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- Computerunterstütztes Verfahren (291) (remove)

Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung eines Softwaresystems zur strukturierten Erfassung und Verwaltung bestehender Gebäude in der Architektur. Die Erfassung erfolgt durch die Aufnahme von geometrischen Daten und Sachdaten in unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsstufen unter Einbeziehung einer vorangehenden Dekomposition. Basis für die Entwicklung eines solchen Systems ist die Analyse und Systematik der Erfassungstechniken, -abläufe und der Gegenstand der architektonischen Bestandsaufnahme. Parallel hierzu erfolgt die Bewertung und Nutzung aktueller Techniken und Werkzeuge der applikativen Informatik. Schwerpunkte der Forschungsarbeit sind die Ableitung einer allgemeinen Gebäude- und Bauteilstruktur, die Einbeziehung aktueller informationstechnischer Verfahren und Werkzeuge und die Entwicklung eines entsprechenden Experimentalsystems. Auf eine Auswahl softwaretechnischer Entwicklungen wird näher eingegangen (objektspezifische Eigenschaften, flexible Geometrieerfassung und Benutzeroberflächen).

We provide a critical overview of the current status of computational support for construction the management and building performance evaluation in North-America. This overview is based on the research conducted in relation to the design and construction of the Intelligent Workplace (IW), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. With regard to the commercial software products in the field of construction management the following limitations can be identified: Although project planning, cost estimating and construction simulation are supported, tasks like bidding as well as site and material management have not received the same level of attention. Few project management software packages are integrated in a total design support software system. Little analysis or evaluation options are provided to support managerial decision making. Various research groups address the construction planning and scheduling, construction contracting, site layout generation as well as the integration of these three topics. Currently problems such as efficient material management and calculation of environmental and energy responsive site management are insufficiently addressed within the ongoing research projects. In the domain of building performance simulation and decision support one can notice that, the development and application of computational tools is industry driven. As a result the concerns addressed by the tools are mainly issues pertaining to the selection and sizing of systems and components rather than an integrated performance evaluation. Consequently, these programs are rarely used by building designers, especially in the early design stages, where the predictive capabilities of simulation tools could be of significant value. Although many research institutions address the necessity for the integration of performance simulation within the overall design support environments most of the practically available performance simulation tools still remain mono-dimensional and isolated.

Die d - Dirac - Funktion d(x-xi) und Heviside - Funktion wurden vor allem zur Beschreibung diskontinuierlicher Belastungsfunktionen von gebogenen Balken angewendet. Im Referat werden die mathematischen Operationen auf den erwähnten Funktionen dargestellt. Darüber hinaus wird die Möglichkeit eindeutiger Aufschreibung von belibigen Belestungsfunktionen vorgeschlagen, die fast alle Fälle der in der Ingenieurpraxis auftretenden Belastungen umfassen. Die vorgeschlagenen Lösungen geben die Möglichkeit leichter Aufschreibung im Form eines Algorithmus, das die Ausnutzung von Komputertechnik in statischen Berechnungen ermöglicht. Am Ende des Referates werden die Zahlebeispiele dargestellt, die die Möglichkeiten praktischer Anwendungen der besprochenen Funktionen darstellen.

Projektsteuerung gewinnt als Aufgabenfeld bei der Realisierung von Investitionsprojekten ständig an Bedeutung. Zur Bewältigung der umfangreichen und komplizierten Aufgaben des Projektsteuerers wird zunehmend Software angeboten und genutzt. Dabei ist feststellbar, daß von einer integrierten Projektsteuerung unter Berücksichtigung der Kriterien Leistung, Termin und Kosten nicht gesprochen werden kann, weil wesentliche theoretische und praktische Voraussetzungen fehlen. Im Beitrag werden Defizite der praktizierten Vorgehensweise und Lösungsansätze für eine integrierte rechnergestützte Projektsteuerung vorgestellt. Durch geeignete Formen der Projektstrukturierung und eine Kopplung auf dem Mark befindlicher Standardsoftware können geeignete Lösungen gefunden werden. Problempunkte dabei stellen die Schnittstellen zwischen den Anwenderprogrammen die Datenbeschaffung und -verwaltung sowie geeignete Verfahren zur Kostenermittlung und -verfolgung dar. Im Beitrag werden eine bereits praktizierte und eine in Entwicklung befindliche Lösung vorgestellt.

Seit die Datenverarbeitung in ihrer Komplexität sich der Thematik des Computer Integrated Manufacturing widmet gehört die Produktionsplanung und Steuerung zu jenen Bereichen, in denen eine Computerunterstützung am vordringlichsten erschien. Später sind betriebswirtschaftliche Gesamtlösungen entstanden, die (bis heute recht unpräzise) als Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)-Systeme bezeichnet werden und in ihren Logistik-Modulen auch Funktionen der Produktionsplanung abdecken. Alle bekannten MRP-, PPS- und auch ERP-Systeme beruhen auf einer Sukzessivplanung. Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) Systems finden seit etwa 1995 zunehmend Interesse. Neben Demand Planning, Production Planning and Scheduling, Distribution Planning, Transportation Planning und Supply Chain Planning werden Lösungen für Anzahl und Standorte von Produktionsstätten und Auslieferungslagern, Zuordnung zu Produktionsstätten, Kapazitätsbestimmung für Arbeitskräfte und Betriebsmittel je Standort, Lagerhaltung je Teil und Lager, Bestimmung benötigter Transportmittel und Häufigkeit ihres Einsatzes, Zuordnung von Lagern zu Produktionsstätten von Märkten zu Lagern u.a.m. von APS-Systemen erwartet. D.h. APS-Systeme ergänzen ERP-Lösungen, nutzen die bereits durch das ERP-System vorhandenen Daten und benötigen neuartige Algorithmen und (Meta-) Heuristiken. Im Rahmen des Vortrages werden Modelle und Echtzeitalgorithmen zur Optimierung der Logistik für Prozesse mit kurzfristigen Anforderungen, geographisch verteilter Produktion, Lagerhaltung der Ausgangs-, Zwischen- und Endprodukte und wechselnden Transport-Bedingungen aus der Sicht der praktischen Umsetzung und Anwendung in Form einer ASP-Lösung aufgezeigt und diskutiert.

Die Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit im Bereich des Bauwesens, insbesondere kleinerer und mittelständischer Betriebe erfordert ein aktives Handeln als Antwort auf die sich ändernde Wettbewerbssituation. Einen wesentlichen Wettbewerbsvorteil können kleine unternehmerische Einheiten durch höhere Flexibilität, schnelle Reaktion auf Kundenwünsche oder aktuelle Situationen auf der Baustelle und Marktnähe erreichen. Dazu ist es nötig, die Informations- und Kommunikationsströme durch Einsatz standardisierter und kostengünstiger Hard- und Software wie z.B. Handhelds zu unterstützen und insbesondere die existierenden Hindernisse im Informationsfluss zwischen Baustelle und Büro zu beseitigen. Am Beispiel der Projekte >IuK - SystemBau< und >eSharing< wird eine Einführungsstrategie für >Mobile Computing< in kleinen unternehmerischen Einheiten des Bauwesens (KMU) basierend auf einer umfangreichen Anforderungsanalyse vorgestellt. Folgende Aspekte sollen beschrieben werden: durchgängiger Einsatz der Technik unter Beachtung der verschiedenen Qualifikationsniveaus, Einführungsunterstützung durch Schulungen, Prozessanalyse und mögliche Integration in bestehende Software-Umgebungen sowie Feldtests.

SYSBAT - An Application to the Building ProductionBased on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
(2003)

Our proposed solution is to enable partners of a construction project to share all the technical data produced and handled during the building production process by building a system through the use of internet technology. The system links distributed databases and allows building partners to access remotely and manipulate specific information. It provides an updated building representation that is being enriched and refined all along the building production process. A recent collaboration with Nemetschek France (subsidiary company of Nemetschek AG, AEC CAD software leader) focus on a building product repository available in a web context. The aim is to help building project actors to choose a technical solution that fits its professional needs, and maintain our information system with up to date information. It starts with the possibility to build on line building product catalogs, in order to link Allplan CAD entities with building technical features. This paper presents the conceptual approaches on which our information system is built. Starting from a general organization diagram organization, we focus on the product and the description branches of construction works (including last IFC model specifications). Our aim is to add decisional support to the construction works selection process. To do so, we consider the actor's role upon the system and the pieces of information each one needs to achieve a given task.

Die heutige Situation in der Tragwerksplanung ist durch das kooperative Zusammenwirken einer größeren Anzahl von Fachleuten verschiedener Disziplinen (Architektur, Tragwerksplanung, etc.) in zeitlich befristeten Projektgemeinschaften gekennzeichnet. Bei der Abstimmung der hierdurch bedingten komplexen, dynamischen und vernetzten Planungsprozesse kommt es dabei häufig zu Planungsmängeln und Qualitätseinbußen. Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, wie mit Hilfe der Agententechnologie Lösungsansätze zur Verbesserung der Planungssituation erreicht werden können. Hierzu wird ein Agentenmodell für die vernetzt-kooperative Tragwerksplanung vorgestellt und anhand der Planung einer Fußgängerbogenbrücke anschaulich demonstriert. Das Agentenmodell erfasst (1) die beteiligten Fachplaner und Organisationen, (2) die tragwerksspezifischen Planungsprozesse, (3) die zugehörigen (Teil-)Produktmodelle und (4) die genutzte (Ingenieur-)Software. Hieraus leiten sich die drei Teilmodelle (1) agentenbasiertes Kooperationsmodell, (2) agentenbasierte Produktmodellintegration und (3) Modell zur agentenbasierten Software-Integration ab. Der Fokus des Artikels liegt auf der Darstellung des agentenbasierten Kooperationsmodells.

Integrated Engineering Workflow focused on the Structural Engineering in the Industrial Environment
(2004)

The engineering and construction industry has been slow to exploit the full potential of information technology. The industry is highly fragmented, price sensitive, risk-adverse, and profit margins are small. Each project is unique with a small amount of technological innovation opportunities to capitalise on from one project to the next. Technological innovations that have been taking place are just simulating the old traditional paper workflow. Engineering information in digital form is being conveyed using traditional paper representations, which have to be interpreted by humans before the information can be used in other applications, thereby creating ‘islands of information’. It can be seen that poorly implemented IT strategies are duplicating paperwork, rather than reducing or eliminating it (Crowley et al., 2000). This paper will introduce the Integrated Engineering Workflow (IEW) concept to re-organise a structural discipline working on multi-disciplinary projects so as to maximise the advantages offered by new information technology.

Applications for civil engineering tasks usually contain graphical user interfaces for the engineering processes. Persistent objects of the applications are stored to data bases. The influence of the interaction between a graphical user interface and a data base for the development of an civil engineering application is investigated in this paper. A graphic application for the linear elastic analysis of plane frames, which was previously developed with standard tools of the Java platform, is compared to a redesigned implementation using a generalized data base for persistent objects. The investigation leads to the following results : - A strict distinction between persistent and transient objects influences the class structure of an application, in particular the class structure of a graphical user interface. - The structure of an application depends on the logic for updating of references to persistent and transient graphical objects after an application is read from a file. - The complexity of the reference management can usually be handled better by just in time referencing associated with String - identifiers rather than by automated referencing associated with Name - identifiers.

The growing competition pressure in the building industry increases the demands on the design and construction processes in respect to economical, technical and time aspects. These demands require efficient improvements of the value-added chain, which can be realized mainly with the usage of innovative information- and communication-technologies. To support the collaboration of all participants involved in a certain building project the Workflow-Management-System “BauKom-Online” has been developed. In the focus of the system is to support the coordination of the participants and their information exchange. Such a software-method is well suited to ensure a high quality planning process. The modelling of business-processes enables a better self-comprehension of the participants work and helps to enhance the project performance. The system architecture of BauKom-Online contains two basic components: the processmodelling tool and the workflow-engine. The process-model contains of activities and states of the planning and construction processes and their relations. These connected processes compose the workflow. Such a process-model for engineering purposes has to satisfy several needs, e.g., the consideration of planning and building alternatives, dynamic changes of the model during execution of the project and the linkage to further technical objects like costs, building structure, specifications and documentmanagement. Furthermore, the scheduling of the project can be done within the process-model and can be visualized as a Gantt-diagram. ...

The design of building projects involves several types of resources such as architects, structural engineers, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, and draftsmen, among others. For design firms to stay in business in this very competitive market, they need to manage their resources in a way that improves productivity and cost effectiveness. This task, however, is not simple and requires thorough analysis of process-level operations, resource use, and productivity. Typically, these operational aspects are the responsibility of the design office manager who assigns available resources to the different design projects to save time and lower design expenses. It is noted that limited studies have been carried out in the literature to model overall organizational operations and behavioral aspects, particularly in firms specialized in the design of building projects. In an effort to simplify the modeling process, a simplified modeling and simulation tool is used in this research. A simulation model representing an actual design office was developed assuming that the office performs designs for small, medium, and large size building projects. The developed model was used to simulate several alternatives and examine various resource assignment strategies. The simulation was conducted over ten years and the resulting productivity and income was measured.

