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- CAD (184) (remove)

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used in engineering for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) over complex geometries. To this end, it is required to provide the FEM software with a geometric model that is typically constructed in a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. However, FEM and CAD use different approaches for the mathematical description of the geometry. Thus, it is required to generate a mesh, which is suitable for FEM, based on the CAD model. Nonetheless, this procedure is not a trivial task and it can be time consuming. This issue becomes more significant for solving shape and topology optimization problems, which consist in evolving the geometry iteratively. Therefore, the computational cost associated to the mesh generation process is increased exponentially for this type of applications.
The main goal of this work is to investigate the integration of CAD and CAE in shape and topology optimization. To this end, numerical tools that close the gap between design and analysis are presented. The specific objectives of this work are listed below:
• Automatize the sensitivity analysis in an isogeometric framework for applications in shape optimization. Applications for linear elasticity are considered.
• A methodology is developed for providing a direct link between the CAD model and the analysis mesh. In consequence, the sensitivity analysis can be performed in terms of the design variables located in the design model.
• The last objective is to develop an isogeometric method for shape and topological optimization. This method should take advantage of using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) with higher continuity as basis functions.
Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) is a framework designed to integrate the design and analysis in engineering problems. The fundamental idea of IGA is to use the same basis functions for modeling the geometry, usually NURBS, for the approximation of the solution fields. The advantage of integrating design and analysis is two-fold. First, the analysis stage is more accurate since the system of PDEs is not solved using an approximated geometry, but the exact CAD model. Moreover, providing a direct link between the design and analysis discretizations makes possible the implementation of efficient sensitivity analysis methods. Second, the computational time is significantly reduced because the mesh generation process can be avoided.
Sensitivity analysis is essential for solving optimization problems when gradient-based optimization algorithms are employed. Automatic differentiation can compute exact gradients, automatically by tracking the algebraic operations performed on the design variables. For the automation of the sensitivity analysis, an isogeometric framework is used. Here, the analysis mesh is obtained after carrying out successive refinements, while retaining the coarse geometry for the domain design. An automatic differentiation (AD) toolbox is used to perform the sensitivity analysis. The AD toolbox takes the code for computing the objective and constraint functions as input. Then, using a source code transformation approach, it outputs a code for computing the objective and constraint functions, and their sensitivities as well. The sensitivities obtained from the sensitivity propagation method are compared with analytical sensitivities, which are computed using a full isogeometric approach.
The computational efficiency of AD is comparable to that of analytical sensitivities. However, the memory requirements are larger for AD. Therefore, AD is preferable if the memory requirements are satisfied. Automatic sensitivity analysis demonstrates its practicality since it simplifies the work of engineers and designers.
Complex geometries with sharp edges and/or holes cannot easily be described with NURBS. One solution is the use of unstructured meshes. Simplex-elements (triangles and tetrahedra for two and three dimensions respectively) are particularly useful since they can automatically parameterize a wide variety of domains. In this regard, unstructured Bézier elements, commonly used in CAD, can be employed for the exact modelling of CAD boundary representations. In two dimensions, the domain enclosed by NURBS curves is parameterized with Bézier triangles. To describe exactly the boundary of a two-dimensional CAD model, the continuity of a NURBS boundary representation is reduced to C^0. Then, the control points are used to generate a triangulation such that the boundary of the domain is identical to the initial CAD boundary representation. Thus, a direct link between the design and analysis discretizations is provided and the sensitivities can be propagated to the design domain.
In three dimensions, the initial CAD boundary representation is given as a collection of NURBS surfaces that enclose a volume. Using a mesh generator (Gmsh), a tetrahedral mesh is obtained. The original surface is reconstructed by modifying the location of the control points of the tetrahedral mesh using Bézier tetrahedral elements and a point inversion algorithm. This method offers the possibility of computing the sensitivity analysis using the analysis mesh. Then, the sensitivities can be propagated into the design discretization. To reuse the mesh originally generated, a moving Bézier tetrahedral mesh approach was implemented.
A gradient-based optimization algorithm is employed together with a sensitivity propagation procedure for the shape optimization cases. The proposed shape optimization approaches are used to solve some standard benchmark problems in structural mechanics. The results obtained show that the proposed approach can compute accurate gradients and evolve the geometry towards optimal solutions. In three dimensions, the moving mesh approach results in faster convergence in terms of computational time and avoids remeshing at each optimization step.
For considering topological changes in a CAD-based framework, an isogeometric phase-field based shape and topology optimization is developed. In this case, the diffuse interface of a phase-field variable over a design domain implicitly describes the boundaries of the geometry. The design variables are the local values of the phase-field variable. The descent direction to minimize the objective function is found by using the sensitivities of the objective function with respect to the design variables. The evolution of the phase-field is determined by solving the time dependent Allen-Cahn equation.
Especially for topology optimization problems that require C^1 continuity, such as for flexoelectric structures, the isogeometric phase field method is of great advantage. NURBS can achieve the desired continuity more efficiently than the traditional employed functions. The robustness of the method is demonstrated when applied to different geometries, boundary conditions, and material configurations. The applications illustrate that compared to piezoelectricity, the electrical performance of flexoelectric microbeams is larger under bending. In contrast, the electrical power for a structure under compression becomes larger with piezoelectricity.

