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>CyberCity< ist ein Konzept, das durch ein virtuelles Abbild der räumlichen Realität einer Stadt (Berlin) eine uns bekannte Wahrnehmungsumgebung als Orientierungs- und Navigationserleichterung bereitstellt, um über diesen virtuellen Browser möglichst schnell und anschaulich an eine gewünschte Information zu kommen. Dieses Umgebungsmodell ist auch als Simulationsmodell für die Visualisierung stadträumlicher Beurteilungen neuer Projekte, verkehrstechnischer Massnahmen und ökologischer Belastungen geeignet. Insbesondere ist es als Orientierungsumgebung für die Telepräsenz über die Kommunikationsnetze gedacht, die über die virtuellen Repräsentanten (Avatare) eine besondere gesellschaftliche Brisanz erhält.

Die Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit im Bereich des Bauwesens, insbesondere kleinerer und mittelständischer Betriebe erfordert ein aktives Handeln als Antwort auf die sich ändernde Wettbewerbssituation. Einen wesentlichen Wettbewerbsvorteil können kleine unternehmerische Einheiten durch höhere Flexibilität, schnelle Reaktion auf Kundenwünsche oder aktuelle Situationen auf der Baustelle und Marktnähe erreichen. Dazu ist es nötig, die Informations- und Kommunikationsströme durch Einsatz standardisierter und kostengünstiger Hard- und Software wie z.B. Handhelds zu unterstützen und insbesondere die existierenden Hindernisse im Informationsfluss zwischen Baustelle und Büro zu beseitigen. Am Beispiel der Projekte >IuK - SystemBau< und >eSharing< wird eine Einführungsstrategie für >Mobile Computing< in kleinen unternehmerischen Einheiten des Bauwesens (KMU) basierend auf einer umfangreichen Anforderungsanalyse vorgestellt. Folgende Aspekte sollen beschrieben werden: durchgängiger Einsatz der Technik unter Beachtung der verschiedenen Qualifikationsniveaus, Einführungsunterstützung durch Schulungen, Prozessanalyse und mögliche Integration in bestehende Software-Umgebungen sowie Feldtests.

... WITHOUT RIGHT ANGLE.
(2006)

Currently sculptural design is one of the most discussed themes in architecture. Due to their light weight, easy transportation and assembly, as well as an almost unlimited structural variety, parameterised spatial structures are excellently suited for constructive realisation of free formed claddings. They subdivide the continuous surface into a structure of small sized nodes, straight members and plane glass panels. Thus they provide an opportunity to realise arbitrary double-curved claddings with a high degree of transparency, using industrial semi-finished products (steel sections, flat glass). Digital design strategies and a huge number of similar looking but in detail unique structural members demand a continuous digital project handling. Within a research project, named MYLOMESH, a free-formed spatial structure was designed, constructed, fabricated and assembled. All required steps were carried out based on digital data. Different digital connections (scripts) between varying software tools, which are usually not used in the planning process of buildings, were created. They allow a completely digital workflow. The project, its design, meshing, constructive detailing and the above-mentioned scripts are described in this paper.

Beiträge zur 2. Fachtagung „Sicherheit auf Baustellen“ am Dienstag, dem 20. März 2001 in Weimar an der Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen, Professur Baubetrieb und Bauverfahren der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. Der Tagungsband enthält einen Spezialteil „Qualität und Sicherheit auf Baustellen und im Schweißbetrieb“ anlässlich des Ausscheidens von Herrn Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Karl-Dieter Röbenack aus dem aktiven Berufsleben.