This paper presents a specific modeling technique that is focused on preparing planning processes in civil engineering. Planning processes in civil engineering are characterized by some peculiarities so that the sequence of planning tasks needs to be determined for each planning project. Neither the use of optimized partial processes nor the use of lower detailed and optimized processes guarantee an optimal overall planning process. The modeling technique considers these peculiarities. In a first step, it is focused on the logic of the planning process. Algorithms based on the graph theory determine that logic. This approach ensures consistency and logical correctness of the description of a planning process at the early beginning in its preparation phase. Sets of data – the products of engineers like technical drawings, technical models, reports, or specifications – form the core of the presented modeling technique. The production of these sets of data requires time and money. This is expressed by a specific weighting of each set of data in the presented modeling technique. The introduction of these weights allows an efficient progress measurement and controlling of a planning project. For this purpose, a link between the modeling technique used in the preparation phase and the execution phase is necessary so that target and actual values are available for controlling purposes. The present paper covers the description of this link. An example is given to illustrate the use of the modeling technique for planning processes in civil engineering projects.

The management of resources is an essential task in each construction company. Today, ERP systems and e-Business systems are available to assist construction companies to efficiently organise the allocation of their personnel and equipment within the company, but they cannot provide the company with the idle resources for every single task that has to be performed during a construction project. Therefore, companies should have an alternative solution to better exploit expensive resources and compensate their fixed costs, but also have them available at the right time for their own business activities. This paper outlines the approach taken by the EU funded project “e-Sharing” (IST-2001-33325) to support resource management between construction companies. It will describe requirements for the management of construction resources, its core features, and the integration approach. Therefore, we will outline the approach of an integrated resource type model supporting the management and classification of construction equipment, construction tasks and qualification profiles. The development is based on a cross-domain analysis and evaluation of existing models. ...

Let the information of a civil engineering application be decomposed into objects of a given set of classes. Then the set of objects forms the data base of the application. The objects contain attributes and methods. Properties of the objects are stored in the attributes. Algorithms which the objects perform are implemented in the methods of the objects. If objects are modified by a user, the consistency of data in the base is destroyed. The data base must be modified in an update to restore its consistency. The sequence of the update operations is not arbitrary, but is governed by dependence between the objects. The situation can be described mathematically with graph theory. The available algorithms for the determination of the update sequence are not suitable when the data base is large. A new update algorithm for large data bases has been developed and is presented in this paper.

The planning of projects in building engineering is a complex process which is characterized by a dynamical composition and many modifications during the definition and execution time of processes. For a computer-aided and network-based cooperation a formal description of the planning process is necessary. In the research project “Relational Process Modelling in Cooperative Building Planning” a process model is described by three parts: an organizational structure with participants, a building structure with states and a process structure with activities. This research project is part of the priority program 1103 “Network-Based Cooperative Planning Processes in Structural Engineering” promoted by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Planning processes in civil engineering can be described by workflow graphs. The process structure describes the logical planning process and can be formally defined by a bipartite graph. This structure consists of activities, transitions and relationships between activities and transitions. In order to minimize errors at execution time of a planning process a consistent and structurally correct process model must be guaranteed. This contribution considers the concept and the algorithms for checking the consistency and the correctness of the process structure.

The methods currently used for scheduling building processes have some major advantages as well as disadvantages. The main advantages are the arrangement of the tasks of a project in a clear, easily readable form and the calculation of valuable information like critical paths. The main disadvantage on the other hand is the inflexibility of the model caused by the modeling paradigms. Small changes of the modeled information strongly influence the whole model and lead to the need to change many more details in the plan. In this article an approach is introduced allowing the creation of more flexible schedules. It aims towards a more robust model that lowers the need to change more than a few information while being able to calculate the important propositions of the known models and leading to further valuable conclusions.

Cost and Schedule Controlling in Relation to Liquidity Management during Construction Projects
(2004)

The present paper describes a software application which can be used for relating the scheduled events of a construction project with the respective financial parameters, leading to an overall improvement in general controlling and liquidity management. For this purpose, existing construction schedules are taken and details of the assignment are recorded. Thus it becomes possible to assess a future payment status should changes in the designated schedule occur.

Available construction time-cost trade-off analysis models can be used to generate trade-offs between these two important objectives, however, their application is limited in large-scale construction projects due to their impractical computational requirements. This paper presents the development of a scalable and multi-objective genetic algorithm that provides the capability of simultaneously optimizing construction time and cost large-scale construction projects. The genetic algorithm was implemented in a distributed computing environment that utilizes a recent standard for parallel and distributed programming called the message passing interface (MPI). The performance of the model is evaluated using a set of measures of performance and the results demonstrate the capability of the present model in significantly reducing the computational time required to optimize large-scale construction projects.

As a result of the pilot-project “Grundwasser-Online” the supervision and the active controlling of large monitoring- and catchment-areas are realised by a co-operative integration of all related institutions, a synchronisation-process to combine all distributed data into one central server database, and a high-level eGovernment-Service to provide evaluated information over the internet. Based on this software system the local authorities are able to supervise the groundwater-levels and to find adequate decisions, which finally result in official permissions for the usage of groundwater-reservoirs by the water supply companies.

Diese Tagung versteht sich als Forum der Wissenschaftler und Praktiker aus Ost und West für einen fachübergreifenden Dialog. Informatiker, Ingenieure, Architekten und Mathematiker aus aller Welt treffen sich zu einem inter-disziplinären und länderübergreifenden Erfahrungsaustausch in der Klassikerstadt Weimar, um über ihre Ergebnisse in Forschung, Entwicklung und Praxis zu berichten.

Practical examples show that the improvement in cost flow and total amount of money spend in construction and further use may be cut significantly. The calculation is based on spreadsheets calculation, very easy to develop on most PC´s now a days. Construction works, are a field where the evaluation of Cash Flow can be and should be applied. Decisions about cash flow in construction are decisions with long-term impact and long-term memory. Mistakes from the distant past have a massive impact on situations in the present and into the far economic future of economic activities. Two approaches exist. The Just-in-Time (JIT) approach and life cycle costs (LCC) approach. The calculation example shows the dynamic results for the production speed in opposition to stable flow of production in duration of activities. More sophisticated rescheduling in optimal solution might bring in return extra profit. In the technologies and organizational processes for industrial buildings, railways and road reconstruction, public utilities and housing developments there are assembly procedures that are very appropriate for the given purpose, complicated research-, development-, innovation-projects are all very good aspects of these kinds of applications. The investors of large investments and all public invested money may be spent more efficiently if an optimisation speed-strategy can be calculated.

Objects for civil engineering applications can be identified with their reference in memory, their alpha-numeric name or their geometric location. Particularly in graphic user interfaces, it is common to identify objects geometrically by selection with the mouse. As the number of geometric objects in a graphic user interface grows, it becomes increasingly more important to treat the basic operations add, search and remove for geometric objects with great efficiency. Guttmann has proposed the Region-Tree (R-tree) for geometric identification in an environment which uses pages on disc as data structure. Minimal bounding rectangles are used to structure the data in such a way that neighborhood relations can be described effectively. The literature shows that the parameters which influence the efficiency of the R-trees have been studied extensively, but without conclusive results. The goal of the research which is reported in this paper is to determine reliably the parameters which significantly influence the efficiency of R-trees for geometric identification in technical drawings. In order to make this investigation conclusive, it must be performed with the best available software technology. Therefore an object-oriented software for the method is developed. This implementation is tested with technical drawings containing many thousands of geometric objects. These drawings are created automatically by a stochastic generator which is incorporated into a test bed consisting of an editor and a visualisor. This test bed is used to obtain statistics for the main factors which affect the efficiency of R-trees. The investigation shows that the following main factors which affect the efficiency can be identified reliably : number of geometric objects on the drawing the minimum und maximum number of children of a node of the tree the maximum width and height of the minimal bounding rectangles of the geometric objects relative to the size of the drawing.

The contribution focuses on the development of a basic computational scheme that provides a suitable calculation environment for the coupling of analytical near-field solutions with numerical standard procedures in the far-field of the singularity. The proposed calculation scheme uses classical methods of complex function theory, which can be generalized to 3-dimensional problems by using the framework of hypercomplex analysis. The adapted approach is mainly based on the factorization of the Laplace operator EMBED Equation.3 by the Cauchy-Riemann operator EMBED Equation.3 , where exact solutions of the respective differential equation are constructed by using an orthonormal basis of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions.

In earlier research, generalized multidimensional Hilbert transforms have been constructed in m-dimensional Euclidean space, in the framework of Clifford analysis. Clifford analysis, centred around the notion of monogenic functions, may be regarded as a direct and elegant generalization to higher dimension of the theory of the holomorphic functions in the complex plane. The considered Hilbert transforms, usually obtained as a part of the boundary value of an associated Cauchy transform in m+1 dimensions, might be characterized as isotropic, since the metric in the underlying space is the standard Euclidean one. In this paper we adopt the idea of a so-called anisotropic Clifford setting, which leads to the introduction of a metric dependent m-dimensional Hilbert transform, showing, at least formally, the same properties as the isotropic one. The Hilbert transform being an important tool in signal analysis, this metric dependent setting has the advantage of allowing the adjustment of the co-ordinate system to possible preferential directions in the signals to be analyzed. A striking result to be mentioned is that the associated anisotropic (m+1)-dimensional Cauchy transform is no longer uniquely determined, but may stem from a diversity of (m+1)-dimensional "mother" metrics.

Image processing has been much inspired by the human vision, in particular with regard to early vision. The latter refers to the earliest stage of visual processing responsible for the measurement of local structures such as points, lines, edges and textures in order to facilitate subsequent interpretation of these structures in higher stages (known as high level vision) of the human visual system. This low level visual computation is carried out by cells of the primary visual cortex. The receptive field profiles of these cells can be interpreted as the impulse responses of the cells, which are then considered as filters. According to the Gaussian derivative theory, the receptive field profiles of the human visual system can be approximated quite well by derivatives of Gaussians. Two mathematical models suggested for these receptive field profiles are on the one hand the Gabor model and on the other hand the Hermite model which is based on analysis filters of the Hermite transform. The Hermite filters are derivatives of Gaussians, while Gabor filters, which are defined as harmonic modulations of Gaussians, provide a good approximation to these derivatives. It is important to note that, even if the Gabor model is more widely used than the Hermite model, the latter offers some advantages like being an orthogonal basis and having better match to experimental physiological data. In our earlier research both filter models, Gabor and Hermite, have been developed in the framework of Clifford analysis. Clifford analysis offers a direct, elegant and powerful generalization to higher dimension of the theory of holomorphic functions in the complex plane. In this paper we expose the construction of the Hermite and Gabor filters, both in the classical and in the Clifford analysis framework. We also generalize the concept of complex Gaussian derivative filters to the Clifford analysis setting. Moreover, we present further properties of the Clifford-Gabor filters, such as their relationship with other types of Gabor filters and their localization in the spatial and in the frequency domain formalized by the uncertainty principle.

The one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform is a successful tool for signal and image analysis, with applications in physics and engineering. Clifford analysis offers an appropriate framework for taking wavelets to higher dimension. In the usual orthogonal case Clifford analysis focusses on monogenic functions, i.e. null solutions of the rotation invariant vector valued Dirac operator ∂, defined in terms of an orthogonal basis for the quadratic space Rm underlying the construction of the Clifford algebra R0,m. An intrinsic feature of this function theory is that it encompasses all dimensions at once, as opposed to a tensorial approach with products of one-dimensional phenomena. This has allowed for a very specific construction of higher dimensional wavelets and the development of the corresponding theory, based on generalizations of classical orthogonal polynomials on the real line, such as the radial Clifford-Hermite polynomials introduced by Sommen. In this paper, we pass to the Hermitian Clifford setting, i.e. we let the same set of generators produce the complex Clifford algebra C2n (with even dimension), which we equip with a Hermitian conjugation and a Hermitian inner product. Hermitian Clifford analysis then focusses on the null solutions of two mutually conjugate Hermitian Dirac operators which are invariant under the action of the unitary group. In this setting we construct new Clifford-Hermite polynomials, starting in a natural way from a Rodrigues formula which now involves both Dirac operators mentioned. Due to the specific features of the Hermitian setting, four different types of polynomials are obtained, two types of even degree and two types of odd degree. These polynomials are used to introduce a new continuous wavelet transform, after thorough investigation of all necessary properties of the involved polynomials, the mother wavelet and the associated family of wavelet kernels.