In computer-aided design (CAD), industrial products are designed using a virtual 3D model. A CAD model typically consists of curves and surfaces in a parametric representation, in most cases, non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS). The same representation is also used for the analysis, optimization and presentation of the model. In each phase of this process, different visualizations are required to provide an appropriate user feedback. Designers work with illustrative and realistic renderings, engineers need a
comprehensible visualization of the simulation results, and usability studies or product presentations benefit from using a 3D display. However, the interactive visualization of NURBS models and corresponding physical simulations is a challenging task because of the computational complexity and the limited graphics hardware support.
This thesis proposes four novel rendering approaches that improve the interactive visualization of CAD models and their analysis. The presented algorithms exploit latest graphics hardware capabilities to advance the state-of-the-art in terms of quality, efficiency and performance. In particular, two approaches describe the direct rendering of the parametric representation without precomputed approximations and timeconsuming pre-processing steps. New data structures and algorithms are presented for the efficient partition, classification, tessellation, and rendering of trimmed NURBS surfaces as well as the first direct isosurface ray-casting approach for NURBS-based isogeometric analysis. The other two approaches introduce the versatile concept of programmable order-independent semi-transparency for the illustrative and comprehensible visualization of depth-complex CAD models, and a novel method for the hybrid reprojection of opaque and semi-transparent image information to accelerate stereoscopic rendering. Both approaches are also applicable to standard polygonal geometry which contributes to the computer graphics and virtual reality research communities.
The evaluation is based on real-world NURBS-based models and simulation data. The results show that rendering can be performed directly on the underlying parametric representation with interactive frame rates and subpixel-precise image results. The computational costs of additional visualization effects, such as semi-transparency and stereoscopic rendering, are reduced to maintain interactive frame rates. The benefit of this performance gain was confirmed by quantitative measurements and a pilot user study.

The aim of this paper is to present so-called discrete-continual boundary element method (DCBEM) of structural analysis. Its field of application comprises buildings constructions, structures and also parts and components for the residential, commercial and un-inhabitant structures with invariability of physical and geometrical parameters in some dimensions. We should mention here in particular such objects as beams, thin-walled bars, strip foundations, plates, shells, deep beams, high-rise buildings, extensional buildings, pipelines, rails, dams and others. DCBEM comes under group of semianalytical methods. Semianalytical formulations are contemporary mathematical models which currently becoming available for realization due to substantial speed-up of computer productivity. DCBEM is based on the theory of the pseudodifferential boundary equations. Corresponding pseudodifferential operators are discretely approximated using Fourier analysis or wavelet analysis. The main DCBEM advantages against the other methods of the numerical analysis is a double reduction in dimension of the problem (discrete numerical division applied not to the full region of the interest but only to the boundary of the region cross section, as a matter of fact one is solving an one-dimensional problem with the finite step on the boundary area of the region), one has opportunities to carrying out very detailed analysis of the specific chosen zones, simplified initial data preparation, simplistic and adaptive algorithms. There are two methods to define and conduct DCBEM analysis developed – indirect (IDCBEM) and direct (DDCBEM), thus indirect like in boundary element method (BEM) applied and used little bit more than direct.

