such as dual-horizon (DH) in PD, dual-support (DS) in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), nonlocal operators and operator energy functional. The conventional PD (SPH) is incorporated in the DH-PD (DS-SPH), which can adopt an inhomogeneous discretization and inhomogeneous support domains. The DH-PD (DS-SPH) can be viewed as some fundamental improvement on the conventional PD (SPH). Dual formulation of PD and SPH allows h-adaptivity while satisfying the conservations of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy. By developing the concept of nonlocality further, we introduced the nonlocal operator method as a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with energy functional of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on dual-support concept are derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulation of the nonlocal theory. At last, we developed the higher order nonlocal operator method which is capable of solving higher order partial differential equations on arbitrary domain in higher dimensional space. Since the concepts are developed gradually, we described our findings chronologically.
In chapter 2, we developed a DH-PD formulation that includes varying horizon sizes and solves the "ghost force" issue. The concept of dual-horizon considers the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation fulfills both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum exactly with arbitrary particle discretization. All three peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based peridynamics can be implemented within the DH-PD framework. A simple adaptive refinement procedure (h-adaptivity) is proposed reducing the computational cost. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthoff-Winkler experiment and plate with branching cracks are tested to demonstrate the capability of the method.
In chapter 3, a nonlocal operator method (NOM) based on the variational principle is proposed for the solution of waveguide problem in computational electromagnetic field. Common differential operators as well as the variational forms are defined within the context of nonlocal operators. The present nonlocal formulation allows the assembling of the tangent stiffness matrix with ease, which is necessary for the eigenvalue analysis of the waveguide problem. The present formulation is applied to solve 1D Schrodinger equation, 2D electrostatic problem and the differential electromagnetic vector wave equations based on electric fields.
In chapter 4, a general nonlocal operator method is proposed which is applicable for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) of mechanical problems. The nonlocal operator can be regarded as the integral form, ``equivalent'' to the differential form in the sense of a nonlocal interaction model. The variation of a nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role as the derivatives of the shape functions in the meshless methods or those of the finite element method. Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease. The nonlocal operator method is enhanced here also with an operator energy functional to satisfy the linear consistency of the field. A highlight of the present method is the functional derived based on the nonlocal operator can convert the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplications using the predefined nonlocal operators. The nonlocal strong forms of different functionals can be obtained easily via the concept of support and dual-support. Several numerical examples of different types of PDEs are presented.
In chapter 5, we extended the NOM to higher order scheme by using a higher order Taylor series expansion of the unknown field. Such a higher order scheme improves the original NOM in chapter 3 and chapter 4, which can only achieve one-order convergence. The higher order NOM obtains all partial derivatives with specified maximal order simultaneously without resorting to shape functions. The functional based on the nonlocal operators converts the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplication on the nonlocal operator matrix. Several numerical examples solved by strong form or weak form are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
In chapter 6, the NOM proposed as a particle-based method in chapter 3,4,5, has difficulty in imposing accurately the boundary conditions of various orders. In this paper, we converted the particle-based NOM into a scheme with interpolation property. The new scheme describes partial derivatives of various orders at a point by the nodes in the support and takes advantage of the background mesh for numerical integration. The boundary conditions are enforced via the modified variational principle. The particle-based NOM can be viewed a special case of NOM with interpolation property when nodal integration is used. The scheme based on numerical integration greatly improves the stability of the method, as a consequence, the operator energy functional in particle-based NOM is not required. We demonstrated the capabilities of current method by solving the gradient solid problems and comparing the numerical results with the available exact solutions.
In chapter 7, we derived the DS-SPH in solid within the framework of variational principle. The tangent stiffness matrix of SPH can be obtained with ease, and can be served as the basis for the present implicit SPH. We proposed an hourglass energy functional, which allows the direct derivation of hourglass force and hourglass tangent stiffness matrix. The dual-support is {involved} in all derivations based on variational principles and is automatically satisfied in the assembling of stiffness matrix. The implementation of stiffness matrix comprises with two steps, the nodal assembly based on deformation gradient and global assembly on all nodes. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the method.

This thesis presents the advances and applications of phase field modeling in fracture analysis. In this approach, the sharp crack surface topology in a solid is approximated by a diffusive crack zone governed by a scalar auxiliary variable. The uniqueness of phase field modeling is that the crack paths are automatically determined as part of the solution and no interface tracking is required. The damage parameter varies continuously over the domain. But this flexibility comes with associated difficulties: (1) a very fine spatial discretization is required to represent sharp local gradients correctly; (2) fine discretization results in high computational cost; (3) computation of higher-order derivatives for improved convergence rates and (4) curse of dimensionality in conventional numerical integration techniques. As a consequence, the practical applicability of phase field models is severely limited.