Für eine gesicherte Planung im Bestand, sind eine Fülle verschiedenster Informationen zu berücksichtigen, welche oft erst während des Planungs- oder Bauprozesses gewonnen werden. Voraussetzung hierfür bildet immer eine Bestandserfassung. Zwar existieren Computerprogramme zur Unterstützung der Bestandserfassung, allerdings handelt es sich hierbei ausschließlich um Insellösungen. Der Export der aufgenommenen Daten in ein Planungssystem bedingt Informationsverluste. Trotz der potentiellen Möglichkeit aktueller CAAD/BIM Systeme zur Verwaltung von Bestandsdaten, sind diese vorrangig für die Neubauplanung konzipiert. Die durchgängige Bearbeitung von Sanierungsprojekten von der Erfassung des Bestandes über die Entwurfs- und Genehmigungsplanung bis zur Ausführungsplanung innerhalb eines CAAD/BIM Systems wird derzeit nicht adäquat unterstützt. An der Professur Informatik in der Architektur (InfAR) der Fakultät Architektur der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar entstanden im Rahmen des DFG Sonderforschungsbereich 524 "Werkzeuge und Konstruktionen für die Revitalisierung von Bauwerken" in den letzten Jahren Konzepte und Prototypen zur fachlich orientierten Unterstützung der Planung im Bestand. Der Fokus lag dabei in der Erfassung aller planungsrelevanter Bestandsdaten und der Abbildung dieser in einem dynamischen Bauwerksmodell. Aufbauend auf diesen Forschungsarbeiten befasst sich der Artikel mit der kontextbezogenen Weiterverwendung und gezielten Bereitstellung von Bestandsdaten im Prozess des Planens im Bestand und der Integration von Konzepten der planungsrelevanten Bestandserfassung in marktübliche CAAD/BIM Systeme.

Am Beispiel eines 3-feldrigen Durchlaufträgers wird die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit von wechselnd belasteten Stahlbetonbalken bezüglich des Grenzzustandes der Adaption (Einspielen, shakedown) untersucht. Die Adaptionsanalyse erfolgt unter Berücksichtigung der beanspruchungschabhängigen Degradation der Biegesteifigkeit infolge Rissbildung. Die damit verbundene mechanische Problemstellung kann auf die Adaptionsanalyse linear elastisch - ideal plastischer Balkentragwerke mit unbekannter aber begrenzter Biegesteifigkeit zurückgeführt werden. Die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit wird unter Berücksichtigung stochastischer Tragwerks- und Belastungsgrößen berechnet. Tragwerkseigenschaften und ständige Lasten gelten als zeitunabhängige Zufallsgrößen. Zeitlich veränderliche Lasten werden als nutzungsdauerbezogene Extremwerte POISSONscher Rechteck-Pulsprozesse unter Berücksichtigung zeitlicher Überlagerungseffekte modelliert, so dass die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit ebenfalls eine nutzungsdauerbezogene Größe ist. Die mechanischen Problemstellungen werden numerisch mit der mathematischen Optimierung gelöst. Die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit wird auf statistischem Weg mit der Monte-Carlo-Methode geschätzt.

In this paper we study the structure of the solutions to higher dimensional Dirac type equations generalizing the known λ-hyperholomorphic functions, where λ is a complex parameter. The structure of the solutions to the system of partial differential equations (D- λ) f=0 show a close connection with Bessel functions of first kind with complex argument. The more general system of partial differential equations that is considered in this paper combines Dirac and Euler operators and emphasizes the role of the Bessel functions. However, contrary to the simplest case, one gets now Bessel functions of any arbitrary complex order.

Design activity could be treated as state transition computationally. In stepwise processing, in-between form-states are not easily observed. However, in this research time-based concept is introduced and applied in order to bridge the gap. In architecture, folding is one method of form manipulation and architects also want to search for alternatives by this operation. Besides, folding operation has to be defined and parameterized before time factor is involved as a variable of folding. As a result, time-based transformation provides sequential form states and redirects design activity.

ON THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH FREE CONVECTION IN STRIP DOMAINS AND 3D TRIANGULAR CHANNELS
(2006)

The Navier-Stokes equations and related ones can be treated very elegantly with the quaternionic operator calculus developed in a series of works by K. Guerlebeck, W. Sproeossig and others. This study will be extended in this paper. In order to apply the quaternionic operator calculus to solve these types of boundary value problems fully explicitly, one basically needs to evaluate two types of integral operators: the Teodorescu operator and the quaternionic Bergman projector. While the integral kernel of the Teodorescu transform is universal for all domains, the kernel function of the Bergman projector, called the Bergman kernel, depends on the geometry of the domain. With special variants of quaternionic holomorphic multiperiodic functions we obtain explicit formulas for three dimensional parallel plate channels, rectangular block domains and regular triangular channels. The explicit knowledge of the integral kernels makes it then possible to evaluate the operator equations in order to determine the solutions of the boundary value problem explicitly.

In this paper we consider three different methods for generating monogenic functions. The first one is related to Fueter's well known approach to the generation of monogenic quaternion-valued functions by means of holomorphic functions, the second one is based on the solution of hypercomplex differential equations and finally the third one is a direct series approach, based on the use of special homogeneous polynomials. We illustrate the theory by generating three different exponential functions and discuss some of their properties. Formula que se usa em preprints e artigos da nossa UI&D (acho demasiado completo): Partially supported by the R\&D unit \emph{Matem\'atica a Aplica\c\~es} (UIMA) of the University of Aveiro, through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), co-financed by the European Community fund FEDER.

In classical complex function theory the geometric mapping property of conformality is closely linked with complex differentiability. In contrast to the planar case, in higher dimensions the set of conformal mappings is only the set of Möbius transformations. Unfortunately, the theory of generalized holomorphic functions (by historical reasons they are called monogenic functions) developed on the basis of Clifford algebras does not cover the set of Möbius transformations in higher dimensions, since Möbius transformations are not monogenic. But on the other side, monogenic functions are hypercomplex differentiable functions and the question arises if from this point of view they can still play a special role for other types of 3D-mappings, for instance, for quasi-conformal ones. On the occasion of the 16th IKM 3D-mapping methods based on the application of Bergman's reproducing kernel approach (BKM) have been discussed. Almost all authors working before that with BKM in the Clifford setting were only concerned with the general algebraic and functional analytic background which allows the explicit determination of the kernel in special situations. The main goal of the abovementioned contribution was the numerical experiment by using a Maple software specially developed for that purpose. Since BKM is only one of a great variety of concrete numerical methods developed for mapping problems, our goal is to present a complete different from BKM approach to 3D-mappings. In fact, it is an extension of ideas of L. V. Kantorovich to the 3-dimensional case by using reduced quaternions and some suitable series of powers of a small parameter. Whereas until now in the Clifford case of BKM the recovering of the mapping function itself and its relation to the monogenic kernel function is still an open problem, this approach avoids such difficulties and leads to an approximation by monogenic polynomials depending on that small parameter.

Designing a structure follows a pattern of creating a structural design concept, executing a finite element analysis and developing a design model. A project was undertaken to create computer support for executing these tasks within a collaborative environment. This study focuses on developing a software architecture that integrates the various structural design aspects into a seamless functional collaboratory that satisfies engineering practice requirements. The collaboratory is to support both homogeneous collaboration i.e. between users operating on the same model and heterogeneous collaboration i.e. between users operating on different model types. Collaboration can take place synchronously or asynchronously, and the information exchange is done either at the granularity of objects or at the granularity of models. The objective is to determine from practicing engineers which configurations they regard as best and what features are essential for working in a collaborative environment. Based on the suggestions of these engineers a specification of a collaboration configuration that satisfies engineering practice requirements will be developed.

Reasonably accurate cost estimation of the structural system is quite desirable at the early stages of the design process of a construction project. However, the numerous interactions among the many cost-variables make the prediction difficult. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and case-based reasoning (CBR) are reported to overcome this difficulty. This paper presents a comparison of CBR and ANN augmented by genetic algorithms (GA) conducted by using spreadsheet simulations. GA was used to determine the optimum weights for the ANN and CBR models. The cost data of twenty-nine actual cases of residential building projects were used as an example application. Two different sets of cases were randomly selected from the data set for training and testing purposes. Prediction rates of 84% in the GA/CBR study and 89% in the GA/ANN study were obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed in the light of the experiments and the findings. It appears that GA/ANN is a more suitable model for this example of cost estimation where the prediction of numerical values is required and only a limited number of cases exist. The integration of GA into CBR and ANN in a spreadsheet format is likely to improve the prediction rates.

Der Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Bewertung von Verkehrsnetzen. Aus der Sicht der Nutzer des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs (ÖPNV) ist eines der wichtigsten Kriterien zur Beurteilung der Qualität des Liniennetzes, ob es möglich ist, mit einer großen Sicherheit das Reiseziel in einer vorgegebenen Zeit zu erreichen. Im Vortrag soll dieser Zuverlässigkeitsbegriff mathematisch gefasst werden. Dabei wird zunächst auf den üblichen Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit eines Netzes im Sinne paarweiser Zusammenhangswahrscheinlichkeiten eingegangen. Dieser Begriff wird erweitert durch die Betrachtung der Zuverlässigkeit unter Einbeziehung einer maximal zulässigen Reisezeit. In vergangenen Arbeiten hat sich die Ring-Radius-Struktur als bewährtes Modell für die theoretische Beschreibung von Verkehrsnetzen erwiesen. Diese Überlegungen sollen nun durch Einbeziehung realer Verkehrsnetzstrukturen erweitert werden. Als konkretes Beispiel dient das Straßenbahnnetz von Krakau. Hier soll insbesondere untersucht werden, welche Auswirkungen ein geplanter Ausbau des Netzes auf die Zuverlässigkeit haben wird. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

Wir betrachten im ÖPNV (Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr) diejenige Situation, daß zwei Bus- oder Straßenbahnlinien gemeinsame Haltestellen haben. Ziel unserer Untersuchungen ist es, für beide Linien einen solchen Fahrplan zu finden, der für die Fahrgäste möglichst viel Bequemlichkeit bietet. Die Bedarfsstruktur - die Anzahl von Personen, die die beiden Linien benutzen - setzt dabei gewisse Beschränkungen für die Taktzeiten der beiden Linien. Die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten sollen im Sinne der Zielstellung ausgenutzt werden. Im Vortrag wird folgenden Fragen nachgegangen: - nach welchen Kriterien kann man die "Bequemlichkeit" oder die "Synchonisationsgüte" messen? - wie kann man die einzelnen "Synchronisationsmaße" berechnen ? - wie kann man die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten nutzen, um eine möglichst gute Synchronisation zu erreichen ? Die Ergebnisse werden dann auf einige Beispiele angewandt und mit den bereitgestellten Methoden Lösungsvorschläge unterbreitet.

In civil engineering it is very difficult and often expensive to excite constructions such as bridges and buildings with an impulse hammer or shaker. This problem can be avoided with the output-only method as special feature of stochastic system identification. The permanently existing ambient noise (e.g. wind, traffic, waves) is sufficient to excite the structures in their operational conditions. The output-only method is able to estimate the observable part of a state-space-model which contains the dynamic characteristics of the measured mechanical system. Because of the assumption that the ambient excitation is white there is no requirement to measure the input. Another advantage of the output-only method is the possibility to get high detailed models by a special method, called polyreference setup. To pretend the availability of a much larger set of sensors the data from varying sensor locations will be collected. Several successive data sets are recorded with sensors at different locations (moving sensors) and fixed locations (reference sensors). The covariance functions of the reference sensors are bases to normalize the moving sensors. The result of the following subspace-based system identification is a high detailed black-box-model that contains the weighting function including the well-known dynamic parameters eigenfrequencies and mode shapes of the mechanical system. Emphasis of this lecture is the presentation of an extensive damage detection experiment. A 53-year old prestressed concrete tied-arch-bridge in Hünxe (Germany) was deconstructed in 2005. Preliminary numerous vibration measurements were accomplished. The first experiment for system modification was an additional support near the bridge bearing of one main girder. During a further experiment one hanger from one tied arch was cut through as an induced damage. Some first outcomes of the described experiments will be presented.

Due to the amount of flow simulation and measurement data, automatic detection, classification and visualization of features is necessary for an inspection. Therefore, many automated feature detection methods have been developed in recent years. However, only one feature class is visualized afterwards in most cases, and many algorithms have problems in the presence of noise or superposition effects. In contrast, image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and other filter can be analyzed in detail. An application of these methods to vector fields would provide a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. The authors suggest Clifford algebra as a mathematical framework for this task. Clifford algebra provides a unified notation for scalars and vectors as well as a multiplication of all basis elements. The Clifford product of two vectors provides the complete geometric information of the relative positions of these vectors. Integration of this product results in Clifford correlation and convolution which can be used for template matching of vector fields. For frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters, a Clifford Fourier transform has been derived for 2D and 3D. Convolution and other theorems have been proved, and fast algorithms for the computation of the Clifford Fourier transform exist. Therefore the computation of Clifford convolution can be accelerated by computing it in Clifford Fourier domain. Clifford convolution and Fourier transform can be used for a thorough analysis and subsequent visualization of flow fields.

