## 31 Mathematik

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The computational costs of newly developed numerical simulation play a critical role in their acceptance within both academic use and industrial employment. Normally, the refinement of a method in the area of interest reduces the computational cost. This is unfortunately not true for most nonlocal simulation, since refinement typically increases the size of the material point neighborhood. Reducing the discretization size while keep- ing the neighborhood size will often require extra consideration. Peridy- namic (PD) is a newly developed numerical method with nonlocal nature. Its straightforward integral form equation of motion allows simulating dy- namic problems without any extra consideration required. The formation of crack and its propagation is known as natural to peridynamic. This means that discontinuity is a result of the simulation and does not demand any post-processing. As with other nonlocal methods, PD is considered an expensive method. The refinement of the nodal spacing while keeping the neighborhood size (i.e., horizon radius) constant, emerges to several nonphysical phenomena.
This research aims to reduce the peridynamic computational and imple- mentation costs. A novel refinement approach is introduced. The pro- posed approach takes advantage of the PD flexibility in choosing the shape of the horizon by introducing multiple domains (with no intersections) to the nodes of the refinement zone. It will be shown that no ghost forces will be created when changing the horizon sizes in both subdomains. The approach is applied to both bond-based and state-based peridynamic and verified for a simple wave propagation refinement problem illustrating the efficiency of the method. Further development of the method for higher dimensions proves to have a direct relationship with the mesh sensitivity of the PD. A method for solving the mesh sensitivity of the PD is intro- duced. The application of the method will be examined by solving a crack propagation problem similar to those reported in the literature.
New software architecture is proposed considering both academic and in- dustrial use. The available simulation tools for employing PD will be collected, and their advantages and drawbacks will be addressed. The challenges of implementing any node base nonlocal methods while max- imizing the software flexibility to further development and modification
will be discussed and addressed. A software named Relation-Based Sim- ulator (RBS) is developed for examining the proposed architecture. The exceptional capabilities of RBS will be explored by simulating three dis- tinguished models. RBS is available publicly and open to further develop- ment. The industrial acceptance of the RBS will be tested by targeting its performance on one Mac and two Linux distributions.

The computational costs of newly developed numerical simulation play a critical role in their acceptance within both academic use and industrial employment. Normally, the refinement of a method in the area of interest reduces the computational cost. This is unfortunately not true for most nonlocal simulation, since refinement typically increases the size of the material point neighborhood. Reducing the discretization size while keep- ing the neighborhood size will often require extra consideration. Peridynamic (PD) is a newly developed numerical method with nonlocal nature. Its straightforward integral form equation of motion allows simulating dynamic problems without any extra consideration required. The formation of crack and its propagation is known as natural to peridynamic. This means that discontinuity is a result of the simulation and does not demand any post-processing. As with other nonlocal methods, PD is considered an expensive method. The refinement of the nodal spacing while keeping the neighborhood size (i.e., horizon radius) constant, emerges to several nonphysical phenomena.
This research aims to reduce the peridynamic computational and imple- mentation costs. A novel refinement approach is introduced. The pro- posed approach takes advantage of the PD flexibility in choosing the shape of the horizon by introducing multiple domains (with no intersections) to the nodes of the refinement zone. It will be shown that no ghost forces will be created when changing the horizon sizes in both subdomains. The approach is applied to both bond-based and state-based peridynamic and verified for a simple wave propagation refinement problem illustrating the efficiency of the method. Further development of the method for higher dimensions proves to have a direct relationship with the mesh sensitivity of the PD. A method for solving the mesh sensitivity of the PD is intro- duced. The application of the method will be examined by solving a crack propagation problem similar to those reported in the literature.
New software architecture is proposed considering both academic and in- dustrial use. The available simulation tools for employing PD will be collected, and their advantages and drawbacks will be addressed. The challenges of implementing any node base nonlocal methods while max- imizing the software flexibility to further development and modification will be discussed and addressed. A software named Relation-Based Sim- ulator (RBS) is developed for examining the proposed architecture. The exceptional capabilities of RBS will be explored by simulating three distinguished models. RBS is available publicly and open to further develop- ment. The industrial acceptance of the RBS will be tested by targeting its performance on one Mac and two Linux distributions.