30. Forum Bauinformatik
(2018)

Die Bauhaus-Universität Weimar ist seit langer Zeit mit dem Forum Bauinformatik eng verbunden. So wurde die Veranstaltung 1989 hier durch den Arbeitskreis Bauinformatik ins Leben gerufen und auch das 10. und 18. Forum Bauinformatik (1998 bzw. 2006) fand in Weimar statt. In diesem Jahr freuen wir uns daher besonders, das 30. Jubiläum an der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar ausrichten zu dürfen und viele interessierte Wissenschaftler und Wissenschaftlerinnen aus dem Bereich der Bauinformatik in Weimar willkommen zu heißen.
Das Forum Bauinformatik hat sich längst zu einem festen Bestandteil der Bauinformatik im deutschsprachigen Raum entwickelt. Dabei steht es traditionsgemäß unter dem Motto „von jungen Forschenden für junge Forschende“, wodurch insbesondere Nachwuchswissenschaftlerinnen und ‑wissenschaftlern die Möglichkeit geboten wird, ihre Forschungsarbeiten zu präsentieren, Problemstellungen fachspezifisch zu diskutieren und sich über den neuesten Stand der Forschung zu informieren. Zudem wird eine ausgezeichnete Gelegenheit geboten, in die wissenschaftliche Gemeinschaft im Bereich der Bauinformatik einzusteigen und Kontakte mit anderen Forschenden zu knüpfen.
In diesem Jahr erhielten wir 49 interessante und qualitativ hochwertige Beiträge vor allem in den Themenbereichen Simulation, Modellierung, Informationsverwaltung, Geoinformatik, Structural Health Monitoring, Visualisierung, Verkehrssimulation und Optimierung. Dafür möchten wir uns ganz besonders bei allen Autoren, Co-Autoren und Reviewern bedanken, die durch ihr Engagement das diesjährige Forum Bauinformatik erst möglich gemacht haben. Wir danken zudem Professor Große und Professor Díaz für die Unterstützung bei der Auswahl der Beiträge für die Best Paper Awards.
Ein herzliches Dankeschön geht an die Kollegen an der Professur Informatik im Bauwesen der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar für die organisatorische, technische und beratende Unterstützung während der Planung der Veranstaltung.

In classical complex function theory the geometric mapping property of conformality is closely linked with complex differentiability. In contrast to the planar case, in higher dimensions the set of conformal mappings is only the set of Möbius transformations. Unfortunately, the theory of generalized holomorphic functions (by historical reasons they are called monogenic functions) developed on the basis of Clifford algebras does not cover the set of Möbius transformations in higher dimensions, since Möbius transformations are not monogenic. But on the other side, monogenic functions are hypercomplex differentiable functions and the question arises if from this point of view they can still play a special role for other types of 3D-mappings, for instance, for quasi-conformal ones. On the occasion of the 16th IKM 3D-mapping methods based on the application of Bergman's reproducing kernel approach (BKM) have been discussed. Almost all authors working before that with BKM in the Clifford setting were only concerned with the general algebraic and functional analytic background which allows the explicit determination of the kernel in special situations. The main goal of the abovementioned contribution was the numerical experiment by using a Maple software specially developed for that purpose. Since BKM is only one of a great variety of concrete numerical methods developed for mapping problems, our goal is to present a complete different from BKM approach to 3D-mappings. In fact, it is an extension of ideas of L. V. Kantorovich to the 3-dimensional case by using reduced quaternions and some suitable series of powers of a small parameter. Whereas until now in the Clifford case of BKM the recovering of the mapping function itself and its relation to the monogenic kernel function is still an open problem, this approach avoids such difficulties and leads to an approximation by monogenic polynomials depending on that small parameter.

Die aktuelle demografische Entwicklung bedingt offensichtlich auch Arbeiten in rauer Umgebung bis zur Rente mit 67, auch auf dem Bau. Das Thema liegt scheinbar nur am Rande des Baubetriebswesens. Doch obwohl es sozialpolitisch determiniert ist, hat es sehr konkret mit Gesundheitsschutz, Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsgestaltung zu tun. Die fünfte Fachtagung 'Sicherheit auf Baustellen' stellt sich der Diskussion, wie das Rentenalter gesund erreichbar ist, was alle am Arbeitsschutz Beteiligten schon heute und auch in Zukunft dafür tun können, und hinterfragt kritisch, wie realistisch diese pauschale Forderung nach Arbeit bis 67 ist. Forderungen nach schlankeren Strukturen im Staat und das Streben nach Deregulierung haben auch zu Veränderungen in der Arbeitsschutzverwaltung des Freistaates Thüringen geführt, über die das Forum informiert.

The evolution of data exchange and integration standards within the Architectural, Engineering and Construction industry is gradually making the long-held vision of computer-integratedconstruction a reality. The Industry Foundations Classes and CIMSteel Integration Standards are two such standards that have seen remarkable successes over the past few years. Despite successes, these standards support the exchange of product data more than they do process data, especially those processes that are loosely coupled with product models. This paper reports on on-going research to evaluate the adequacy of the IFC and CIS/2 standards to support process modeling in the steel supply chain. Some initial recommendations are made regarding enhancements to the data standards to better support processes.