In this paper an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale model, which couples two substructures with different length scales into one numerical model is introduced for the simulation of damage in concrete. In the presented approach the initiation, propagation and coalescence of microcracks is simulated using a mesoscale model, which explicitly represents the heterogeneous material structure of concrete. The mesoscale model is restricted to the damaged parts of the structure, whereas the undamaged regions are simulated on the macroscale. As a result an adaptive enlargement of the mesoscale model during the simulation is necessary. In the first part of the paper the generation of the heterogeneous mesoscopic structure of concrete, the finite element discretization of the mesoscale model, the applied isotropic damage model and the cohesive zone model are briefly introduced. Furthermore the mesoscale simulation of a uniaxial tension test of a concrete prism is presented and own obtained numerical results are compared to experimental results. The second part is focused on the adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach. Indicators for the model adaptation and for the coupling between the different numerical models will be introduced. The transfer from the macroscale to the mesoscale and the adaptive enlargement of the mesoscale substructure will be presented in detail. A nonlinear simulation of a realistic structure using an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale model is presented at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the proposed approach to large-scale structures.

Solid behavior as well as liquid behavior characterizes the flow of granular material in silos. The presented model is based on an appropriate interaction of a displacement field and a velocity field. The constitutive equations and the applied algorithm are developed from the exact solution for a standard case. The standard case evolves from a very tall vertical plane strain silo containing material that flows at a constant speed. No horizontal displacements and velocities take place. No changes regarding the field values arise in the vertical direction and in time. Tension is not allowed at any point. Coulomb friction represents the effects of the vertical walls. The interaction between the flowing material and the walls is covered by a forced boundary condition resulting in an additional matrix for the solid component as well as for the liquid component. The resulting integral equations are designed to be solved directly. Three coefficients describe the properties of the granular material. They govern elastic solid behavior in combination with viscous liquid behavior.

We propose a new approach to the numerical solution of quasi-static elastic-plastic problems based on the Moreau-Yosida theorem. After the time discretization, the problem is expressed as an energy minimization problem for unknown displacement and plastic strain fields. The dependency of the minimization functional on the displacement is smooth whereas the dependency on the plastic strain is non-smooth. Besides, there exists an explicit formula, how to calculate the plastic strain from a given displacement field. This allows us to reformulate the original problem as a minimization problem in the displacement only. Using the Moreau-Yosida theorem from the convex analysis, the minimization functional in the displacements turns out to be Frechet-differentiable, although the hidden dependency on the plastic strain is non-differentiable. The seconds derivative exists everywhere apart from the elastic-plastic interface dividing elastic and plastic zones of the continuum. This motivates to implement a Newton-like method, which converges super-linearly as can be observed in our numerical experiments.

RESEARCH OF DEFORMATION OF MULTILAYERED PLATES ON UNDEFORMABLE BASIS BY UNFLEXURAL SPECIFIED MODEL
(2006)

Stress-strain state (SSS) of multilayered plates on undeformable foundation is investigated. The settlement circuit of transverse loaded plate is formed by symmetrical attaching of a plate concerning a surface of contact to the foundation. The plate of the double thickness becomes bilateral symmetrically loaded concerning its median surface. It allows to model only unflexural deformation that reduces amount of unknown and the general order of differentiation of resolving system of the equations. The developed refined continual model takes into account deformations of transverse shear and transverse compression in high iterative approximation. Rigid contact between the foundation and a plate, and also shear without friction on a surface of contact of a plate with the foundation is considered. Calculations confirm efficiency of such approach, allowing to receive decisions which is qualitative and quantitatively close to three-dimensional solutions.

A fast solver method called the multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method is proposed for the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials on the mesoscale. Even small samples of a heterogeneous material such as concrete show a complex geometry of different phases. These materials can be modelled by projection onto a uniform, orthogonal grid of elements. As one major problem the possible resolution of the concrete specimen is generally restricted due to (a) computation times and even more critical (b) memory demand. Iterative solvers can be based on a local element-based formulation while orthogonal grids consist of geometrical identical elements. The element-based formulation is short and transparent, and therefore efficient in implementation. A variation of the material properties in elements or integration points is possible. The multigrid method is a fast iterative solver method, where ideally the computational effort only increases linear with problem size. This is an optimal property which is almost reached in the implementation presented here. In fact no other method is known which scales better than linear. Therefore the multigrid method gains in importance the larger the problem becomes. But for heterogeneous models with very large ratios of Young's moduli the multigrid method considerably slows down by a constant factor. Such large ratios occur in certain heterogeneous solids, as well as in the damage analysis of solids. As solution to this problem the multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method is proposed. A benchmark highlights the multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method as the method of choice for very large ratio's of Young's modulus. A proposed modified multigrid cycle shows good results, in the application as stand-alone solver or as preconditioner.

The present paper is part of a comprehensive approach of grid-based modelling. This approach includes geometrical modelling by pixel or voxel models, advanced multiphase B-spline finite elements of variable order and fast iterative solver methods based on the multigrid method. So far, we have only presented these grid-based methods in connection with linear elastic analysis of heterogeneous materials. Damage simulation demands further considerations. The direct stress solution of standard bilinear finite elements is severly defective, especially along material interfaces. Besides achieving objective constitutive modelling, various nonlocal formulations are applied to improve the stress solution. Such a corrective data processing can either refer to input data in terms of Young's modulus or to the attained finite element stress solution, as well as to a combination of both. A damage-controlled sequentially linear analysis is applied in connection with an isotropic damage law. Essentially by a high resolution of the heterogeneous solid, local isotropic damage on the material subscale allows to simulate complex damage topologies such as cracks. Therefore anisotropic degradation of a material sample can be simulated. Based on an effectively secantial global stiffness the analysis is numerically stable. The iteration step size is controlled for an adequate simulation of the damage path. This requires many steps, but in the iterative solution process each new step starts with the solution of the prior step. Therefore this method is quite effective. The present paper provides an introduction of the proposed concept for a stable simulation of damage in heterogeneous solids.

Advanced finite elements are proposed for the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials. The approximation quality of these finite elements can be controlled by a variable order of B-spline shape functions. An element-based formulation is developed such that the finite element problem can iteratively be solved without storing a global stiffness matrix. This memory saving allows for an essential increase of problem size. The heterogeneous material is modelled by projection onto a uniform, orthogonal grid of elements. Conventional, strictly grid-based finite element models show severe oscillating defects in the stress solutions at material interfaces. This problem is cured by the extension to multiphase finite elements. This concept enables to define a heterogeneous material distribution within the finite element. This is possible by a variable number of integration points to each of which individual material properties can be assigned. Based on an interpolation of material properties at nodes and further smooth interpolation within the finite elements, a continuous material function is established. With both, continuous B-spline shape function and continuous material function, also the stress solution will be continuous in the domain. The inaccuracy implied by the continuous material field is by far less defective than the prior oscillating behaviour of stresses. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are presented.

Adopting the European laws concerning environmental protection will require sustained efforts of the authorities and communities from Romania; implementing modern solutions will become a fast and effective option for the improvement of the functioning systems, in order to prevent disasters. As a part of the urban infrastructure, the drainage networks of pluvial and residual waters are included in the plan of promoting the systems which protect the environmental quality, with the purpose of integrated and adaptive management. The paper presents a distributed control system for sewer network of Iasi town. Unsatisfactory technical state of the actual sewer system is exposed, focusing on objectives related to implementation of the control system. The proposed distributed control system of Iasi drainage network is based on the implementation of the hierarchic control theory for diagnose, sewer planning and management. There are proposed two control levels: coordinating and local execution. Configuration of the distributed control system, including data acquisition and conversion equipment, interface characteristics, local data bus, data communication network, station configuration are widely described. The project wish to be an useful instrument for the local authorities in the preventing and reducing the impact of future natural disasters over the urban areas by means of modern technologies.

Für eine beherrschbare Koordination und Durchführung von Planungsaufgaben in Bauprojekten wird der Planungsprozess zunehmend in formalisierten Modellen – Prozessmodellen – beschrieben. Die Produktmodellforschung ihrerseits widmet sich der Speicherung von Planungsdaten in Form von objektorientierten Modellen im Rechner. Hauptaugenmerk sind dabei die Wahrung der Konsistenz und die Modellierung von Abhängigkeiten innerhalb dieses Planungsmaterials. Der Bezug zu den Akteuren der Planung wird nicht direkt hergestellt. Ein formal beschriebener Planungsprozesses kann in der Praxis noch nicht derart realisiert werden, dass ein Zugriff auf Einzelobjekte des Planungsprozesses gewährleistet ist. Bestehende Planungsunterstützungs- und Workflowmanagement-Systeme abstrahieren und ordnen das Planungsmaterial nach wie vor auf Dateiebene. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt eine Methode für die geeignete Verbindung von formalisierten Prozessmodellen in der Bauplanung mit den Einzelobjekten, die in den modellorientierten Objektmengen kodiert sind. Dabei wird die Zugehörigkeit bestimmter Objekte zu Plänen und Dokumenten (zum Zwecke des Datenaustauschs) nicht länger durch die physische Zuordnung zu Dateien festgelegt. Es wird ein formales Beschreibungsmittel vorgestellt, welches die entsprechende Teilmengenbildung aus der Gesamtheit der Planungsobjekte ermöglicht. Für die bisherigen Formen des Datenaustausches werden aus den Objektmodellen der Planung Teilmengen herausgelöst und physikalisch zwischen den Planern transportiert. Das neue Beschreibungsmittel hingegen erlaubt es, die Bildungsvorschrift für Objektteilmengen statt der Mengen selbst zwischen den Planern auszutauschen. Der Zugriff auf die konkreten Objekte findet dann direkt modellbasiert statt.

The concrete is modeled as a material with damage and plasticity, whereat the viscoplastic and the viscoelastic behaviour depends on the rate of the total strains. Due to the damage behaviour the compliance tensor develops different properties in tension and compression. There have been tested various yield surfaces and flow rules, damage rules respectively to their usability in a concrete model. One three-dimensional yield surface was developed from a failure surface based on the Willam--Warnke five-parameter model by the author. Only one general uni-axial stress-strain-relation is used for the numeric control of the yield surface. From that curve all necessary parameters for different strengths of concrete and different strain rates can be derived by affine transformations. For the flow rule in the compression zone a non associated inelastic potential is used, in the tension zone a Rankine potential. Conditional on the time-dependent formulation, the symmetry of the system equations is maintained in spite of the usage of non-associated potentials for the derivation of the inelastic strains. In case of quasi statical computations a simple viscoplastic law is used that is rested on an approach to Perzyna. The principle of equality of dissipation power in the uni-axial and the three-axial state of stress is used. It is modified by a factor that depends on the actual stress ratio and in comparison with the Kupfer experiments it implicates strains that are more realistic. The implementation of the concrete model is conducted in a mixed hybrid finite element. Examples in the structural level are introduced for verification of the concrete model.

In the final decades many scientists were occupied intensively with the change of materials during a process and their mathematical descriptions. The extensive and extensive analyses were supported by the advanced computer science. A mathematical description of the phase transformation is a condition for a realistic FE simulation of the state of microstructure. It is possible to simulate the temperature and stress field also in complex construction based on the state of microstructure. In the last years a great number of mathematical models were expanded to describe the transformation between different phases. For the development of the models for transformation kinetics it is practical to subdivide into isothermal and non-isothermal processes according to the thermal conditions. Some models for the description of the transformation with non-isothermal processes represent extensions for isothermal of processes. A part of parameters for the describing equations can be derived from the time-temperature-transformation diagrams in the literature. Furthermore the two possibilities of transformation are considered by different models - diffusion controlled and not diffusion controlled. The material-specific characteristics can be simulated during the transformation for each individual phase in a realistic FE analyses. Also new materials can be simulated after a modification of the parameters in the describing equations for the phase transformation. The effects in the temperature and stress field are a substantial reason for the investigation of the phase transformation during the welding and TIG-dressing processes.