The execution of project activities generally requires the use of (renewable) resources like machines, equipment or manpower. The resource allocation problem consists in assigning time intervals to the execution of the project activities while taking into account temporal constraints between activities emanating from technological or organizational requirements and costs incurred by the resource allocation. If the total procurement cost of the different renewable resources has to be minimized we speak of a resource investment problem. If the cost depends on the smoothness of the resource utilization over time the underlying problem is called a resource levelling problem. In this paper we consider a new tree-based enumeration method for solving resource investment and resource levelling problems exploiting some fundamental properties of spanning trees. The enumeration scheme is embedded in a branch-and-bound procedure using a workload-based lower bound and a depth first search. Preliminary computational results show that the proposed procedure is promising for instances with up to 30 activities.

We present an algebraically extended 2D image representation in this paper. In order to obtain more degrees of freedom, a 2D image is embedded into a certain geometric algebra. Combining methods of differential geometry, tensor algebra, monogenic signal and quadrature filter, the novel 2D image representation can be derived as the monogenic extension of a curvature tensor. The 2D spherical harmonics are employed as basis functions to construct the algebraically extended 2D image representation. From this representation, the monogenic signal and the monogenic curvature signal for modeling intrinsically one and two dimensional (i1D/i2D) structures are obtained as special cases. Local features of amplitude, phase and orientation can be extracted at the same time in this unique framework. Compared with the related work, our approach has the advantage of simultaneous estimation of local phase and orientation. The main contribution is the rotationally invariant phase estimation, which enables phase-based processing in many computer vision tasks.

Analysis of the reinforced concrete chimney geometry changes and their influence on the stresses in the chimney mantle was made. All the changes were introduced to a model chimney and compared. Relations between the stresses in the mantle of the chimney and the deformations determined by the change of the chimney's vertical axis geometry were investigated. The vertical axis of chimney was described by linear function (corresponding to the real rotation of the chimney together with the foundation), and by parabolic function (corresponding to the real dislocation of the chimney under the influence of the horizontal forces - wind). The positive stress pattern in the concrete as well as the negative stress pattern in the reinforcing steel have been presented. The two cases were compared. Analysis of the stress changes in the chimney mantle depending on the modification in the thickness of the mantle (the thickness of the chimney mantle was altered in the linear or the abrupt way) was carried out. The relation between the stresses and the chimney's diameter change from the bottom to the top of the chimney was investigated. All the analyses were conducted by means of a specially developed computer program created in Mathematica environment. The program makes it also possible to control calculations and to visualize the results of the calculations at every stage of the calculation process.

TOOL TO CHECK TOPOLOGY AND GEOMETRY FOR SPATIAL STRUCTURES ON BASIS OF THE EXTENDED MAXWELL'S RULE
(2006)

One of the simplest principle in the design of light-weight structures is to avoid bending. This can be achieved by dissolving girders into members acting purely in axial tension or compression. The employment of cables for the tensioned members leads to even lighter structures which are called cable-strut structures. They constitute a subclass of spatial structures. To give fast information about the general feasibility of an architectural concept employing cable-strut structures is a challenging task due to their sophisticated mechanical behavior. In this regard it is essential to control if the structure is stable and if pre-stress can be applied. This paper presents a tool using the spreadsheet software Microsoft (MS) Excel which can give such information. Therefore it is not necessary to purchase special software and the according time consuming training is much lower. The tool was developed on basis of the extended Maxwell's rule, which besides topology also considers the geometry of the structure. For this the rank of the node equilibrium matrix is crucial. Significance and determination of the rank and the implementation of the corresponding algorithms in MS Excel are described in the following. The presented tool is able to support the structural designer in an early stage of the project in finding a feasible architectural concept for cable-strut structures. As examples for the application of the software tool two special cable-strut structures, so called tensegrity structures, were examined for their mechanical behavior.