The research of the best building design requires a concerted design approach of both structure and foundation. Our work is an application of this approach. Our objective is also to create an interactive tool, which will be able to define, at the early design stages, the orientations of structure and foundation systems that satisfy as well as possible the client and the architect. If the concerns of these two actors are primarily technical and economical, they also wish to apprehend the environmental and social dimensions of their projects. Thus, this approach bases on alternative studies and on a multi-criterion analysis. In this paper, we present the context of our work, the problem formulation, which allows a concerted design of Structure and Foundation systems and the feasible solutions identifying process.

The contribution focuses on the development of a basic computational scheme that provides a suitable calculation environment for the coupling of analytical near-field solutions with numerical standard procedures in the far-field of the singularity. The proposed calculation scheme uses classical methods of complex function theory, which can be generalized to 3-dimensional problems by using the framework of hypercomplex analysis. The adapted approach is mainly based on the factorization of the Laplace operator EMBED Equation.3 by the Cauchy-Riemann operator EMBED Equation.3 , where exact solutions of the respective differential equation are constructed by using an orthonormal basis of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions.

The purpose of this research is to develop the method to retrieve a building name from the impression of the building. First, the images of the building are registered as database by the questionnaire. Next, the images of the objective building are compared with the degree of matching in image databases, and the building with high synthetic matching degree is retrieved. This system could get a good retrieval result. Moreover, image processing was done, and image databases are trained by neural network from the amount of characteristics of the image, and the retrieval system by image processing was examined.

The methods currently used for scheduling building processes have some major advantages as well as disadvantages. The main advantages are the arrangement of the tasks of a project in a clear, easily readable form and the calculation of valuable information like critical paths. The main disadvantage on the other hand is the inflexibility of the model caused by the modeling paradigms. Small changes of the modeled information strongly influence the whole model and lead to the need to change many more details in the plan. In this article an approach is introduced allowing the creation of more flexible schedules. It aims towards a more robust model that lowers the need to change more than a few information while being able to calculate the important propositions of the known models and leading to further valuable conclusions.

Business and engineering knowledge in AEC/FM is captured mainly implicitly in project and corporate document repositories. Even with the increasing integration of model-based systems with project information spaces, a large percentage of the information exchange will further on rely on isolated and rather poorly structured text documents. In this paper we propose an approach enabling the use of product model data as a primary source of engineering knowledge to support information externalisation from relevant construction documents, to provide for domain-specific information retrieval, and to help in re-organising and re-contextualising documents in accordance to the user’s discipline-specific tasks and information needs. Suggested is a retrieval and mining framework combining methods for analysing text documents, filtering product models and reasoning on Bayesian networks to explicitly represent the content of text repositories in personalisable semantic content networks. We describe the proposed basic network that can be realised on short-term using minimal product model information as well as various extensions towards a full-fledged added value integration of document-based and model-based information.

Iso-parametric finite elements with linear shape functions show in general a too stiff element behavior, called locking. By the investigation of structural parts under bending loading the so-called shear locking appears, because these elements can not reproduce pure bending modes. Many studies dealt with the locking problem and a number of methods to avoid the undesirable effects have been developed. Two well known methods are the >Assumed Natural Strain< (ANS) method and the >Enhanced Assumed Strain< (EAS) method. In this study the EAS method is applied to a four-node plane element with four EAS-parameters. The paper will describe the well-known linear formulation, its extension to nonlinear materials and the modeling of material uncertainties with random fields. For nonlinear material behavior the EAS parameters can not be determined directly. Here the problem is solved by using an internal iteration at the element level, which is much more efficient and stable than the determination via a global iteration. To verify the deterministic element behavior the results of common test examples are presented for linear and nonlinear materials. The modeling of material uncertainties is done by point-discretized random fields. To show the applicability of the element for stochastic finite element calculations Latin Hypercube Sampling was applied to investigate the stochastic hardening behavior of a cantilever beam with nonlinear material. The enhanced linear element can be applied as an alternative to higher-order finite elements where more nodes are necessary. The presented element formulation can be used in a similar manner to improve stochastic linear solid elements.