Die Liquiditätsplanung von Bauunternehmen XE "Liquiditätsplanung" gilt als ein wesentliches Steuerungs-, Kontroll- sowie Informationsinstrument für interne und externe Adressaten und übt eine Entscheidungsunterstützungsfunktion aus. Da die einzelnen Bauprojekte einen wesentlichen Anteil an den Gesamtkosten des Unternehmens ausmachen, besitzen diese auch einen erheblichen Einfluß auf die Liquidität und die Zahlungsfähigkeit der Bauunternehmung. Dem folgend ist es in der Baupraxis eine übliche Verfahrensweise, die Liquiditätsplanung zuerst projektbezogen zu erstellen und anschließend auf Unternehmensebene zu verdichten. Ziel der Ausführungen ist es, die Zusammenhänge von Arbeitskalkulation XE "Arbeitskalkulation" , Ergebnisrechnung XE "Ergebnisrechnung" und Finanzrechnung XE "Finanzrechnung" in Form eines deterministischen XE "Erklärungsmodells" Planungsmodells auf Projektebene darzustellen. Hierbei soll das Verständnis und die Bedeutung der Verknüpfungen zwischen dem technisch-orientierten Bauablauf und dessen Darstellung im Rechnungs- und Finanzwesen herausgestellt werden. Die Vorgänge aus der Bauabwicklung, das heißt die Abarbeitung der Bauleistungsverzeichnispositionen und deren zeitliche Darstellung in einem Bauzeitenplan sind periodisiert in Größen der Betriebsbuchhaltung (Leistung, Kosten) zu transformieren und anschließend in der Finanzrechnung (Einzahlungen., Auszahlungen) nach Kreditoren und Debitoren aufzuschlüsseln.

We consider efficient numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations with stochastic coefficients or right hand side. The discretization is performed by the stochastic finite element method (SFEM). Separation of spatial and stochastic variables in the random input data is achieved via a Karhunen-Loève expansion or Wiener's polynomial chaos expansion. We discuss solution strategies for the Galerkin system that take advantage of the special structure of the system matrix. For stochastic coefficients linear in a set of independent random variables we employ Krylov subspace recycling techniques after having decoupled the large SFEM stiffness matrix.

HYPERMONOGENIC POLYNOMIALS
(2006)

It is well know that the power function is not monogenic. There are basically two ways to include the power function into the set of solutions: The hypermonogenic functions or holomorphic Cliffordian functions. L. Pernas has found out the dimension of the space of homogenous holomorphic Cliffordian polynomials of degree m, but his approach did not include a basis. It is known that the hypermonogenic functions are included in the space of holomorphic Cliffordian functions. As our main result we show that we can construct a basis for the right module of homogeneous holomorphic Cliffordian polynomials of degree m using hypermonogenic polynomials and their derivatives. To that end we first recall the function spaces of monogenic, hypermonogenic and holomorphic Cliffordian functions and give the results needed in the proof of our main theorem. We list some basic polynomials and their properties for the various function spaces. In particular, we consider recursive formulas, rules of differentiation and properties of linear independency for the polynomials.

Traffic simulation is a valuable tool for the design and evaluation of road networks. Over the years, the level of detail to which urban and freeway traffic can be simulated has increased steadily, shifting from a merely qualitative macroscopic perspective to a very detailed microscopic view, where the behavior of individual vehicles is emulated realistically. With the improvement of behavioral models, however, the computational complexity has also steadily increased, as more and more aspects of real-life traffic have to be considered by the simulation environment. Despite the constant increase in computing power of modern personal computers, microscopic simulation stays computationally expensive, limiting the maximum network size than can be simulated on a single-processor computer in reasonable time. Parallelization can distribute the computing load from a single computer system to a cluster of several computing nodes. To this end, the exisiting simulation framework had to be adapted to allow for a distributed approach. As the simulation is ultimately targeted to be executed in real-time, incorporating real traffic data, only a spatial partition of the simulation was considered, meaning the road network has to be partitioned into subnets of comparable complexity, to ensure a homogenous load balancing. The partition process must also ensure, that the division between subnets does only occur in regions, where no strong interaction between the separated road segments occurs (i.e. not in the direct vicinity of junctions). In this paper, we describe a new microscopic reasoning voting strategy, and discuss in how far the increasing computational costs of these more complex behaviors lend themselves to a parallelized approach. We show the parallel architecture employed, the communication between computing units using MPIJava, and the benefits and pitfalls of adapting a single computer application to be used on a multi-node computing cluster.

The use of process models in the analysis, optimization and simulation of processes has proven to be extremely beneficial in the instances where they could be applied appropriately. However, the Architecture/Engineering/Construction (AEC) industries present unique challenges that complicate the modeling of their processes. A simple Engineering process model, based on the specification of Tasks, Datasets, Persons and Tools, and certain relations between them, have been developed, and its advantages over conventional techniques have been illustrated. Graph theory is used as the mathematical foundation mapping Tasks, Datasets, Persons and Tools to vertices and the relations between them to edges forming a directed graph. The acceptance of process modeling in AEC industries not only depends on the results it can provide, but the ease at which these results can be attained. Specifying a complex AEC process model is a dynamic exercise that is characterized by many modifications over the process model's lifespan. This article looks at reducing specification complexity, reducing the probability for erroneous input and allowing consistent model modification. Furthermore, the problem of resource leveling is discussed. Engineering projects are often executed with limited resources and determining the impact of such restrictions on the sequence of Tasks is important. Resource Leveling concerns itself with these restrictions caused by limited resources. This article looks at using Task shifting strategies to find a near-optimal sequence of Tasks that guarantees consistent Dataset evolution while resolving resource restrictions.

At the 16th IKM Bock, Falcão and Gürlebeck presented examples of the application of some specially developed Maple-Software in hypercomplex analysis. Other papers of those authors continued this work and showed the efficiency of such tools for concrete numerical calculations as well as for numerical experiments, supporting the detection of new relationships and even theorems in a highly technical theoretical work. The mentioned software has been developed mainly for the use on mapping problems in the Euclidean spaces of dimension 3 and 4 by means of Bergman kernel methods (BKM), which are related to monogenic functions as solutions of generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations with respect to the Euclidean metric (Riesz system). The developed procedures concerning generalized powers of totally regular variables and the corresponding homogeneous polynomials basically rely on results and conventions introduced in the paper "Power series representation for monogenic functions in Rm+1 based on a permutational product", Complex Variables, 15, No.3, 181-191 (1990) by H. Malonek. Since 1992 H. Leutwiler, S. L. Eriksson and others developed in a number of papers a modified Clifford analysis and, particularly, a modified quaternionic analysis. The modification mainly consists in considering generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations with respect to a hyperbolic metric in a half space. The aim of this contribution is to show how through a change of the basic combinatorial relations used in the modified quaternionic analysis the aforementioned Maple-software (that has been recently published on CD-Rom as integrated part of the text book "Funktionentheorie in der Ebene und im Raum" by K. Gürlebeck, K. Habetha, and W. Sprössig, in the series "Grundstudium Mathematik" of Birkhäuser Verlag, 2006) can directly be used for numerical calculations in the modified theory.

We establish the basis of a discrete function theory starting with a Fischer decomposition for difference Dirac operators. Discrete versions of homogeneous polynomials, Euler and Gamma operators are obtained. As a consequence we obtain a Fischer decomposition for the discrete Laplacian. For the sake of simplicity we consider in the first part only Dirac operators which contain only forward or backward finite differences. Of course, these Dirac operators do not factorize the classic discrete Laplacian. Therefore, we will consider a different definition of a difference Dirac operator in the quaternionic case which do factorizes the discrete Laplacian.

LIFETIME-ORIENTED OPTIMIZATION OF BRIDGE TIE RODS EXPOSED TO VORTEX-INDUCED ACROSS-WIND VIBRATIONS
(2006)

In recent years, damages in welded connections plates of vertical tie rods of several arched steel bridges have been reported. These damages are due to fatigue caused by wind-induced vibrations. In the present study, such phenomena are examined, and the corresponding lifetime of a reference bridge in Münster-Hiltrup, Germany, is estimated, based on the actual shape of the connection plate. Also, the results obtained are compared to the expected lifetime of a connection plate, whose geometry has been optimized separately. The structural optimization, focussing on the shape of the cut at the hanger ends, has been carried out using evolution strategies. The oscillation amplitudes have been computed by means of the Newmark-Wilson time-step method, using an appropriate load model, which has been validated by on-site experiments on the selected reference bridge. Corresponding stress-amplitudes are evaluated by multiplying the oscillation amplitudes with a stress concentration factor. This factor has been computed on the basis of a finite element model of the system "hanger-welding-connection plate", applying solid elements, according to the notch stress approach. The damage estimation takes into account the stochastics of the exciting wind process, as well as the stochastics of the material parameters (fatigue strength) given in terms of Woehler-curves. The shape optimization results in a substantial increase of the estimated hanger lifetime. The comparison of the lifetimes of the bulk plate and of the welding revealed that, in the optimized structure, the welding, being the most sensitive part in the original structure, shows much more resistance against potential damages than the bulk material.

The mathematical and technical foundations of optimization have been developed to a large extent. In the design of buildings, however, optimization is rarely applied because of insufficient adaptation of this method to the needs of building design. The use of design optimization requires the consideration of all relevant objectives in an interactive and multidisciplinary process. Disciplines such as structural, light, and thermal engineering, architecture, and economics impose various objectives on the design. A good solution calls for a compromise between these often contradictory objectives. This presentation outlines a method for the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) as a tool for the designing of buildings. An optimization model is established considering the fact that in building design the non-numerical aspects are of major importance than in other engineering disciplines. A component-based decomposition enables the designer to manage the non-numerical aspects in an interactive design optimization process. A façade example demonstrates a way how the different disciplines interact and how the components integrate the disciplines in one optimization model. In this grid-based façade example, the materials switch between a discrete number of materials and construction types. For light and thermal engineering, architecture, and economics, analysis functions calculate the performance; utility functions serve as an important means for the evaluation since not every increase or decrease of a physical value improves the design. For experimental purposes, a genetic algorithm applied to the exemplary model demonstrates the use of optimization in this design case. A component-based representation first serves to manage non-numerical characteristics such as aesthetics. Furthermore, it complies with usual fabrication methods in building design and with object-oriented data handling in CAD. Therefore, components provide an important basis for an interactive MDO process in building design.

Ausgehend von den fundierten Erfahrungen, die für das Schweißen von verschiedensten Metallen vorliegen, wird an der Professur Stahlbau der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar ein neuartiges Verfahren zum CO2-Laserstrahlschweißen von Quarzglas numerisch untersucht. Dabei kommt die kommerzielle FE-Software SYSWELD® zum Einsatz. Die erforderlichen Versuche werden in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut für Fügetechnik und Werkstoffprüfung GmbH aus Jena realisiert. Die numerische Analyse wird eingesetzt, um geeignete Prozessparameter zu bestimmen und deren Auswirkungen auf die transienten thermischen und mechanischen Vorgänge, die während des Schweißvorgangs ablaufen abzubilden. Um die aus der Simulation erhaltenen Aussagen zu überprüfen, ist es erforderlich, das Berechnungsmodell mittels Daten aus Versuchsschweißungen zu kalibrieren. Dabei sind die verwendeten Materialmodelle sowie die der Simulation zugrunde gelegten Materialkennwerte zu validieren. Es stehen verschiedene rheologische Berechnungsmodelle zur Auswahl, die die viskosen Materialeigenschaften des Glases abbilden. Dabei werden die drei mechanischen Grundelemente, die HOOKEsche Feder, der NEWTONsche Dämpfungszylinder und das ST.-VENANT-Element miteinander kombiniert. Die Möglichkeit, thermische und mechanische Vorgänge innerhalb des Glases während des Schweißvorgangs und nach vollständiger Abkühlung, vorhersagen zu können, gestattet es den Schweißvorgang über eine Optimierung der Verfahrensparameter gezielt dahingehend zu beeinflussen, die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Schweißverfahrens zu verbessern, und ein zuverlässiges Schweißergebnis zu erhalten. Dabei können auch nur unter hohem experimentellen Aufwand durchführbare Versuche simuliert werden, um eine Vorhersage zu treffen, ob es zweckmäßig ist, den Versuch auch in der Praxis zu fahren. Dies führt zu einer Reduzierung des experimentellen Aufwandes und damit zu einer Verkürzung des Entwicklungszeitraumes für das angestrebte Verfahren.

A new application of software technology is the application area of smart living or sustainable living. Within this area application platforms are designed and realized with the goal to support value added services. In this context value added services integrates microelectronics, home automation and services to enhance the attractiveness of flats, homes and buildings. Especially real estate companies or service providers dealing with home services are interested in an effective design and management of their services. Service Engineering is the approved approach for designing customer oriented service processes. Service engineering consists of several phases; from situation analysis to service creation and service design to service management. This article will describe how the method service blueprint can be used to design service processes. Smart living includes all actions to enlarge a flat to a smart home for living. One special requirement of this application domain is the use of local components (actuators, sensors) within service processes. This article will show how this extended method supports service providers to improve the quality of customer oriented service processes and the derivation of needed interfaces of involved actors. For the civil engineering process it will be possible to derive needed information from a built in home automation system. The aim is to show, how to get needed smart local components to fullfill later offered it-supported value added services. Value added services focused on inhabitants are grouped to consulting and information, care and supervision, leisure time activities, repairs, mobility and delivery, safety and security, supply and disposal.