Subject of the paper is the realisation of a model based efficiency control system for PV generators using a simulation model. A standard 2-diodes model of PV generator is base of the ColSim model, which is implemented in ANSI C code for flexible code exporting. The algorithm is based on discretisized U-I characteristics, which allows the calculation of string topologies witch parallel and serial PV cells and modules. Shadowing effects can be modelled down to cell configuration using polar horizon definitions. The simulation model was ported to a real time environment, to calculate the efficiency of a PV system. Embedded System technology allows the networked operation and the integration of standard I/O devices. Futher work focus on the adaption of shadowing routine, which will be adapted to get the environment conditions from the real operation.

Die meisten Insolvenzen in Deutschland kommen aus der Bauindustrie. Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig, jedoch kann mittels eines modern ausgerichteten M-I-S und Baustellen-Controllings frühzeitig erkannt werden, wie sich die Baustellenergebnisse entwickeln. Hierzu ist es notwendig, dass die Arbeitskalkulation ständig auf dem Laufenden gehalten wird. Nur wenn dies geschieht, sind monatliche Soll-/ Ist-Vergleiche und eine Betrachtung der cost-to-complete möglich und sinnvoll. Eine monatlich rollierende Prognose des Baustellenergebnisses zum Bauende ermöglicht, dass gravierende Veränderungen des Ergebnisses umgehend aufgedeckt werden. Nur in Kenntnis dieser Entwicklungen kann das Management frühzeitig (im Sinne eines Frühwarnsystems) agieren und Steuerungsmaßnahmen ergreifen. Die Ergebnisprognose zum Bauende ist allein als Steuerungsinstrument nicht ausreichend. Die Finanzsituation der Baustelle muß auch regelmäßig geprüft werden, d.h. der Leistungsstand mit der Rechnungsstellung an den Bauherren abgeglichen sowie die unbezahlten Rechnungen des Bauherren überprüft werden. Das beste Prognoseergebnis ist wertlos, wenn der Bauherr seine bezogenen Leistungen nicht vergütet. Die wirtschaftlichen Daten stehen den Verantwortlichen online im Baustellen-Informations-System (B-I-S) zur Verfügung. Ein Ampelsystem verdeutlicht die wirtschaftliche Lage der Baustelle.

Hinsichtlich der Integration einzelner Bauwerkslebensphasen und der verschiedenen Beteiligten, insbesondere innerhalb von Bauplanungs- und Revitalisierungsprozessen, bestehen aktuell entscheidende Defizite. Die generelle Zielstellung der in diesem Beitrag vorgestellten Forschungsarbeiten besteht in der Unterstützung und Verbesserung der Integration durch die disziplin- und lebensphasenübergreifende Bereitstellung sämtlicher bauwerksbezogener Informationen. Dies erfordert einerseits geeignete Ansätze zur Modellierung und Integration der vielfältigen disziplinspezifischen Daten, andererseits geeignete Lösungen, die einen globalen Zugriff, Navigation und Recherche im Gesamtdatenbestand ermöglichen. Die Modellierung und Verwaltung bauwerksbezogener Daten ist seit längerem Gegenstand diverser Forschungsarbeiten. Im Rahmen des SFB 524 wurde ein eigener Ansatz basierend auf einem laufzeitdynamischen Partialmodellverbund entwickelt. Dieser wird in den wesentlichen Grundzügen anderen Ansätzen gegenübergestellt. Den Schwerpunkt dieses Beitrags bildet jedoch die Entwicklung einer geeigneten flexiblen Navigations- und Rechercheschicht zu Realisierung projektglobaler Informationsrecherche. Aus der Sicht der Modellierung und Datenverwaltung wie auch aus der Sicht der Informationsrecherche und Informationspräsentation in Planungsprozessen ergeben sich verschiedene Anforderungen an derartige Recherchewerkzeuge, wobei der wesentlichste Grundsatz maximale Flexibilität hinsichtlich verfügbarer Darstellungstechniken und deren freie Kombination mit Techniken formaler Suchanfragen ist. Das entwickelte Systemkonzept basiert auf einem Framework, welches verschiedene Grundtypen von Recherchemodulen und deren Interaktionsprinzipien vorgibt. Einzelne Recherchemodule werden als Ausprägungen dieser Modultypen realisiert und können je nach Bedarf laufzeitdynamisch in die Navigationsschicht integriert werden. Die technische Realisierung des Systems erfolgt im Umfeld vorhandener Prototypen aus vorangegangenen Forschungsaktivitäten. Dieses technische Umfeld gibt verschiedene Rahmenbedingungen vor, welche im Vorfeld prototypischer Implementierungen verschiedene Adaptionen des generellen Systemkonzepts notwendig machen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den aktuellen Entwicklungsstand der Systemlösung aus konzeptioneller und technischer Sicht sowie erste prototypische Realisierungen von Recherchemodulen vor.