This paper describes a framework for computer-aided conceptual design of building structures that results from building architectural considerations. The central task that is carried out during conceptual design is the synthesis of the structural system. This paper proposes a methodology for the synthesis of structural solutions. Given the nature of architectural constraints, user-model interactivity is devised as the most suitable computer methodology for driving the structural synthesis process. Taking advantage of the hierarchical organization of the structural system, this research proposes a top-down approach for structural synthesis. Through hierarchical refinement, the approach lends itself to the synthesis of global and local structural solutions. The components required for implementing the proposed methodology are briefly described. The main components have been incorporated in a proof-of-concept prototype that is being tested and validated with actual buildings.

Interactive visualization based on 3D computer graphics nowadays is an indispensable part of any simulation software used in engineering. Nevertheless, the implementation of such visualization software components is often avoided in research projects because it is a challenging and potentially time consuming task. In this contribution, a novel Java framework for the interactive visualization of engineering models is introduced. It supports the task of implementing engineering visualization software by providing adequate program logic as well as high level classes for the visual representation of entities typical for engineering models. The presented framework is built on top of the open source visualization toolkit VTK. In VTK, a visualization model is established by connecting several filter objects in a so called visualization pipeline. Although designing and implementing a good pipeline layout is demanding, VTK does not support the reuse of pipeline layouts directly. Our framework tailors VTK to engineering applications on two levels. On the first level it adds new – engineering model specific – filter classes to VTK. On the second level, ready made pipeline layouts for certain aspects of engineering models are provided. For instance there is a pipeline class for one-dimensional elements like trusses and beams that is capable of showing the elements along with deformations and member forces. In order to facilitate the implementation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for each pipeline class, there exists a reusable Java Swing GUI component that allows the user to configure the appearance of the visualization model. Because of the flexible structure, the framework can be easily adapted and extended to new problem domains. Currently it is used in (i) an object-oriented p-version finite element code for design optimization, (ii) an agent based monitoring system for dam structures and (iii) the simulation of destruction processes by controlled explosives based on multibody dynamics. Application examples from all three domains illustrates that the approach presented is powerful as well as versatile.

Modern distributed engineering applications are based on complex systems consisting of various subsystems that are connected through the Internet. Communication and collaboration within an entire system requires reliable and efficient data exchange between the subsystems. Middleware developed within the web evolution during the past years provides reliable and efficient data exchange for web applications, which can be adopted for solving the data exchange problems in distributed engineering applications. This paper presents a generic approach for reliable and efficient data exchange between engineering devices using existing middleware known from web applications. Different existing middleware is examined with respect to the suitability in engineering applications. In this paper, a suitable middleware is shown and a prototype implementation simulating distributed wind farm control is presented and validated using several performance measurements.

A geometrical inclusion-matrix model for the finite element analysis of concrete at multiple scales
(2003)

This paper introduces a method to generate adequate inclusion-matrix geometries of concrete in two and three dimensions, which are independent of any specific numerical discretization. The article starts with an analysis on shapes of natural aggregates and discusses corresponding mathematical realizations. As a first prototype a two-dimensional generation of a mesoscale model is introduced. Particle size distribution functions are analysed and prepared for simulating an adequate three-dimensional representation of the aggregates within a concrete structure. A sample geometry of a three-dimensional test cube is generated and the finite element analysis of its heterogeneous geometry by a uniform mesh is presented. Concluding, aspects of a multiscale analysis are discussed and possible enhancements are proposed.

This paper focuses on a new three-level discretisation strategy which enables the transition between continuum/structural (I) and structural/black box modelling (II). The transition (I) is realised by means of a model adaptive concept based on an innovative finite element technology. For transition (II) we apply the truncated balanced realisation method (TBR). The latter represents an established system theoretical model reduction technique which is here combined with a novel substructure technique. The approach provides a modular concept to facilitate the computational analysis of complex structures. The final goal is to apply the strategy to life time estimation.