Requires for reliability and durability of structures and their elements with simultaneous material economy have stimulated improvement of constitutive equations for description of elasto-plastic deformation processes. This has led to the development of phenomenological modelling of complex phenomena of irreversible deformation including history-dependent and rate-dependent effects. During the last several decades many works have been devoted to the development of elasto-plastic models, in order to better predict the material behavior under combined variable thermo-mechanical loading. The increase of accuracy of stress analysis and safety factors for complex structures with the help of modern finite-element packages (ABAQUS, ANSYS, COSMOS, LS-DYNA, MSC.MARC, MSC.NASTRAN, PERMAS and other) can be provided only by use of complex and special variants of plasticity theories, which are adequate for the considered loading conditions and based on authentic information about properties of materials. The areas of application of the various theories (models) are as a rule unknown to the users of finite-element packages at the existing variety loading condition sin machine-building designs. At the moment a universal theory of inelasticity is absent and even the most accomplished theories can not guarantee adequate description of deformation processes for arbitrary structure under wide range of loading programs. The classifier of materials, loading conditions, effects (phenomena) and list of basic experiments are developed by the authors. Use of these classifiers for an establishment of hierarchy of models is a first step for introduction of the multimodel analysis into computational practice. The set of the classic and modern inelasticity theories is considered, so that they are applicable for stress analysis of structures under complex loading programs. Among them there are plastic flow theories with linear and nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardening, multisurface theories, endochronic theory, holonomic theory, rheologic models, theory of elasto-plastic processes, slip theory, physical theories (single crystal and polycrystalline models) and others. The classification of materials provides rearranging by a degree of homogeneous, chemical composition, level of strength and plasticity, behavior under cyclic loading, anisotropy of properties at initial condition, anisotropy of properties during deformation process, structural stability. The classification of loading conditions takes into consideration proportional and non-proportional loading, temperature range, combination of cyclic and monotonous loading, one-axial, two-axial and complex stress state, curvature of strain path, presence of stress concentrators and level of strain gradient. A unified general form of constitutive equations is presented for all used material models based upon the concept of internal state variables. The wide range of mentioned above inelastic material models has been implemented into finite element program PANTOCRATOR developed by authors (see for details www.pantocrator.narod.ru). Application possibility of different material models is considered both for material element and for complex structures subjected to complex non-proportional loading.

In engineering science the modeling and numerical analysis of complex systems and relations plays an important role. In order to realize such an investigation, for example a stochastic analysis, in a reasonable computational time, approximation procedure have been developed. A very famous approach is the response surface method, where the relation between input and output quantities is represented for example by global polynomials or local interpolation schemes as Moving Least Squares (MLS). In recent years artificial neural networks (ANN) have been applied as well for such purposes. Recently an adaptive response surface approach for reliability analyses was proposed, which is very efficient concerning the number of expensive limit state function evaluations. Due to the applied simplex interpolation the procedure is limited to small dimensions. In this paper this approach is extended for larger dimensions using combined ANN and MLS response surfaces for evaluating the adaptation criterion with only one set of joined limit state points. As adaptation criterion a combination by using the maximum difference in the conditional probabilities of failure and the maximum difference in the approximated radii is applied. Compared to response surfaces on directional samples or to plain directional sampling the failure probability can be estimated with a much smaller number of limit state points.

The modeling of crack propagation in plain and reinforced concrete structures is still a field for many researchers. If a macroscopic description of the cohesive cracking process of concrete is applied, generally the Fictitious Crack Model is utilized, where a force transmission over micro cracks is assumed. In the most applications of this concept the cohesive model represents the relation between the normal crack opening and the normal stress, which is mostly defined as an exponential softening function, independently from the shear stresses in tangential direction. The cohesive forces are then calculated only from the normal stresses. By Carol et al. 1997 an improved model was developed using a coupled relation between the normal and shear damage based on an elasto-plastic constitutive formulation. This model is based on a hyperbolic yield surface depending on the normal and the shear stresses and on the tensile and shear strength. This model also represents the effect of shear traction induced crack opening. Due to the elasto-plastic formulation, where the inelastic crack opening is represented by plastic strains, this model is limited for applications with monotonic loading. In order to enable the application for cases with un- and reloading the existing model is extended in this study using a combined plastic-damage formulation, which enables the modeling of crack opening and crack closure. Furthermore the corresponding algorithmic implementation using a return mapping approach is presented and the model is verified by means of several numerical examples. Finally an investigation concerning the identification of the model parameters by means of neural networks is presented. In this analysis an inverse approximation of the model parameters is performed by using a given set of points of the load displacement curves as input values and the model parameters as output terms. It will be shown, that the elasto-plastic model parameters could be identified well with this approach, but require a huge number of simulations.

The Element-free Galerkin Method has become a very popular tool for the simulation of mechanical problems with moving boundaries. The internally applied Moving Least Squares approximation uses in general Gaussian or cubic weighting functions and has compact support. Due to the approximative character of this method the obtained shape functions do not fulfill the interpolation condition, which causes additional numerical effort for the imposition of the essential boundary conditions. The application of a singular weighting function, which leads to singular coefficient matrices at the nodes, can solve this problem, but requires a very careful placement of the integration points. Special procedures for the handling of such singular matrices were proposed in literature, which require additional numerical effort. In this paper a non-singular weighting function is presented, which leads to an exact fulfillment of the interpolation condition. This weighting function leads to regular values of the weights and the coefficient matrices in the whole interpolation domain even at the nodes. Furthermore this function gives much more stable results for varying size of the influence radius and for strongly distorted nodal arrangements than classical weighting function types. Nevertheless, for practical applications the results are similar as these obtained with the regularized weighting type presented by the authors in previous publications. Finally a new concept will be presented, which enables an efficient analysis of systems with strongly varying node density. In this concept the nodal influence domains are adapted depending on the nodal configuration by interpolating the influence radius for each direction from the distances to the natural neighbor nodes. This approach requires a Voronoi diagram of the domain, which is available in this study since Delaunay triangles are used as integration background cells. In the numerical examples it will be shown, that this method leads to a more uniform and reduced number of influencing nodes for systems with varying node density than the classical circular influence domains, which means that the small additional numerical effort for interpolating the influence radius leads to remarkable reduction of the total numerical cost in a linear analysis while obtaining similar results. For nonlinear calculations this advantage would be even more significant.

This paper deals with the development of a new multi-objective evolution strategy in combination with an integrated pollution-load and water-quality model. The optimization algorithm combines the advantages of the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm and Self-Adaptive Evolution Strategies. The identification of a good spread of solutions on the pareto-optimum front and the optimization of a large number of decision variables equally demands numerous simulation runs. In addition, statements with regard to the frequency of critical concentrations and peak discharges require continuous long-term simulations. Therefore, a fast operating integrated simulation model is needed providing the required precision of the results. For this purpose, a hydrological deterministic pollution-load model has been coupled with a river water-quality and a rainfall-runoff model. Wastewater treatment plants are simulated in a simplified way. The functionality of the optimization and simulation tool has been validated by analyzing a real catchment area including sewer system, WWTP, water body and natural river basin. For the optimization/rehabilitation of the urban drainage system, both innovative and approved measures have been examined and used as decision variables. As objective functions, investment costs and river water quality criteria have been used.

The paper is a proposal of calculation of internal forces and dislocations in the reinforced concrete beams before and after cracking. For the ideally elastic bars transfer matrix proposed by Rakowski was applied. The effects associated with cracking were introduced by means of the Borcz's theory in the spectrally way. Numerical example was shown. The presented attitude also enables to calculate dynamic problems and those connected with the stability of the compressed and bending cracked beams and columns.

Water resources development and management is a complex problem. It includes the design and operation of single system components, often as part of larger interrelated systems and usually on the basis of river basins. While several decades ago the dominant objective was the maximization of economic benefit, other objectives have evolved as part of the sustainable development envisaged. Today, planning and operation of larger water resources systems is practically impossible without adequate computer tools, normally being one or several models, increasingly combined with data bank management systems and multi criteria assessment procedures in decision support systems. The use of models in civil engineering already has a long history when structural engineering is considered. These design support models, however, must rather be seen as expert systems made to support the engineer with his daily work. They often have no direct link to stakeholders and the decision makers community. The scale of investigation is often much larger in water resources engineering than in structural engineering which is related to different stakeholders and decision making procedures. Still, several similarities are obvious which can be summarized as the search for a compromise solution on a complex, i.e. multiobjective and interdisciplinary decision problem. While in structural engineering e.g. aestetics, stability and energy consumption might be important evaluation criteria in addition to construction and maintenance cost other or additional criteria have to be considered in water resources planning such as political, environmental and social criteria. In this respect civil engineers tend to overemphasize technical criteria. For the future the existing expert systems should be embedded into an improved decision support shell, keeping in mind that decision makers are hardly interested in numerical modelling results. The paper will introduce into the problem and demonstrate the state of the art by means of an example.

The paper is dedicated to decidability exploration of market segmentation problem with the help of linear convolution algorithms. Mathematical formulation of this problem represents interval task of bipartite graph cover by stars. Vertices of the first partition correspond to types of commodities, vertices of the second – to customers groups. Appropriate method is offered for interval problem reduction to two-criterion task that has one implemented linear convolution algorithm. Unsolvability with the help of linear convolution algorithm of multicriterion, and consequently interval, market segmentation problem is proved.

Für die Ausführung des Oberbaus von Verkehrsflächen existiert in Abhängigkeit von projektspezifischen Voraussetzungen eine Vielzahl von verschiedenen Varianten. Aufgrund von Erfahrungen der Projektplaner werden bei ähnlichen Voraussetzungen häufig gleichartige Ausführungsvarianten gewählt. Um eine mögliche Lösungsvariante für den Straßenoberbau zu erhalten, sollten daher nicht nur die gesetzlichen Richtlinien sondern auch bereits beendete Projekte berücksichtigt werden. Im Rahmen eines Wissenschaftlichen Kollegs an der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar wurde die Anwendung des Case-Based Reasoning für die Auswahl von Ausführungsvarianten für den Straßenoberbau untersucht. In diesem Beitrag werden die grundlegenden Konzepte des Case-Based Reasoning und die Bestimmung von ähnlichen Varianten anhand einfacher Beispiele aus dem Straßenoberbau dargestellt.

Prozesse im Bauingenieurwesen sind komplex und beinhalten eine große Anzahl verschiedener Aufgaben mit vielen logischen Abhängigkeiten. Basierend auf diesen projektspezifischen Abhängigkeiten wird gewöhnlich ein Bauablaufplan manuell erstellt. In der Regel existieren mehrere Varianten und somit alternative Bauabläufe um ein Projekt zu realisieren. Welche dieser Ausführungsvarianten zur praktischen Anwendung kommt, wird durch den jeweiligen Projektmanager bestimmt. Falls Ä;nderungen oder Störungen während des Bauablaufs auftreten, müssen die davon betroffenen Aufgaben und Abläufe per Hand modifiziert und alternative Aufgaben sowie Abläufe stattdessen ausgeführt werden. Diese Vorgehensweise ist oft sehr aufwändig und teuer. Aktuelle Forschungsansätze beschäftigen sich mit der automatischen Generierung von Bauabläufen. Grundlage sind dabei Aufgaben mit ihren erforderlichen Voraussetzungen und erzeugten Ergebnissen. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags wird eine Methodik vorgestellt, um Bauabläufe mit Ausführungsvarianten in Form von Workflow-Netzen zu jeder Zeit berechnen zu können. Die vorgestellte Methode wird anhand eines Beispiels aus dem Straßenbau schematisch dargestellt.

Procedures of a construction of general solutions for some classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) are proposed and a symmetry operators approach to the raising the orders of the polynomial solutions to linear PDEs are develops. We touch upon an ''operator analytic function theory'' as the solution of a frequent classes of the equations of mathematical physics, when its symmetry operators forms vast enough space. The MAPLE© package programs for the building the operator variables is elaborated also.

We show a close relation between the Schrödinger equation and the conductivity equation to a Vekua equation of a special form. Under quite general conditions we propose an algorithm for explicit construction of pseudoanalytic positive formal powers for the Vekua equation that as a consequence gives us a complete system of solutions for the Schrödinger and the conductivity equations. Besides the construction of complete systems of exact solutions for the above mentioned second order equations and the Dirac equation, we discuss some other applications of pseudoanalytic function theory.

Interval analysis extends the concept of computing with real numbers to computing with real intervals. As a consequence, some interesting properties appear, such as the delivery of guaranteed results or confirmed global values. The former property is given in the sense that unknown numerical values are in known to lie in a computed interval. The latter property states that the global minimum value, for example, of a given function is also known to be contained in a interval (or a finite set of intervals). Depending upon the amount computation effort invested in the calculation, we can often find tight bounds on these enclosing intervals. The downside of interval analysis, however, is the mathematically correct, but often very pessimistic size of the interval result. This is in particularly due to the so-called dependency effect, where a single variable is used multiple times in one calculation. Applying interval analysis to structural analysis problems, the dependency has a great influence on the quality of numerical results. In this paper, a brief background of interval analysis is presented and shown how it can be applied to the solution of structural analysis problems. A discussion of possible improvements as well as an outlook to parallel computing is also given.