The design of safety-critical structures, exposed to cyclic excitations demands for non-degrading or limited-degrading behavior during extreme events. Among others, the structural behavior is mainly determined by the amount of plastic cycles, completed during the excitation. Existing simplified methods often ignore this dependency, or assume/request sufficient cyclic capacity. The paper introduces a new performance based design method that considers explicitly a predefined number of re-plastifications. Hereby approaches from the shakedown theory and signal processing methods are utilized. The paper introduces the theoretical background, explains the steps of the design procedure and demonstrates the applicability with help of an example. This project was supported by German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG)

The reduction of oscillation amplitudes of structural elements is necessary not only for maintenance of their durability and longevity but also for elimination of a harmful effect of oscillations on people and technology operations. The dampers are widely applied for this purpose. One of the most widespread models of structural friction forces having piecewise linear relation to displacement was analysed. T The author suggests the application of phase trajectories mapping in plane "acceleration – displacement". Unlike the trajectories mapping in a plane "velocity – displacement", they don't require large number of geometrical constructions for identification of the characteristics of dynamic systems. It promotes improving the accuracy. The analytical assumptions had been verified by numerical modeling. The results show good enough coincide between numerical and analytical estimation of dissipative characteristic.

The paper is devoted to the investigation of dynamical behavior of a cable under influence of various types of excitations. Such element has a low rigidity and is sensitive to dynamic effect. The structural scheme is a cable which ends are located at different level. The analysis of dynamical behavior of the cable under effect of kinematical excitation which is represented by the oscillations of the upper part of tower is given. The scheme of cable is accepted such, that lower end of an inclined cable is motionless. The motion of the upper end is assumed only in horizontal direction. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method was realized in software. The fast Fourier transform was used for spectral analysis. Standard graphical software was adopted for presenting results of investigations. The mathematical model of oscillations of a cable was developed by the account of the viscous damping. The analysis of dynamical characteristics of a cable for various parameters of damping and kinematical excitation was carried out. The time series, spectral characteristics and amplitude-frequencies characteristics was obtained. The resonance amplitude for different oscillating regimes was estimated. It is noted that increasing of the coefficient of the viscous damping and decreasing of the amplitude of tower's oscillations reduces the value of the critical frequency and the resonant amplitudes.

The extended finite element method (XFEM) offers an elegant tool to model material discontinuities and cracks within a regular mesh, so that the element edges do not necessarily coincide with the discontinuities. This allows the modeling of propagating cracks without the requirement to adapt the mesh incrementally. Using a regular mesh offers the advantage, that simple refinement strategies based on the quadtree data structure can be used to refine the mesh in regions, that require a high mesh density. An additional benefit of the XFEM is, that the transmission of cohesive forces through a crack can be modeled in a straightforward way without introducing additional interface elements. Finally different criteria for the determination of the crack propagation angle are investigated and applied to numerical tests of cracked concrete specimens, which are compared with experimental results.

The paper contains a description of dynamic effects in the silo wall during the outflow of a stored material. The work allows for determining the danger of construction damage due to resonant vibrations and is of practical importance by determining the influence of cyclic pressures and vibro–creeping during prolonged use of a silo. The paper was devised as a result of tests on silo walls in semi-technical scale. The model is generally applicable and allows for identification of parameters in real- size silos as well.