In earlier research, generalized multidimensional Hilbert transforms have been constructed in m-dimensional Euclidean space, in the framework of Clifford analysis. Clifford analysis, centred around the notion of monogenic functions, may be regarded as a direct and elegant generalization to higher dimension of the theory of the holomorphic functions in the complex plane. The considered Hilbert transforms, usually obtained as a part of the boundary value of an associated Cauchy transform in m+1 dimensions, might be characterized as isotropic, since the metric in the underlying space is the standard Euclidean one. In this paper we adopt the idea of a so-called anisotropic Clifford setting, which leads to the introduction of a metric dependent m-dimensional Hilbert transform, showing, at least formally, the same properties as the isotropic one. The Hilbert transform being an important tool in signal analysis, this metric dependent setting has the advantage of allowing the adjustment of the co-ordinate system to possible preferential directions in the signals to be analyzed. A striking result to be mentioned is that the associated anisotropic (m+1)-dimensional Cauchy transform is no longer uniquely determined, but may stem from a diversity of (m+1)-dimensional "mother" metrics.

The Element-free Galerkin Method has become a very popular tool for the simulation of mechanical problems with moving boundaries. The internally applied Moving Least Squares approximation uses in general Gaussian or cubic weighting functions and has compact support. Due to the approximative character of this method the obtained shape functions do not fulfill the interpolation condition, which causes additional numerical effort for the imposition of the essential boundary conditions. The application of a singular weighting function, which leads to singular coefficient matrices at the nodes, can solve this problem, but requires a very careful placement of the integration points. Special procedures for the handling of such singular matrices were proposed in literature, which require additional numerical effort. In this paper a non-singular weighting function is presented, which leads to an exact fulfillment of the interpolation condition. This weighting function leads to regular values of the weights and the coefficient matrices in the whole interpolation domain even at the nodes. Furthermore this function gives much more stable results for varying size of the influence radius and for strongly distorted nodal arrangements than classical weighting function types. Nevertheless, for practical applications the results are similar as these obtained with the regularized weighting type presented by the authors in previous publications. Finally a new concept will be presented, which enables an efficient analysis of systems with strongly varying node density. In this concept the nodal influence domains are adapted depending on the nodal configuration by interpolating the influence radius for each direction from the distances to the natural neighbor nodes. This approach requires a Voronoi diagram of the domain, which is available in this study since Delaunay triangles are used as integration background cells. In the numerical examples it will be shown, that this method leads to a more uniform and reduced number of influencing nodes for systems with varying node density than the classical circular influence domains, which means that the small additional numerical effort for interpolating the influence radius leads to remarkable reduction of the total numerical cost in a linear analysis while obtaining similar results. For nonlinear calculations this advantage would be even more significant.

For the analysis of arbitrary, by Finite Elements discretized shell structures, an efficient numerical simulation strategy with quadratic convergence including geometrically and physically nonlinear effects will be presented. In the beginning, a Finite-Rotation shell theory allowing constant shear deformations across the shell thickness is given in an isoparametric formulation. The assumed-strain concept enables the derivation of a locking-free finite element. The Layered Approach will be applied to ensure a sufficiently precise prediction of the propagation of plastic zones even throughout the shell thickness. The Riks-Wempner-Wessels global iteration scheme will be enhanced by a Line-Search procedure to ensure the tracing of nonlinear deformation paths with rather great load steps even in the post-peak range. The elastic-plastic material model includes isotropic hardening. A new Operator-Split return algorithm ensures considerably exact solution of the initial-value problem even for greater load steps. The combination with consistently linearized constitutive equations ensures quadratic convergence in a close neighbourhood to the exact solution. Finally, several examples will demonstrate accuracy and numerical efficiency of the developed algorithm.

The paper is about model based parameter identification and damage localization of elastomechanical systems using input and output measurements in the frequency domain. An adaptation of the Projective Input Residual Method to subsystem damage identification is presented. For this purpose the projected residuals were adapted with respect to a given subsystem to be analysed. Based on the gradients of these projected subsystem residuals a damage indicator was introduced which is sensitive to parameter changes and structural damages in this subsystem. Since the computations are done w.r.t. the smaller dimension of a subsystem this indicator shows a computational performance gain compared to the non-subsystem approach. This gain in efficiency makes the indicator applicable in online-monitoring and online-damage-diagnosis where continuous and fast data processing is required. The presented application of the indicator to a gantry robot could illustrate the ability of the indicator to indicate and locate real damage of a complex structure. Since in civil engineering applications the system input is often unknown, further investigations will focus on the output-only case since the generalization of the presented methods to this case will broaden its application spectrum.