In this paper we evaluate 2D models for soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), that incorporate the hysteretic nature of the relationship between volumetric water content θ and suction ψ. The models are based on nonlinear least squares estimation of the experimental data for sand. To estimate the dependent variable θ the proposed models include two independent variables, suction and sensors reading position (depth d in the column test). The variable d represents not only the position where suction and water content are measured but also the initial suction distribution before each of the hydraulic loading test phases. Due to this the proposed 2D regression models acquire the advantage that they: (a) can be applied for prediction of θ for any position along the column and (b) give the functional form for the scanning curves.

In civil engineering practice, values of column forces are often required before any detailed analysis of the structure has been performed. One of the reasons for this arises from the fast-tracked nature of the majority of construction projects: foundations are laid and base columns constructed whilst analysis and design are still in progress. A need for quick results when feasibility studies are performed or when evaluating the effect of design changes on supporting columns form other situations in which column forces are required, but where a detailed analysis to get these forces seems superfluous. Thus it was concluded that the development of an efficient tool for column force calculations, in which the extensive input required in a finite element analysis is to be avoided, would be highly beneficial. The automation of the process is achieved by making use of a Voronoi diagram. The Voronoi diagram is used a) for subdividing the floor into influence areas and b) as a basis for automatic load assignment. The implemented procedure is integrated into a CAD system in which the relevant geometric information of the floor, i.e. its shape and column layout, can be defined or uploaded. A brief description of the implementation is included. Some comparative results and considerations regarding the continuation of the study are given.

This research focuses on an approach to describe principles in architectural layout planning within the domain of revitalization. With the aid of mathematical rules, which are executed by a computer, solutions to design problems are generated. Provided that "design" is in principle a combinatorial problem, i.e. a constraint-based search for an overall optimal solution of a problem, an exemplary method will be described to solve such problems in architectural layout planning. To avoid conflicts relating to theoretical subtleness, a customary approach adopted from Operations Research has been chosen in this work. In this approach, design is a synonym for planning, which could be described as a systematic and methodical course of action for the analysis and solution of current or future problems. The planning task is defined as an analysis of a problem with the aim to prepare optimal decisions by the use of mathematical methods. The decision problem of a planning task is represented by an optimization model and the application of an efficient algorithm in order to aid finding one or more solutions to the problem. The basic principle underlying the approach presented herein is the understanding of design in terms of searching for solutions that fulfill specific criteria. This search is executed by the use of a constraint programming language.

The design and application of high performance materials demands extensive knowledge of the materials damage behavior, which significantly depends on the meso- and microstructural complexity. Numerical simulations of crack growth on multiple length scales are promising tools to understand the damage phenomena in complex materials. In polycrystalline materials it has been observed that the grain boundary decohesion is one important mechanism that leads to micro crack initiation. Following this observation the paper presents a polycrystal mesoscale model consisting of grains with orthotropic material behavior and cohesive interfaces along grain boundaries, which is able to reproduce the crack initiation and propagation along grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. With respect to the importance of modeling the geometry of the grain structure an advanced Voronoi algorithm is proposed to generate realistic polycrystalline material structures based on measured grain size distribution. The polycrystal model is applied to investigate the crack initiation and propagation in statically loaded representative volume elements of aluminum on the mesoscale without the necessity of initial damage definition. Future research work is planned to include the mesoscale model into a multiscale model for the damage analysis in polycrystalline materials.

In many applications such as parameter identification of oscillating systems in civil enginee-ring, speech processing, image processing and others we are interested in the frequency con-tent of a signal locally in time. As a start wavelet analysis provides a time-scale decomposition of signals, but this wavelet transform can be connected with an appropriate time-frequency decomposition. For instance in Matlab are defined pseudo-frequencies of wavelet scales as frequency centers of the corresponding bands. This frequency bands overlap more or less which depends on the choice of the biorthogonal wavelet system. Such a definition of frequency center is possible and useful, because different frequencies predominate at different dyadic scales of a wavelet decomposition or rather at different nodes of a wavelet packet decomposition tree. The goal of this work is to offer better algorithms for characterising frequency band behaviour and for calculating frequency centers of orthogonal and biorthogonal wavelet systems. This will be done with some product formulas in frequency domain. Now the connecting procedu-res are more analytical based, better connected with wavelet theory and more assessable. This procedures doesn’t need any time approximation of the wavelet and scaling functions. The method only works in the case of biorthogonal wavelet systems, where scaling functions and wavelets are defined over discrete filters. But this is the practically essential case, because it is connected with fast algorithms (FWT, Mallat Algorithm). At the end corresponding to the wavelet transform some closed formulas of pure oscillations are given. They can generally used to compare the application of different wavelets in the FWT regarding it’s frequency behaviour.

This contribution will be freewheeling in the domain of signal, image and surface processing and touch briefly upon some topics that have been close to the heart of people in our research group. A lot of the research of the last 20 years in this domain that has been carried out world wide is dealing with multiresolution. Multiresolution allows to represent a function (in the broadest sense) at different levels of detail. This was not only applied in signals and images but also when solving all kinds of complex numerical problems. Since wavelets came into play in the 1980's, this idea was applied and generalized by many researchers. Therefore we use this as the central idea throughout this text. Wavelets, subdivision and hierarchical bases are the appropriate tools to obtain these multiresolution effects. We shall introduce some of the concepts in a rather informal way and show that the same concepts will work in one, two and three dimensions. The applications in the three cases are however quite different, and thus one wants to achieve very different goals when dealing with signals, images or surfaces. Because completeness in our treatment is impossible, we have chosen to describe two case studies after introducing some concepts in signal processing. These case studies are still the subject of current research. The first one attempts to solve a problem in image processing: how to approximate an edge in an image efficiently by subdivision. The method is based on normal offsets. The second case is the use of Powell-Sabin splines to give a smooth multiresolution representation of a surface. In this context we also illustrate the general method of construction of a spline wavelet basis using a lifting scheme.

DECENTRALIZED APPROACHES TO ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC CONTROL AND AN EXTENDED LEVEL OF SERVICE CONCEPT
(2006)

Traffic systems are highly complex multi-component systems suffering from instabilities and non-linear dynamics, including chaos. This is caused by the non-linearity of interactions, delays, and fluctuations, which can trigger phenomena such as stop-and-go waves, noise-induced breakdowns, or slower-is-faster effects. The recently upcoming information and communication technologies (ICT) promise new solutions leading from the classical, centralized control to decentralized approaches in the sense of collective (swarm) intelligence and ad hoc networks. An interesting application field is adaptive, self-organized traffic control in urban road networks. We present control principles that allow one to reach a self-organized synchronization of traffic lights. Furthermore, vehicles will become automatic traffic state detection, data management, and communication centers when forming ad hoc networks through inter-vehicle communication (IVC). We discuss the mechanisms and the efficiency of message propagation on freeways by short-range communication. Our main focus is on future adaptive cruise control systems (ACC), which will not only increase the comfort and safety of car passengers, but also enhance the stability of traffic flows and the capacity of the road (“traffic assistance”). We present an automated driving strategy that adapts the operation mode of an ACC system to the autonomously detected, local traffic situation. The impact on the traffic dynamics is investigated by means of a multi-lane microscopic traffic simulation. The simulation scenarios illustrate the efficiency of the proposed driving strategy. Already an ACC equipment level of 10% improves the traffic flow quality and reduces the travel times for the drivers drastically due to delaying or preventing a breakdown of the traffic flow. For the evaluation of the resulting traffic quality, we have recently developed an extended level of service concept (ELOS). We demonstrate our concept on the basis of travel times as the most important variable for a user-oriented quality of service.

Digital models of buildings are widely used in civil engineering. In these models, geometric information is used as leading information. Engineers are used to have geometric information, and, for instance, it is state of the art to specify a point by its three coordinates. However, the traditional approaches have disadvantages. Geometric information is over-determined. Thus, more geometric information is specified and stored than needed. In addition, engineers already deal with topological information. A denotation of objects in buildings is of topological nature. It has to be answered whether approaches where topological information becomes a leading role would be more efficient in civil engineering. This paper presents such an approach. Topological information is modelled independently of geometric information. It is used for denoting the objects of a building. Geometric information is associated to topological information so that geometric information “weights” a topology.
The concept presented in this paper has already been used in surveying existing buildings. Experiences in the use of this concept showed that the number of geometric information that is required for a complete specification of a building could be reduced by a factor up to 100. Further research will show how this concept can be used in planning processes.

The quaternionic operator calculus can be applied very elegantly to solve many important boundary value problems arising in fluid dynamics and electrodynamics in an analytic way. In order to set up fully explicit solutions. In order to apply the quaternionic operator calculus to solve these types of boundary value problems fully explicitly, one has to evaluate two types of integral operators: the Teodorescu operator and the quaternionic Bergman projector. While the integral kernel of the Teodorescu transform is universal for all domains, the kernel function of the Bergman projector, called the Bergman kernel, depends on the geometry of the domain. Recently the theory of quaternionic holomorphic multiperiodic functions and automorphic forms provided new impulses to set up explicit representation formulas for large classes of hyperbolic polyhedron type domains. These include block shaped domains, wedge shaped domains (with or without additional rectangular restrictions) and circular symmetric finite and infinite cylinders as particular subcases. In this talk we want to give an overview over the recent developments in this direction.

In this paper we evaluate 2D models for soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), that incorporate the hysteretic nature of the relationship between volumetric water content Θ and suction Ψ. The models are based on nonlinear least squares estimation of the experimental data for sand. To estimate the dependent variable Θ the proposed models include two independent variables, suction and sensors reading position (depth d in the column test). The variable d represents not only the position where suction and water content are measured but also the initial suction distribution before each of the hydraulic loading test phases. Due to this the proposed 2D regression models acquire the advantage that they: (a) can be applied for prediction of Θ for any position along the column and (b) give the functional form for the scanning curves.

Mikroelektronik und Mikrosystemtechnik in Kombination mit Informations- und Kommunikations-technik erlauben es mittlerweile, Rechenleistung und Kommunikationsfähigkeit in kleinsten Formaten, mit geringsten Energien und zu günstigen Preisen nutzbringend in unser privates und berufliches Umfeld einzubringen. Beispiele sind Notebook-PC, PDA, Handy und das Navigationßystem im Auto. Aber auch eingebettete Elektronik in Komponenten, Geräten und Systemen ist nunmehr zur Selbstverständlichkeit geworden. Bekannte Beispiele aus der Haustechnik sind Mikroprozeßoren in Heizungs- und Alarmanlagen und aber auch in Komponenten wie Brand- und Bewegungsmelder. Wir nähern uns dem vor einigen Jahren noch als Vision bezeichneten Zustand der überall vorhandenen elektronischen Rechenleistung (engl. ubiquitous computing) bzw. des von Informationsverarbeitung durchdrungenen täglichen Umfelds (engl. pervasive computing). Werden die TGA-Komponenten genau wie die größeren Computerkomponenten (z.B. PCs, Server) über Datenschnittstellen zu räumlich verteilten Netzwerken verknüpft (z.B. Internet, Intranet) und mit einer systemübergreifenden und adäquaten Intelligenz (Software) programmiert, so können neuartige Funktionalitäten im jeweiligen Anwendungsumfeld (engl. ambient intelligence, kurz AmI, [1]) entstehen. Hier liegt bei Gebäuden und Räumen speziell eine große Chance, die bislang einer ganzheitlichen Systemkonzeption unter Einschluß von Architektur, Gebäudephysik, technischer Gebäudeausrüstung (TGA) und Gebäudeautomation (GA) im Wege stehende Gewerketrennung zu überwinden. Es entstehen für div. Anwendungszwecke systemisch integrierte >smart areas< (nach Prof. Becker, FH Biberach). Im vorliegenden Beitrag erläuterte Beispiele für AmI-Lösungen im Immobilienbereich sind Raumsysteme zur automatischen und sicheren Erkennung von Notfällen, z.B. in Pflegeheimen; sich automatisch an die Nutzung und den Nutzer bzgl. Klima und Beleuchtung adaptierende Raumsysteme im Büro- oder Hotelbereich und die elektronische Aßistenz des Bau- und Betriebsprozeßes von Gebäuden. Im Duisburger inHaus-Innovationszentrum für Intelligente Raum- und Gebäudesysteme der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft wurden in den letzten Jahren erste Lösungen mit diesem neuartigen Ansatz konzipiert, entwickelt und erprobt. Der Beitrag beschreibt nach einer kurzen Skizzierung des Ambient-Intelligence-Ansatzes an Beispielen Möglichkeiten für den Transfer dieser neuen Technologie in den Raum- und Gebäudebereich. Es folgt eine abschließende Zusammenfaßung und eine Einschätzung der Zukunftspotenziale der Ambient Intelligence in Raum und Bau.