The research presented in this thesis addresses the difficulties of the conventional numerical integration techniques for phase field modeling in quasi-static brittle fracture analysis. The first method relies on polynomial splines over hierarchical T-meshes (PHT-splines) in the framework of isogeometric analysis (IGA). An adaptive h-refinement scheme is developed based on the variational energy formulation of phase field modeling. The fourth-order phase field model provides increased regularity in the exact solution of the phase field equation and improved convergence rates for numerical solutions on a coarser discretization, compared to the second-order model. However, second-order derivatives of the phase field are required in the fourth-order model. Hence, at least a minimum of C1 continuous basis functions are essential, which is achieved using hierarchical cubic B-splines in IGA. PHT-splines enable the refinement to remain local at singularities and high gradients, consequently reducing the computational cost greatly. Unfortunately, when modeling complex geometries, multiple parameter spaces (patches) are joined together to describe the physical domain and there is typically a loss of continuity at the patch boundaries. This decrease of smoothness is dictated by the geometry description, where C0 parameterizations are normally used to deal with kinks and corners in the domain. Hence, the application of the fourth-order model is severely restricted. To overcome the high computational cost for the second-order model, we develop a dual-mesh adaptive h-refinement approach. This approach uses a coarser discretization for the elastic field and a finer discretization for the phase field. Independent refinement strategies have been used for each field.
The next contribution is based on physics informed deep neural networks. The network is trained based on the minimization of the variational energy of the system described by general non-linear partial differential equations while respecting any given law of physics, hence the name physics informed neural network (PINN). The developed approach needs only a set of points to define the geometry, contrary to the conventional mesh-based discretization techniques. The concept of `transfer learning' is integrated with the developed PINN approach to improve the computational efficiency of the network at each displacement step. This approach allows a numerically stable crack growth even with larger displacement steps. An adaptive h-refinement scheme based on the generation of more quadrature points in the damage zone is developed in this framework. For all the developed methods, displacement-controlled loading is considered. The accuracy and the efficiency of both methods are studied numerically showing that the developed methods are powerful and computationally efficient tools for accurately predicting fractures.

Material properties play a critical role in durable products manufacturing. Estimation of the precise characteristics in different scales requires complex and expensive experimental measurements. Potentially, computational methods can provide a platform to determine the fundamental properties before the final experiment. Multi-scale computational modeling leads to the modeling of the various time, and length scales include nano, micro, meso, and macro scales. These scales can be modeled separately or in correlation with coarser scales. Depend on the interested scales modeling, the right selection of multi-scale methods leads to reliable results and affordable computational cost. The present dissertation deals with the problems in various length and time scales using computational methods include density functional theory (DFT), molecular mechanics (MM), molecular dynamics (MD), and finite element (FE) methods.
Physical and chemical interactions in lower scales determine the coarser scale properties. Particles interaction modeling and exploring fundamental properties are significant challenges of computational science. Downscale modelings need more computational effort due to a large number of interacted atoms/particles. To deal with this problem and bring up a fine-scale (nano) as a coarse-scale (macro) problem, we extended an atomic-continuum framework. The discrete atomic models solve as a continuum problem using the computationally efficient FE method. MM or force field method based on a set of assumptions approximates a solution on the atomic scale. In this method, atoms and bonds model as a harmonic oscillator with a system of mass and springs. The negative gradient of the potential energy equal to the forces on each atom. In this way, each bond's total potential energy includes bonded, and non-bonded energies are simulated as equivalent structural strain energies. Finally, the chemical nature of the atomic bond is modeled as a piezoelectric beam element that solves by the FE method.
Exploring novel materials with unique properties is a demand for various industrial applications. During the last decade, many two-dimensional (2D) materials have been synthesized and shown outstanding properties. Investigation of the probable defects during the formation/fabrication process and studying their strength under severe service life are the critical tasks to explore performance prospects. We studied various defects include nano crack, notch, and point vacancy (Stone-Wales defect) defects employing MD analysis. Classical MD has been used to simulate a considerable amount of molecules at micro-, and meso- scales. Pristine and defective nanosheet structures considered under the uniaxial tensile loading at various temperatures using open-source LAMMPS codes. The results were visualized with the open-source software of OVITO and VMD.