The truss model for predicting shear resistance of reinforced concrete beams has usually been criticized because of its underestimation of the concrete shear strength especially for beams with low shear reinforcement. Two challengers are commonly encountered in any truss model and are responsible for its inaccurate shear strength prediction. First: the cracking angle is usually assumed empirically and second the shear contribution of the arching action is usually neglected. This research introduces a nouvelle approach, by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for accurately evaluating the shear cracking angle of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams. The model inputs include the beam geometry, concrete strength, the shear reinforcement ratio and the prestressing stress if any. ...

In many engineering applications two or more different interacting systems require the numer-ical solution of so-called multifield problems. In civil engineering the interaction of fluid and structures plays an important role, i.e. for fabric tensile structures of light and flexible materials often used for large roof systems, capacious umbrellas or canopies. Whereas powerful numerical simulation techniques have been established in structural engineering as well as in fluid mechan-ics, only relatively few approaches to simulate the interaction of fluids with civil engineering constructions have been presented. To determine the wind loads on complex structures, it is still state-of-the-art to apply semi-empirical, strongly simplifying methods or to perform expensive ex-periments in wind tunnels. In this paper an approach of a coupled fluid-structure simulation will be presented for membrane and thin shell structures. The interaction is described by the struc-tural deformation as response to wind forces, resulting in a modification of the fluid flow domain. Besides a realistic determination of the wind loads, information on the structural stability can be obtained. The so-called partitioned solution is based on an iterative frame algorithm, integrating different codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and for Computational Structural Dy-namics (CSD) in an explicit or an implicit time-stepping procedure. All data exchange between the two different applications is performed via a neutral geometric model provided by a coupling interface. A conservative interpolation method is used for the interpolation of the nodal loads. The time-dependent motion of the structure requires a dynamic modification of the different grids and a redefinition of the Navier-Stokes equations in an Arbitrary Langrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. As an example for the present implementation, results of a coupled fluid-structure simulation for a textile membrane canopy will be presented.

The contribution introduces a method for the distributed process modelling in order to support the process orientation in Structural Engineering, i.e., the modelling, analysis and management of planning processes. The approach is based on the Petri Net theory for the modelling of planning processes and workflows in Structural Engineering. Firstly, a central and coarse process model serves as a pre-structuring system for the detailed modelling of the technical planning activities. Secondly, the involved planning participants generate distributed process models with detailed technical workflow information. Finally, these distributed process models will be combined in the central workflow net. The final net is of great importance for the process orientation in Structural Engineering, i.e., the identification, publication, analysis, optimization and finally the management of planning processes.

We present a software prototype for fluid flow problems in civil engineering, which combines essential features of Computational Steering approaches with efficient methods for model transfer and high performance computing. The main components of the system are described: - The modeler with a focus on the data management of the product model - The pre-processing and the post-processing toolkit - The simulation kernel based on the Lattice Boltzmann method - The required hardware for real-time computing

In recent years, the survey is performed for repair, such as a bridge and a building built in past, spending great expense. And it is anxious for the survey technique that doesn’t need cost and time more. Then, we made an idea of the technique of precise 3D model creation by 2D pictures. However, the technique of performing the improvement in accuracy of convergent photographing and automatic acquisition of corresponding points was not established. Therefore, in this research, we try to obtain a semi-automation of corresponding points acquisition from initial corresponding points and the improvement in accuracy of convergent photographing. Moreover, we applied the research to the used house of Japanese real estate, and the applicable field was selected as the high needs of the residence of 3D model. And we developed the system that everyone could create Web / 3D model house by VRML easily without requiring expensive apparatuses or expertise.

Information technology plays a key role in the everyday operation of buildings and campuses. Many proprietary technologies and methodologies can assist in effective Building Performance Monitoring (BPM) and efficient managing of building resources. The integration of related tools like energy simulator packages, facility, energy and building management systems, and enterprise resource planning systems is of benefit to BPM. However, the complexity to integrating such domain specific systems prevents their common usage. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been deployed successfully in many large multinational companies to create integrated and flexible software systems, but so far this methodology has not been applied broadly to the field of BPM. This paper envisions that SOA provides an effective integration framework for BPM. Service oriented architecture for the ITOBO framework for sustainable and optimised building operation is proposed and an implementation for a building performance monitoring system is introduced.