Material failure can be tackled by so-called nonlocal models, which introduce an intrinsic length scale into the formulation and, in the case of material failure, restore the well-posedness of the underlying boundary value problem or initial boundary value problem. Among nonlocal models, peridynamics (PD) has attracted a lot of attention as it allows the natural transition from continuum to discontinue and thus allows modeling of discrete cracks without the need to describe and track the crack topology, which has been a major obstacle in traditional discrete crack approaches. This is achieved by replacing the divergence of the Cauchy stress tensor through an integral over so-called bond forces, which account for the interaction of particles. A quasi-continuum approach is then used to calibrate the material parameters of the bond forces, i.e., equating the PD energy with the energy of a continuum. One major issue for the application of PD to general complex problems is that they are limited to fairly simple material behavior and pure mechanical problems based on explicit time integration. PD has been extended to other applications but losing simultaneously its simplicity and ease in modeling material failure. Furthermore, conventional PD suffers from instability and hourglass modes that require stabilization. It also requires the use of constant horizon sizes, which drastically reduces its computational efficiency. The latter issue was resolved by the so-called dual-horizon peridynamics (DH-PD) formulation and the introduction of the duality of horizons.
Within the nonlocal operator method (NOM), the concept of nonlocality is further extended and can be considered a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with the energy functionals of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on the dual-support concept can be derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulations of the nonlocal theory. While traditional integral equations are formulated in an integral domain, the dual-support approaches are based on dual integral domains. One prominent feature of NOM is its compatibility with variational and weighted residual methods. The NOM yields a direct numerical implementation based on the weighted residual method for many physical problems without the need for shape functions. Only the definition of the energy or boundary value problem is needed to drastically facilitate the implementation. The nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role to the derivatives of the shape functions in meshless methods and finite element methods (FEM). Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease by a series of matrix multiplications. In addition, NOM can be used to derive many nonlocal models in strong form.
The principal contributions of this dissertation are the implementation and application of NOM, and also the development of approaches for dealing with fractures within the NOM, mostly for dynamic fractures. The primary coverage and results of the dissertation are as follows:
-The first/higher-order implicit NOM and explicit NOM, including a detailed description of the implementation, are presented. The NOM is based on so-called support, dual-support, nonlocal operators, and an operate energy functional ensuring stability. The nonlocal operator is a generalization of the conventional differential operators. Combining with the method of weighted residuals and variational principles, NOM establishes the residual and tangent stiffness matrix of operate energy functional through some simple matrix without the need of shape functions as in other classical computational methods such as FEM. NOM only requires the definition of the energy drastically simplifying its implementation. For the sake of conciseness, the implementation in this chapter is focused on linear elastic solids only, though the NOM can handle more complex nonlinear problems. An explicit nonlocal operator method for the dynamic analysis of elasticity solid problems is also presented. The explicit NOM avoids the calculation of the tangent stiffness matrix as in the implicit NOM model. The explicit scheme comprises the Verlet-velocity algorithm. The NOM can be very flexible and efficient for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). It's also quite easy for readers to use the NOM and extend it to solve other complicated physical phenomena described by one or a set of PDEs. Several numerical examples are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
-A nonlocal operator method for the dynamic analysis of (thin) Kirchhoff plates is proposed. The nonlocal Hessian operator is derived from a second-order Taylor series expansion. NOM is higher-order continuous, which is exploited for thin plate analysis that requires $C^1$ continuity. The nonlocal dynamic governing formulation and operator energy functional for Kirchhoff plates are derived from a variational principle. The Verlet-velocity algorithm is used for time discretization. After confirming the accuracy of the nonlocal Hessian operator, several numerical examples are simulated by the nonlocal dynamic Kirchhoff plate formulation.