Summer overheating in buildings is a common problem, especially in office buildings with large glazed facades, high internal loads and low thermal mass. Phase change materials (PCM) that undergo a phase transition in the temperature range of thermal comfort can add thermal mass without increasing the structural load of the building. The investigated PCM were micro-encapsulated and mixed into gypsum plaster. The experiments showed a reduction of indoor-temperature of up to 4 K when using a 3 cm layer of PCM-plaster with micro-encapsulated paraffin. The measurement results could validate a numerical model that is based on a temperature dependent function for heat capacity. Thermal building simulation showed that a 3 cm layer of PCM-plaster can help to fulfil German regulations concerning heat protection of buildings in summer for most office rooms.

Mit diesen Ausführungen wird ein Beitrag zum weiteren Erhalt der historischen Bausubstanz in Mecklenburg aus der Sicht der Tragwerksanalyse geleistet. Dabei bestätigt es sich immer mehr, dass mit dem Modell der Geometrie, der Belastung und des Materials gleichberechtigte Modelle für eine wirklichkeitsnahe Einschätzung des Tragverhaltens eines Tragwerks vorliegen müssen. Es zeigt sich, dass dabei die besten Berechnungsprogramme nur die Ergebnisse liefern können, die mit den Eingabedaten zu erzielen sind. So hat sich der Forschungsschwerpunkt im Lehrgebiet Tragwerkslehre des FB Architektur an der Hochschule Wismar in den letzten Jahren auf die realistische Abbildung der Wechselwirkung zwischen der Bauaufnahme und der geometrischen Modellierung konzentriert. In diesem Bereich zeigen sich als Schwerpunkte die Wechselwirkung zwischen Schäden und Tragwerksanalyse und die Wechselwirkung zwischen der aufgenommenen Geometrie und dem geometrischen Modell für die Tragwerksanalyse. Die Fülle der aufgenommenen Daten sind dabei in der Regel mehr hinderlich als ein Segen für die Tragwerksanalyse. Hier wurde gezeigt, welche und wie viele geometrische Daten für das geometrische Modell für die Tragwerksanalyse sinnvoll sind. Da die eigene Datenaufnahme relativ viel Zeit beansprucht, wurde eine "geistige" Bauaufnahme durchgeführt. Dazu wird der historische Planungsprozess in den einzelnen Formfindungsschritten nachvollzogen und in die virtuelle Realität überführt. Mit dieser Methode ergeben sich unterschiedliche Bauzustände und es lassen sich auch mögliche Bauphasen abbilden. Die Tragwerksanalyse dieser virtuellen Realität zeigt dann mögliche Schwächen der Tragwerke und/oder die Notwendigkeit konstruktiver Veränderungen. Ein Vergleich der Ergebnisse der Tragwerksanalyse mit der Realität anhand des vorliegenden Datenbestands liefert die Grundlage für den aktuellen Handlungsbedarf. Da der Bauzustand eines Bauwerkes unter einer zeitlichen Veränderung steht, werden Methoden überprüft, die es ermöglichen, einen einmal vorgelegten Datenbestand aufzubereiten und weiter zu verwalten.

The design of challenging space structures frequently relies on the theory of folded plates. The models are composed of plane facets of which the bending and membrane stiffness are coupled along the folds. In conventional finite element analysis of faceted structures the continuity of the displacement field is enforced exclusively at the nodes. Since approximate solutions for transverse and for in-plane displacements are not members of the same function space, separation occurs in between the common nodes of adjacent elements. It is shown that the kinematic assumptions of Bernoulli are accounted for this incompatibility along the edges in facet models. A general answer to this problem involves substantial modification of plate and membrane theory, but a straight forward formulation can be derived for simply folded plates, structures, whose folds do not intersect. A broad class of faceted structures, including models of various curved shells, belong to this category and can be calculated consistently. The additional requirements to assure continuity concern the mapping of displacement derivatives on the edges. An appropriate finite facet element provides node and edge-oriented degrees of freedom, whose transformation to system degrees of freedom, depends on the geometric configuration at each node. The concept is implemented using conform triangular elements. To evaluate the new approach, the energy norm of representative structures for refined meshes is calculated. The focus is placed on the mathematical convergence towards reliable solutions obtained from finite volume models.

The present study was designed to investigate the underlying factors determining the visual impressions of design-patterns that have complex textures. Design-patterns produced by "the dynamical system defined by iterations of discrete Laplacians on the plane lattice" were adopted as stimuli because they were not only complex, but also defined mathematically. In the experiment, 21 graduate and undergraduate students sorted 102 design-patterns into several groups by visual impressions. Those 102 patterns were classified into 12 categories by the cluster analysis. The results showed that the regularity of pattern was a most efficient factor for determining visual impressions of design-pattern, and there were some correspondence between visual impressions and mathematical variables of design-pattern. Especially, the visual impressions were influenced greatly by the neighborhood, and less influenced by steps of iterations.

This is an implementation of the Fillmore–Springer–Cnops construction (FSCc) based on the Clifford algebra capacities of the GiNaC computer algebra system. FSCc linearises the linear-fraction action of the Mobius group. This turns to be very useful in several theoretical and applied fields including engineering. The core of this realisation of FSCc is done for an arbitrary dimension, while a subclass for two dimensional cycles add some 2D-specific routines including a visualisation to PostScript files through the MetaPost or Asymptote software. This library is a backbone of many result published in, which serve as illustrations of its usage. It can be ported (with various level of required changes) to other CAS with Clifford algebras capabilities.

In diesem Beitrag wird eine mobile Software-Komponente zur Vor-Ort-Unterstützung von Bauwerksprüfungen gemäß DIN 1076 „Ingenieurbauwerke im Zuge von Strassen und Wegen, Überwachung und Prüfung“ vorgestellt, welche sich im praktischen Einsatz bei der Hochbahn AG Hamburg befindet. Mit Hilfe dieses Werkzeugs kann die Aktivität am Bauwerk in den gesamten softwaregestützten Geschäftsprozess der auwerksinstandhaltung integriert und somit die Bearbeitungszeit einer Bauwerksprüfung von der Vorbereitung bis zur Prüfbericht-Erstellung reduziert werden. Die Technologie des Mobile Computing wird unter Berücksichtigung spezieller fachlicher Randbedingungen, wie z.B. dem Einsatzort unter freiem Himmel, erläutert und es werden Methoden zur effizienten Datenerfassung mit Stift und Sprache vorgestellt und bewertet. Ferner wird die Einschränkung der Hardware durch die geringere Größe der Endgeräte, die sich durch die Bedingung der Mobilität ergibt, untersucht.

A concept for integrated modeling of urban and rural hydrology is introduced. The concept allows for simulations on the catchment scale as well as on the local scale. It is based on a 2-layer-approach which facilitates the parallel coupling of a catchment hydrology model with an urban hydrology model, considering the interactions between the two systems. The concept has been implemented in a computer model combining a grid based distributed hydrological catchment model and a hydrological urban stormwater model based on elementary units. The combined model provides a flexible solution for time and spatial scale integration and offers to calculate separate water balances for urban and rural hydrology. Furthermore, it is GIS-based which allows for easy and accurate geo-referencing of urban overflow structures, which are considered as points of interactions between the two hydrologic systems. Due to the two-layer-approach, programs of measures can be incorporated in each system separately. The capabilities of the combined model have been tested on a hypothetical test case and a real world application. It could be shown that the model is capable of accurately quantifying the effects of urbanization in a catchment. The affects of urbanization can be analyzed at the catchment outlet, but can also be traced back to its origins, due to the geo-referencing of urban overflow structures. This is a mayor advantage over conventional hydrological catchment models for the analysis of land use changes.

For assessment of old buildings, thermal graphic analysis aided with infra-red camera have been employed in a wide range nowadays. Image processing and evaluation can be economically practicable only if the image evaluation can also be automated to the largest extend. For that reason methods of computer vision are presented in this paper to evaluate thermal images. To detect typical thermal image elements, such as thermal bridges and lintels in thermal images respectively gray value images, methods of digital image processing have been applied, of which numerical procedures are available to transform, modify and encode images. At the same time, image processing can be regarded as a multi-stage process. In order to be able to accomplish the process of image analysis from image formation through perfecting and segmentation to categorization, appropriate functions must be implemented. For this purpose, different measuring procedures and methods for automated detection and evaluation have been tested.

The Lucas-Kanade tracker has proven to be an efficient and accurate method for calculation of the optical flow. However, this algorithm can reliably track only suitable image features like corners and edges. Therefore, the optical flow can only be calculated for a few points in each image, resulting in sparse optical flow fields. Accumulation of these vectors over time is a suitable method to retrieve a dense motion vector field. However, the accumulation process limits application of the proposed method to fixed camera setups. Here, a histogram based approach is favored to allow more than a single typical flow vector per pixel. The resulting vector field can be used to detect roads and prescribed driving directions which constrain object movements. The motion structure can be modeled as a graph. The nodes represent entry and exit points for road users as well as crossings, while the edges represent typical paths.

This paper presents two new methods for analysis of a technical state of large-panel residential buildings. The first method is based on elements extracted from the classical methods and on data about repairs and modernization collected from building documentations. The technical state of a building is calculated as a sum of several groups of elements defining the technical state. The deterioration in this method depends on: - time, which has passed since last repair of element or time which has passed since construction, - estimate of the state of element groups which can be determined on basis of yearly controls. This is a new unique method. it is easy to use, does not need expertise. The required data could be extracted easily from building documentations. For better accuracy the data from building inspections should be applied (in Poland inspections are made every year). The second method is based on the extracted data processing by means of the artificial neural networks. The aim is to learn the artificial neural network configurations for a set of data containing values of the technical state and information about building repairs for last years (or other information and building parameters) and next to analyse new buildings by the instructed neural network. The second profit from using artificial neural networks is the reduction of number of parameters. Instead of more then 40 parameters describing building, about 6-12 are usually sufficient for satisfactory accuracy. This method could have lower accuracy but it is less prone to data errors.

Optimum technological solutions must take into account the entire life cycle of structures including design procedures as well as quality assurance, inspection, maintenance, and repair strategies. Unfortunately, current design standards do not provide a satisfactory basis to ensure expected structural lifetimes. The latter may vary from only a few years for temporary structures to over a century for bridges, water dams or nuclear repositories. Consistent scientific concepts are urgently required to cover this wide spectrum of lifetimes in structural design and maintenance. This was a motivation for a group of scientists at the Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB) to start a special research program supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Cooperative Research Center SFB 398 since 1996. Institutes of the University Wuppertal and of the University Essen-Duisburg joined the research group. The goal of the Center is to study sources of damage and deterioration in materials and structures, to develop consistent models and simulation methods, to predict structural lifetimes and finally to integrate this predictions into new lifetime-oriented design strategies.
Research activities in our center are organised in three Project Groups as follows:
- Modelling of lifetime effects
- Methods for lifetime-oriented structural analyses
- Future lifespan-oriented design strategies.

For the dynamic behavior of lightweight structures like thin shells and membranes exposed to fluid flow the interaction between the two fields is often essential. Computational fluid-structure interaction provides a tool to predict this interaction and complement or eventually replace expensive experiments. Partitioned analyses techniques enjoy great popularity for the numerical simulation of these interactions. This is due to their computational superiority over simultaneous, i.e. fully coupled monolithic approaches, as they allow the independent use of suitable discretization methods and modular analysis software. We use, for the fluid, GLS stabilized finite elements on a moving domain based on the incompressible instationary Navier-Stokes equations, where the formulation guarantees geometric conservation on the deforming domain. The structure is discretized by nonlinear, three-dimensional shell elements.
Commonly used sequential staggered coupling schemes may exhibit instabilities due to the so-called artificial added mass effect. As best remedy to this problem subiterations should be invoked to guarantee kinematic and dynamic continuity across the fluid-structure interface. Since iterative coupling algorithms are computationally very costly, their convergence rate is very decisive for their usability. To ensure and accelerate the convergence of this iteration the updates of the interface position are relaxed. The time dependent, 'optimal' relaxation parameter is determined automatically without any user-input via exploiting a gradient method or applying an Aitken iteration scheme.

In this study we introduce a concept of discrete Laplacian on the plane lattice and consider its iteration dynamical system. At first we discuss some basic properties on the dynamical system to be proved. Next making their computer simulations, we show that we can realize the following phenomena quite well:(1) The crystal of waters (2) The designs of carpets, embroideries (3) The time change of the numbers of families of extinct animals, and (4) The echo systems of life things. Hence we may expect that we can understand the evolutions and self organizations by use of the dynamical systems. Here we want to make a stress on the following fact: Although several well known chaotic dynamical systems can describe chaotic phenomena, they have difficulties in the descriptions of the evolutions and self organizations.