The paper proposes a new method for general 3D measurement and 3D point reconstruction. Looking at its features, the method explicitly aims at practical applications. These features especially cover low technical expenses and minimal user interaction, a clear problem separation into steps that are solved by simple mathematical methods (direct, stable and optimal with respect to least error squares), and scalability. The method expects the internal and radial distortion parameters of the used camera(s) as inputs, and a plane quadrangle with known geometry within the scene. At first, for each single picture the 3D position of the reference quadrangle (with respect to each camera coordinate frame) is calculated. These 3D reconstructions of the reference quadrangle are then used to yield the relative external parameters of each camera regarding the first one. With known external parameters, triangulation is finally possible. The differences from other known procedures are outlined, paying attention to the stable mathematical methods (no usage of nonlinear optimization) and the low user interaction with good results at the same time.

In this paper proposed the application of two-parameters damage model, based on non-linear finite element approach, to the analysis of masonry panels. Masonry is treated as a homogenized material, for which the material characteristics can be defined by using homogenization technique. The masonry panels subjected to shear loading are studied by using the proposed procedure within the framework of three-dimensional analyses. The nonlinear behaviour of masonry can be modelled using concepts of damage theory. In this case an adequate damage function is defined for taking into account different response of masonry under tension and compression states. Cracking can, therefore, be interpreted as a local damage effect, defined by the evolution of known material parameters and by one or several functions which control the onset and evolution of damage. The model takes into account all the important aspects which should be considered in the nonlinear analysis of masonry structures such as the effect of stiffness degradation due to mechanical effects and the problem of objectivity of the results with respect to the finite element mesh. Finally the proposed damage model is validated with a comparison with experimental results available in the literature.

This paper presents results of applying Fuzzy Inference System for estimation of the number of potential Park and Ride users. Usually it is difficult to evaluate the number of users because it depends on human factor and data in the considered system are uncertain. In such situation the traditional mathematical approaches can not take into consideration rough data. Therefore a fuzzy approach can be applied in this case. A fuzzy methodology is treated as a proper way to describe choice of mode of transport, and especially that uncertainty accompanied of choosing process has rather fuzzy character. The proposed approach is based on the Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System and for calculation there is used Matlab software with Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Mamdani model requires, as an input data, knowledge of the shape of membership function. These functions can be calibrated taking into consideration results of questionnaires conducted among users of Park and Ride system. Due to lack of representative sample of users, one has decided to use results of experts' questionnaires as a input data for calibration the shape of membership functions. Describing factor will be generalized cost of the trip for different modes of transport. Proposed approach consists of two main stages: modeling of share of public/private transport trips and Multimodal model estimating number of Park and Ride users. Verification of presented methodology is treated as an indirect proof. Proposed approach can be applied for estimation of bi-modal split. Then the results are compared with traditional approaches based on logit functions. Comparable results of proposed fuzzy approach with traditional logit models can be treated as a confirmation of chosen methodology.

... WITHOUT RIGHT ANGLE.
(2006)

Currently sculptural design is one of the most discussed themes in architecture. Due to their light weight, easy transportation and assembly, as well as an almost unlimited structural variety, parameterised spatial structures are excellently suited for constructive realisation of free formed claddings. They subdivide the continuous surface into a structure of small sized nodes, straight members and plane glass panels. Thus they provide an opportunity to realise arbitrary double-curved claddings with a high degree of transparency, using industrial semi-finished products (steel sections, flat glass). Digital design strategies and a huge number of similar looking but in detail unique structural members demand a continuous digital project handling. Within a research project, named MYLOMESH, a free-formed spatial structure was designed, constructed, fabricated and assembled. All required steps were carried out based on digital data. Different digital connections (scripts) between varying software tools, which are usually not used in the planning process of buildings, were created. They allow a completely digital workflow. The project, its design, meshing, constructive detailing and the above-mentioned scripts are described in this paper.