-A nonlocal fracture modeling is developed and applied to the simulation of quasi-static and dynamic fractures using the NOM. The phase field's nonlocal weak and associated strong forms are derived from a variational principle. The NOM requires only the definition of energy. We present both a nonlocal implicit phase field model and a nonlocal explicit phase field model for fracture; the first approach is better suited for quasi-static fracture problems, while the key application of the latter one is dynamic fracture. To demonstrate the performance of the underlying approach, several benchmark examples for quasi-static and dynamic fracture are solved.

The aim of this study is controlling of spurious oscillations developing around discontinuous solutions of both linear and non-linear wave equations or hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). The equations include both first-order and second-order (wave) hyperbolic systems. In these systems even smooth initial conditions, or smoothly varying source (load) terms could lead to discontinuous propagating solutions (fronts). For the first order hyperbolic PDEs, the concept of central high resolution schemes is integrated with the multiresolution-based adaptation to capture properly both discontinuous propagating fronts and effects of fine-scale responses on those of larger scales in the multiscale manner. This integration leads to using central high resolution schemes on non-uniform grids; however, such simulation is unstable, as the central schemes are originally developed to work properly on uniform cells/grids. Hence, the main concern is stable collaboration of central schemes and multiresoltion-based cell adapters. Regarding central schemes, the considered approaches are: 1) Second order central and central-upwind schemes; 2) Third order central schemes; 3) Third and fourth order central weighted non-oscillatory schemes (central-WENO or CWENO); 4) Piece-wise parabolic methods (PPMs) obtained with two different local stencils. For these methods, corresponding (nonlinear) stability conditions are studied and modified, as well. Based on these stability conditions several limiters are modified/developed as follows: 1) Several second-order limiters with total variation diminishing (TVD) feature, 2) Second-order uniformly high order accurate non-oscillatory (UNO) limiters, 3) Two third-order nonlinear scaling limiters, 4) Two new limiters for PPMs. Numerical results show that adaptive solvers lead to cost-effective computations (e.g., in some 1-D problems, number of adapted grid points are less than 200 points during simulations, while in the uniform-grid case, to have the same accuracy, using of 2049 points is essential). Also, in some cases, it is confirmed that fine scale responses have considerable effects on higher scales.
In numerical simulation of nonlinear first order hyperbolic systems, the two main concerns are: convergence and uniqueness. The former is important due to developing of the spurious oscillations, the numerical dispersion and the numerical dissipation. Convergence in a numerical solution does not guarantee that it is the physical/real one (the uniqueness feature). Indeed, a nonlinear systems can converge to several numerical results (which mathematically all of them are true). In this work, the convergence and uniqueness are directly studied on non-uniform grids/cells by the concepts of local numerical truncation error and numerical entropy production, respectively. Also, both of these concepts have been used for cell/grid adaptations. So, the performance of these concepts is also compared by the multiresolution-based method. Several 1-D and 2-D numerical examples are examined to confirm the efficiency of the adaptive solver. Examples involve problems with convex and non-convex fluxes. In the latter case, due to developing of complex waves, proper capturing of real answers needs more attention. For this purpose, using of method-adaptation seems to be essential (in parallel to the cell/grid adaptation). This new type of adaptation is also performed in the framework of the multiresolution analysis.
Regarding second order hyperbolic PDEs (mechanical waves), the regularization concept is used to cure artificial (numerical) oscillation effects, especially for high-gradient or discontinuous solutions. There, oscillations are removed by the regularization concept acting as a post-processor. Simulations will be performed directly on the second-order form of wave equations. It should be mentioned that it is possible to rewrite second order wave equations as a system of first-order waves, and then simulated the new system by high resolution schemes. However, this approach ends to increasing of variable numbers (especially for 3D problems).
The numerical discretization is performed by the compact finite difference (FD) formulation with desire feature; e.g., methods with spectral-like or optimized-error properties. These FD methods are developed to handle high frequency waves (such as waves near earthquake sources). The performance of several regularization approaches is studied (both theoretically and numerically); at last, a proper regularization approach controlling the Gibbs phenomenon is recommended.