To fulfil safety requirements the changes in the static and/or dynamic behaviour of the structure must be analysed with great care. These changes are often caused by local reduction of the stiffness of the structure caused by the irregularities in the structure, as for example cracks. In simple structures such analysis can be performed directly, by solving equations of motion, but for more complex structures a different approach, usually numerical, must be applied. The problem of crack implementation into the structure behaviour has been studied by many authors who have usually modelled the crack as a massless rotational spring of suitable stiffness placed at the beam at the location where the crack occurs. Recently, the numerical procedure for the computation of the stiffness matrix for a beam element with a single transverse crack has been replaced with the element stiffness matrix written in fully symbolic form. A detailed comparison of the results obtained by using 200 2D finite elements with those obtained with a single cracked beam element has confirmed the usefulness of such element.

As computer programs become ever more complex, software development has shifted from focusing on programming towards focusing on integration. This paper describes a simulation access language (SimAL) that can be used to access and compose software applications over the Internet. Specifically, the framework is developed for the integration of tools for project management applications. The infrastructure allows users to specify and to use existing heterogeneous tools (e.g., Microsoft Project, Microsoft Excel, Primavera Project Planner, and AutoCAD) for simulation of project scenarios. This paper describes the components of the SimAL language and the implementation efforts required in the development of the SimAL framework. An illustration example bringing on-line weather forecasting service for project scheduling and management applications is provided to demonstrate the use of the simulation language and the infrastructure framework.

A four-node quadrilateral shell element with smoothed membrane-bending based on Mindlin-Reissner theory is proposed. The element is a combination of a plate bending and membrane element. It is based on mixed interpolation where the bending and membrane stiffness matrices are calculated on the boundaries of the smoothing cells while the shear terms are approximated by independent interpolation functions in natural coordinates. The proposed element is robust, computationally inexpensive and free of locking. Since the integration is done on the element boundaries for the bending and membrane terms, the element is more accurate than the MITC4 element for distorted meshes. This will be demonstrated for several numerical examples.

The construction industry is a supportive industry in China. IT (information technolgy), including computer technology and communication technology, as a whole is regarded as the most important means to upgrade the construction industry so that research projects were organized by Chinese government to further the application of IT in the construction industry. This study originated from one of the projects and is aimed at grasping the general situation on the application of IT in the construction industry. A questionnaire was designed for the survey, which used stratified proportional sampling method, and was carried out under the help of a government agency. This study can not only provide sound foundation for the government to make relative policies, but also reveal references for the firms in construction industry to apply IT in their business. This paper presents the preliminary result of the survey.

A UNIFIED APPROACH FOR THE TREATMENT OF SOME HIGHER DIMENSIONAL DIRAC TYPE EQUATIONS ON SPHERES
(2010)

Using Clifford analysis methods, we provide a unified approach to obtain explicit solutions of some partial differential equations combining the n-dimensional Dirac and Euler operators, including generalizations of the classical time-harmonic Maxwell equations. The obtained regular solutions show strong connections between hypergeometric functions and homogeneous polynomials in the kernel of the Dirac operator.

The development of a life cycle structured cooperation platform is described, which is based on an integrated process and goal-oriented project model. Furthermore the structure of a life cycle oriented object structure model and its implementation in the platform are documented. The complete conceptual model is described, which represents the basis of a lifecycle -oriented structuring of the planning object and supports the thematic classification of the object and project management data.

The paper describes a concept for the step-by-step computer-aided capture and representation of geometric building data in the context of planning-oriented building surveying. Selected aspects of the concept have been implemented and tested as prototypes. The process of step-by-step capture and representation is determined by the order in which the user experiences the building. Only the information that the user knows (can see) or can reasonably deduce is represented. In addition approaches to the flexible combination of different measuring techniques and geometric abstractions are described which are based upon geodetic computational adjustment.