Quantum based first principle calculations have been conducting at electronic scales and known as the most accurate Ab initio methods. However, they are computationally expensive to apply for large systems. We used density functional theory (DFT) to estimate the mechanical and electrochemical response of the 2D materials. Many-body Schrödinger's equation describes the motion and interactions of the solid-state particles. Solid describes as a system of positive nuclei and negative electrons, all electromagnetically interacting with each other, where the wave function theory describes the quantum state of the set of particles. However, dealing with the 3N coordinates of the electrons, nuclei, and N coordinates of the electrons spin components makes the governing equation unsolvable for just a few interacted atoms. Some assumptions and theories like Born Oppenheimer and Hartree-Fock mean-field and Hohenberg-Kohn theories are needed to treat with this equation. First, Born Oppenheimer approximation reduces it to the only electronic coordinates. Then Kohn and Sham, based on Hartree-Fock and Hohenberg-Kohn theories, assumed an equivalent fictitious non-interacting electrons system as an electron density functional such that their ground state energies are equal to a set of interacting electrons. Exchange-correlation energy functionals are responsible for satisfying the equivalency between both systems. The exact form of the exchange-correlation functional is not known. However, there are widely used methods to derive functionals like local density approximation (LDA), Generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and hybrid functionals (e.g., B3LYP). In our study, DFT performed using VASP codes within the GGA/PBE approximation, and visualization/post-processing of the results realized via open-source software of VESTA.
The extensive DFT calculations are conducted 2D nanomaterials prospects as anode/cathode electrode materials for batteries. Metal-ion batteries' performance strongly depends on the design of novel electrode material. Two-dimensional (2D) materials have developed a remarkable interest in using as an electrode in battery cells due to their excellent properties. Desirable battery energy storage systems (BESS) must satisfy the high energy density, safe operation, and efficient production costs. Batteries have been using in electronic devices and provide a solution to the environmental issues and store the discontinuous energies generated from renewable wind or solar power plants. Therefore, exploring optimal electrode materials can improve storage capacity and charging/discharging rates, leading to the design of advanced batteries.
Our results in multiple scales highlight not only the proposed and employed methods' efficiencies but also promising prospect of recently synthesized nanomaterials and their applications as an anode material. In this way, first, a novel approach developed for the modeling of the 1D nanotube as a continuum piezoelectric beam element. The results converged and matched closely with those from experiments and other more complex models. Then mechanical properties of nanosheets estimated and the failure mechanisms results provide a useful guide for further use in prospect applications. Our results indicated a comprehensive and useful vision concerning the mechanical properties of nanosheets with/without defects. Finally, mechanical and electrochemical properties of the several 2D nanomaterials are explored for the first time—their application performance as an anode material illustrates high potentials in manufacturing super-stretchable and ultrahigh-capacity battery energy storage systems (BESS). Our results exhibited better performance in comparison to the available commercial anode materials.

Pressure fluctuations beneath hydraulic jumps potentially endanger the stability of stilling basins. This paper deals with the mathematical modeling of the results of laboratory-scale experiments to estimate the extreme pressures. Experiments were carried out on a smooth stilling basin underneath free hydraulic jumps downstream of an Ogee spillway. From the probability distribution of measured instantaneous pressures, pressures with different probabilities could be determined. It was verified that maximum pressure fluctuations, and the negative pressures, are located at the positions near the spillway toe. Also, minimum pressure fluctuations are located at the downstream of hydraulic jumps. It was possible to assess the cumulative curves of pressure data related to the characteristic points along the basin, and different Froude numbers. To benchmark the results, the dimensionless forms of statistical parameters include mean pressures (P*m), the standard deviations of pressure fluctuations (σ*X), pressures with different non-exceedance probabilities (P*k%), and the statistical coefficient of the probability distribution (Nk%) were assessed. It was found that an existing method can be used to interpret the present data, and pressure distribution in similar conditions, by using a new second-order fractional relationships for σ*X, and Nk%. The values of the Nk% coefficient indicated a single mean value for each probability.

Earthquake is among the most devastating natural disasters causing severe economical, environmental, and social destruction. Earthquake safety assessment and building hazard monitoring can highly contribute to urban sustainability through identification and insight into optimum materials and structures. While the vulnerability of structures mainly depends on the structural resistance, the safety assessment of buildings can be highly challenging. In this paper, we consider the Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) method, which is a qualitative procedure for estimating structural scores for buildings suitable for medium- to high-seismic cases. This paper presents an overview of the common RVS methods, i.e., FEMA P-154, IITK-GGSDMA, and EMPI. To examine the accuracy and validation, a practical comparison is performed between their assessment and observed damage of reinforced concrete buildings from a street survey in the Bingöl region, Turkey, after the 1 May 2003 earthquake. The results demonstrate that the application of RVS methods for preliminary damage estimation is a vital tool. Furthermore, the comparative analysis showed that FEMA P-154 creates an assessment that overestimates damage states and is not economically viable, while EMPI and IITK-GGSDMA provide more accurate and practical estimation, respectively.