At the end, some numerical results are provided to confirm efficiency of numerical solvers enhanced by the regularization concept. In this part, shock-like responses due to local and abrupt changing of physical properties, and also stress wave propagation in stochastic-like domains are studied.

One of the most important renewable energy technologies used nowadays are wind power turbines. In this paper, we are interested in identifying the operating status of wind turbines, especially rotor blades, by means of multiphysical models. It is a state-of-the-art technology to test mechanical structures with ultrasonic-based methods. However, due to the density and the required high resolution, the testing is performed with high-frequency waves, which cannot penetrate the structure in depth. Therefore, there is a need to adopt techniques in the fields of multiphysical model-based inversion schemes or data-driven structural health monitoring. Before investing effort in the development of such approaches, further insights and approaches are necessary to make the techniques applicable to structures such as wind power plants (blades). Among the expected developments, further accelerations of the so-called “forward codes” for a more efficient implementation of the wave equation could be envisaged. Here, we employ electromagnetic waves for the early detection of cracks. Because in many practical situations, it is not possible to apply techniques from tomography (characterized by multiple sources and sensor pairs), we focus here on the question of whether the existence of cracks can be determined by using only one source for the sent waves.

In this thesis, a new approach is developed for applications of shape optimization on the time harmonic wave propagation (Helmholtz equation) for acoustic problems. This approach is introduced for different dimensional problems: 2D, 3D axi-symmetric and fully 3D problems. The boundary element method (BEM) is coupled with the isogeometric analysis (IGA) forming the so-called (IGABEM) which speeds up meshing and gives higher accuracy in comparison with standard BEM. BEM is superior for handling unbounded domains by modeling only the inner boundaries and avoiding the truncation error, present in the finite element method (FEM) since BEM solutions satisfy the Sommerfeld radiation condition automatically. Moreover, BEM reduces the space dimension by one from a volumetric three-dimensional problem to a surface two-dimensional problem, or from a surface two-dimensional problem to a perimeter one-dimensional problem. Non-uniform rational B-splines basis functions (NURBS) are used in an isogeometric setting to describe both the CAD geometries and the physical fields.
IGABEM is coupled with one of the gradient-free optimization methods, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for structural shape optimization problems. PSO is a straightforward method since it does not require any sensitivity analysis but it has some trade-offs with regard to the computational cost. Coupling IGA with optimization problems enables the NURBS basis functions to represent the three models: shape design, analysis and optimization models, by a definition of a set of control points to be the control variables and the optimization parameters as well which enables an easy transition between the three models.
Acoustic shape optimization for various frequencies in different mediums is performed with PSO and the results are compared with the benchmark solutions from the literature for different dimensional problems proving the efficiency of the proposed approach with the following remarks:
- In 2D problems, two BEM methods are used: the conventional isogeometric boundary element method (IGABEM) and the eXtended IGABEM (XIBEM) enriched with the partition-of-unity expansion using a set of plane waves, where the results are generally in good agreement with the linterature with some computation advantage to XIBEM which allows coarser meshes.
-In 3D axi-symmetric problems, the three-dimensional problem is simplified in BEM from a surface integral to a combination of two 1D integrals. The first is the line integral similar to a two-dimensional BEM problem. The second integral is performed over the angle of revolution. The discretization is applied only to the former integration. This leads to significant computational savings and, consequently, better treatment for higher frequencies over the full three-dimensional models.
- In fully 3D problems, a detailed comparison between two BEM methods: the conventional boundary integral equation (CBIE) and Burton-Miller (BM) is provided including the computational cost. The proposed models are enhanced with a modified collocation scheme with offsets to Greville abscissae to avoid placing collocation points at the corners. Placing collocation points on smooth surface enables accurate evaluation of normals for BM formulation in addition to straightforward prediction of jump-terms and avoids singularities in $\mathcal{O} (1/r)$ integrals eliminating the need for polar integration. Furthermore, no additional special treatment is required for the hyper-singular integral while collocating on highly distorted elements, such as those containing sphere poles. The obtained results indicate that, CBIE with PSO is a feasible alternative (except for a small number of fictitious frequencies) which is easier to implement. Furthermore, BM presents an outstanding treatment of the complicated geometry of mufflers with internal extended inlet/outlet tube as an interior 3D Helmholtz acoustic problem instead of using mixed or dual BEM.