This paper is concerned with the numerical treatment of quasilinear elliptic partial differential equations. In order to solve the given equation we propose to use a Galerkin approach, but, in contrast to conventional finite element discretizations, we work with trial spaces that, not only exhibit the usual approximation and good localization properties, but, in addition, lead to expansions of any element in the underlying Hilbert spaces in terms in multiscale or wavelet bases with certain stability properties. Specifically, we select as trial spaces a nested sequence of spaces from an appropriate biorthogonal multiscale analysis. This gives rise to a nonlinear discretized system. To overcome the problems of nonlinearity, we make use of the machinery of interpolating wavelets to obtain knot oriented quadrature rules. Finally, Newton's method is applied to approximate the solution in the given ansatz space. The results of some numerical experiments with different biorthogonal systems, confirming the applicability of our scheme, are presented.

Anlass zum Abriss der Brücke; Das abzubrechende Bauwerk; Vorgaben für den Abbruch (gemäß der Ausschreibung, aus statischer Sicht, aus Arbeitsschutzgründen); Abbruch der Aufbauten und der Fahrbahnplatte (Abbruch der Aufbauten, Problem Festpunkt Bogenscheitel – Fahrbahn, Abbruch Plattenbalken und Pfeilerscheiben); Abbruch der Bögen (Abbruchgerüst, Scheitelöffnung, Bogenrückbau, Kontrollsystem). Noch nie zuvor war in Deutschland eine Bogenbrücke auf diese Art und Weise abgebrochen worden. Maßgeblich für das Gelingen des schwierigen Rückbaus der Teufelstalbrücke war das Verantwortungsbewusstsein der Beteiligten im Zusammenhang mit der notwendigen Risikobereitschaft, aber auch mit der Vermeidung unnötiger Restrisiken schon von vornherein. Zur Risikominimierung trugen die gute Organisation des Vorhabens, regelmäßige gemeinsame Baustellenbegehungen mit Vertretern der für Sicherheit zuständigen Institutionen (Amt für Arbeitsschutz Gera, Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Sicher-heits- und Gesundheitsschutzkoordinator) sowie die technische Ausstattung bei. All dies führte letztendlich zum Erfolg einer Maßnahme, bei der man den bisherigen Erfahrungsbereich verlassen musste.

Speziell für die Sandwich-Platten der Außenfassade von DDR-Plattenbauten, die in ihrem Inneren in den meisten Fällen Mineralwolle (Handelsname: Kamilit) enthalten, wurden belastungsarme Abbruch- bzw. Rückbautechnologien untersucht und durch Gefahrstoffmessungen begleitet. Es werden Vorschläge für zukünftig zu bevorzugende Abbruchtechnologien unterbreitet.

Objektorientierte Anwendungen aus dem Ingenieurwesen bestehen aus strukturierten Mengen, deren Elemente Objekte sind. Zwischen den Objekten bestehen vielfältige Abhängigkeiten. Die Beziehungen sind zur Zeit der Entwicklung einer Anwendung nur teilweise bekannt. Beziehungen zwischen Objekten müssen deshalb auch zur Laufzeit der Anwendung erzeugt und gelöscht werden können. Aufgrund des hohen Rechenaufwandes wird die Objektbasis einer Anwendung verzögert aktualisiert. Eine objektorientierte Anwendung wird auf Grundlage der Systemtheorie als System formal beschrieben. Als Elemente des Systems werden Attribute, Objekte und Objektmengen eingeführt. Die in den Methoden der Objekte implementierten Algorithmen bestimmen die Bindungsrelation des Systems. Auf Grundlage der Graphentheorie wird die Reihenfolge der Aktualisierung der Objektbasis berechnet. ...

The AEC industry is conscious of the potentials arising from the usage of mobile computer systems to increase productivity by streamlining their business processes. Discussions are no longer on whether or not to use a mobile computer solution, but rather, on how it should be used. However, the implantation process of this new technology in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) and Facility Management (FM) practise is very slow and should be improved. One way to encourage and ease the usage of mobile computer systems in AEC is a more process-oriented usability and context appropriateness of mobile computer solutions. Context-sensitivity is defined as a crucial feature to be taken into account for further research in the area of Mobile Computing. Context-sensitive, mobile IT-solutions depend on two features: (1) flexible definitions of (construction) processes describing the context and (2) tools for flexible, multi-dimensional information management representing the context. It is on this premise that the authors propose the n-dimensional data management approach for the implementation of mobile computing solutions. In this paper, we analyse working scenarios in the AEC and FM sector, defining context aspects which are transformed and formalized as dimension hierarchies of the envisaged context model.