The detailed structural analysis of thin-walled circular pipe members often requires the use of a shell or solid-based finite element method. Although these methods provide a very good approximation of the deformations, they require a higher degree of discretization which causes high computational costs. On the other hand, the analysis of thin-walled circular pipe members based on classical beam theories is easy to implement and needs much less computation time, however, they are limited in their ability to approximate the deformations as they cannot consider the deformation of the cross-section.
This dissertation focuses on the study of the Generalized Beam Theory (GBT) which is both accurate and efficient in analyzing thin-walled members. This theory is based on the separation of variables in which the displacement field is expressed as a combination of predetermined deformation modes related to the cross-section, and unknown amplitude functions defined on the beam's longitudinal axis. Although the GBT was initially developed for long straight members, through the consideration of complementary deformation modes, which amend the null transverse and shear membrane strain assumptions of the classical GBT, problems involving short members, pipe bends, and geometrical nonlinearity can also be analyzed using GBT. In this dissertation, the GBT formulation for the analysis of these problems is developed and the application and capabilities of the method are illustrated using several numerical examples. Furthermore, the displacement and stress field results of these examples are verified using an equivalent refined shell-based finite element model.
The developed static and dynamic GBT formulations for curved thin-walled circular pipes are based on the linear kinematic description of the curved shell theory. In these formulations, the complex problem in pipe bends due to the strong coupling effect of the longitudinal bending, warping and the cross-sectional ovalization is handled precisely through the derivation of the coupling tensors between the considered GBT deformation modes. Similarly, the geometrically nonlinear GBT analysis is formulated for thin-walled circular pipes based on the nonlinear membrane kinematic equations. Here, the initial linear and quadratic stress and displacement tangent stiffness matrices are built using the third and fourth-order GBT deformation mode coupling tensors.
Longitudinally, the formulation of the coupled GBT element stiffness and mass matrices are presented using a beam-based finite element formulation. Furthermore, the formulated GBT elements are tested for shear and membrane locking problems and the limitations of the formulations regarding the membrane locking problem are discussed.

Isogeometric analysis (IGA) is a numerical method for solving partial differential equations (PDEs), which was introduced with the aim of integrating finite element analysis with computer-aided design systems. The main idea of the method is to use the same spline basis functions which describe the geometry in CAD systems for the approximation of solution fields in the finite element method (FEM). Originally, NURBS which is a standard technology employed in CAD systems was adopted as basis functions in IGA but there were several variants of IGA using other technologies such as T-splines, PHT splines, and subdivision surfaces as basis functions. In general, IGA offers two key advantages over classical FEM: (i) by describing the CAD geometry exactly using smooth, high-order spline functions, the mesh generation process is simplified and the interoperability between CAD and FEM is improved, (ii) IGA can be viewed as a high-order finite element method which offers basis functions with high inter-element continuity and therefore can provide a primal variational formulation of high-order PDEs in a straightforward fashion. The main goal of this thesis is to further advance isogeometric analysis by exploiting these major advantages, namely precise geometric modeling and the use of smooth high-order splines as basis functions, and develop robust computational methods for problems with complex geometry and/or complex multi-physics.
As the first contribution of this thesis, we leverage the precise geometric modeling of isogeometric analysis and propose a new method for its coupling with meshfree discretizations. We exploit the strengths of both methods by using IGA to provide a smooth, geometrically-exact surface discretization of the problem domain boundary, while the Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) discretization is used to provide the volumetric discretization of the domain interior. The coupling strategy is based upon the higher-order consistency or reproducing conditions that are directly imposed in the physical domain. The resulting coupled method enjoys several favorable features: (i) it preserves the geometric exactness of IGA, (ii) it circumvents the need for global volumetric parameterization of the problem domain, (iii) it achieves arbitrary-order approximation accuracy while preserving higher-order smoothness of the discretization. Several numerical examples are solved to show the optimal convergence properties of the coupled IGA–RKPM formulation, and to demonstrate its effectiveness in constructing volumetric discretizations for complex-geometry objects.
As for the next contribution, we exploit the use of smooth, high-order spline basis functions in IGA to solve high-order surface PDEs governing the morphological evolution of vesicles. These governing equations are often consisted of geometric PDEs, high-order PDEs on stationary or evolving surfaces, or a combination of them. We propose an isogeometric formulation for solving these PDEs. In the context of geometric PDEs, we consider phase-field approximations of mean curvature flow and Willmore flow problems and numerically study the convergence behavior of isogeometric analysis for these problems. As a model problem for high-order PDEs on stationary surfaces, we consider the Cahn–Hilliard equation on a sphere, where the surface is modeled using a phase-field approach. As for the high-order PDEs on evolving surfaces, a phase-field model of a deforming multi-component vesicle, which consists of two fourth-order nonlinear PDEs, is solved using the isogeometric analysis in a primal variational framework. Through several numerical examples in 2D, 3D and axisymmetric 3D settings, we show the robustness of IGA for solving the considered phase-field models.
Finally, we present a monolithic, implicit formulation based on isogeometric analysis and generalized-alpha time integration for simulating hydrodynamics of vesicles according to a phase-field model. Compared to earlier works, the number of equations of the phase-field model which need to be solved is reduced by leveraging high continuity of NURBS functions, and the algorithm is extended to 3D settings. We use residual-based variational multi-scale method (RBVMS) for solving Navier–Stokes equations, while the rest of PDEs in the phase-field model are treated using a standard Galerkin-based IGA. We introduce the resistive immersed surface (RIS) method into the formulation which can be employed for an implicit description of complex geometries using a diffuse-interface approach. The implementation highlights the robustness of the RBVMS method for Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flows with non-trivial localized forcing terms including bending and tension forces of the vesicle. The potential of the phase-field model and isogeometric analysis for accurate simulation of a variety of fluid-vesicle interaction problems in 2D and 3D is demonstrated.

Electric trains are considered one of the most eco-friendly and safest means of transportation. Catenary poles are used worldwide to support overhead power lines for electric trains. The performance of the catenary poles has an extensive influence on the integrity of the train systems and, consequently, the connected human services. It became a must nowadays to develop SHM systems that provide the instantaneous status of catenary poles in- service, making the decision-making processes to keep or repair the damaged poles more feasible. This study develops a data-driven, model-free approach for status monitoring of cantilever structures, focusing on pre-stressed, spun-cast ultrahigh-strength concrete catenary poles installed along high-speed train tracks. The pro-posed approach evaluates multiple damage features in an unfied damage index, which leads to straightforward interpretation and comparison of the output. Besides, it distinguishes between multiple damage scenarios of the poles, either the ones caused by material degradation of the concrete or by the cracks that can be propagated during the life span of the given structure. Moreover, using a logistic function to classify the integrity of structure avoids the expensive learning step in the existing damage detection approaches, namely, using the modern machine and deep learning methods. The findings of this study look very promising when applied to other types of cantilever structures, such as the poles that support the power transmission lines, antenna masts, chimneys, and wind turbines.

The growing complexity of modern practical problems puts high demand on mathematical modelling. Given that various models can be used for modelling one physical phenomenon, the role of model comparison and model choice is becoming particularly important. Methods for model comparison and model choice typically used in practical applications nowadays are computationbased, and thus time consuming and computationally costly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop other approaches to working abstractly, i.e., without computations, with mathematical models. An abstract description of mathematical models can be achieved by the help of abstract mathematics, implying formalisation of models and relations between them. In this paper, a category theory-based approach to mathematical modelling is proposed. In this way, mathematical models are formalised in the language of categories, relations between the models are formally defined and several practically relevant properties are introduced on the level of categories. Finally, an illustrative example is presented, underlying how the category-theory based approach can be used in practice. Further, all constructions presented in this paper are also discussed from a modelling point of view by making explicit the link to concrete modelling scenarios.