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Wir betrachten im ÖPNV (Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr) diejenige Situation, daß zwei Bus- oder Straßenbahnlinien gemeinsame Haltestellen haben. Ziel unserer Untersuchungen ist es, für beide Linien einen solchen Fahrplan zu finden, der für die Fahrgäste möglichst viel Bequemlichkeit bietet. Die Bedarfsstruktur - die Anzahl von Personen, die die beiden Linien benutzen - setzt dabei gewisse Beschränkungen für die Taktzeiten der beiden Linien. Die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten sollen im Sinne der Zielstellung ausgenutzt werden. Im Vortrag wird folgenden Fragen nachgegangen: - nach welchen Kriterien kann man die "Bequemlichkeit" oder die "Synchonisationsgüte" messen? - wie kann man die einzelnen "Synchronisationsmaße" berechnen ? - wie kann man die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten nutzen, um eine möglichst gute Synchronisation zu erreichen ? Die Ergebnisse werden dann auf einige Beispiele angewandt und mit den bereitgestellten Methoden Lösungsvorschläge unterbreitet.

Im Bereich der Altbausanierung und der Bestandserfassung im Bauwesen ist es häufig notwendig, bestehende Pläne hinsichtlich des Bauwerkszustandes zu aktualisieren oder, wenn diese Pläne nicht (mehr) zugänglich sind, gänzlich neue Planunterlagen des Ist-Zustandes zu erstellen. Ein komfortabler Weg, diese Bauwerksdaten zu erheben, eröffnet die Technologie der Laservermessung. Der vorliegende Artikel stellt in diesem Zusammenhang Ansätze zur Teilautomatisierung der Generierung eines dreidimensionalen Computermodells eines Bauwerkes vor. Als Ergebnis wird ein Volumenmodell bereitgestellt, in dem zunächst die geometrischen und topologischen Informationen über Flächen, Kanten und Punkte im Sinne eines B-rep Modells beschrieben sind. Die Objekte dieses Volumenmodells werden mit Verfahren aus dem Bereich der künstlichen Intelligenz analysiert und in Bauteilklassen systematisch kategorisiert. Die Kenntnis der Bauteilsemantik erlaubt es somit, aus den Daten ein Bauwerks-Produktmodell abzuleiten und dieses einzelnen Fachplanern – etwa zur Erstellung eines Energiepasses – zugänglich zu machen. Der Aufsatz zeigt den erfolgreichen Einsatz virtueller neuronaler Netze im Bereich der Bestandserfassung anhand eines komplexen Beispiels.

The use of virtual reality techniques in the development of educational applications brings new perspectives to the teaching of subjects related to the field of civil construction in Civil Engineering domain. In order to obtain models, which would be able to visually simulate the construction process of two types of construction work, the research turned to the techniques of geometric modelling and virtual reality. The applications developed for this purpose are concerned with the construction of a cavity wall and a bridge. These models make it possible to view the physical evolution of the work, to follow the planned construction sequence and to visualize details of the form of every component of the works. They also support the study of the type and method of operation of the equipment necessary for these construction procedures. These models have been used to distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil Engineering. Normally, three-dimensional geometric models, which are used to present architectural and engineering works, show only their final form, not allowing the observation of their physical evolution. The visual simulation of the construction process needs to be able to produce changes to the geometry of the project dynamically. In the present study, two engineering construction work models were created, from which it was possible to obtain three-dimensional models corresponding to different states of their form, simulating distinct stages in their construction. Virtual reality technology was applied to the 3D models. Virtual reality capacities allow the interactive real-time viewing of 3D building models and facilitate the process of visualizing, evaluating and communicating.

VARIATION OF ROTATIONAL RESTRAINT IN GRID DECK CONNECTION DUE TO CORROSION DAMAGE AND STRENGTHENING
(2006)

The approach to assessment of rotational restraint of stringer-to-crossbeam connection in a deck of 100-year old steel truss bridge is presented. Sensitivity of rotational restraint coefficient of the connection to corrosion damage and strengthening is analyzed. Two criteria of the assessment of the rotational restraint coefficient are applied: static and kinematic one. The former is based on bending moment distribution in the considered member, the latter one – on the member rotation at the given joint. 2D-element model of finite element method is described: webs and flanges are modeled with shell elements, while rivets in the connection – with system of beam and spring elements. The method of rivet modeling is verified by T-stub connection test results published in literature. FEM analyses proved that recorded extent of corrosion damage does not alter the initial rotational restraint of stringer-to-crossbeam connection. Strengthening of stringer midspan influences midspan bending moment and stringer end rotation in a different way. Usually restoring member load bearing capacity means strengthening its critical regions (where the highest stress levels occur). This alters flexural stiffness distribution over member length and influences rotational restraint at its connection to other members. The impact depends on criterion chosen for rotational restraint coefficient assessment.

Adopting the European laws concerning environmental protection will require sustained efforts of the authorities and communities from Romania; implementing modern solutions will become a fast and effective option for the improvement of the functioning systems, in order to prevent disasters. As a part of the urban infrastructure, the drainage networks of pluvial and residual waters are included in the plan of promoting the systems which protect the environmental quality, with the purpose of integrated and adaptive management. The paper presents a distributed control system for sewer network of Iasi town. Unsatisfactory technical state of the actual sewer system is exposed, focusing on objectives related to implementation of the control system. The proposed distributed control system of Iasi drainage network is based on the implementation of the hierarchic control theory for diagnose, sewer planning and management. There are proposed two control levels: coordinating and local execution. Configuration of the distributed control system, including data acquisition and conversion equipment, interface characteristics, local data bus, data communication network, station configuration are widely described. The project wish to be an useful instrument for the local authorities in the preventing and reducing the impact of future natural disasters over the urban areas by means of modern technologies.

Interval analysis extends the concept of computing with real numbers to computing with real intervals. As a consequence, some interesting properties appear, such as the delivery of guaranteed results or confirmed global values. The former property is given in the sense that unknown numerical values are in known to lie in a computed interval. The latter property states that the global minimum value, for example, of a given function is also known to be contained in a interval (or a finite set of intervals). Depending upon the amount computation effort invested in the calculation, we can often find tight bounds on these enclosing intervals. The downside of interval analysis, however, is the mathematically correct, but often very pessimistic size of the interval result. This is in particularly due to the so-called dependency effect, where a single variable is used multiple times in one calculation. Applying interval analysis to structural analysis problems, the dependency has a great influence on the quality of numerical results. In this paper, a brief background of interval analysis is presented and shown how it can be applied to the solution of structural analysis problems. A discussion of possible improvements as well as an outlook to parallel computing is also given.

Der Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Bewertung von Verkehrsnetzen. Aus der Sicht der Nutzer des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs (ÖPNV) ist eines der wichtigsten Kriterien zur Beurteilung der Qualität des Liniennetzes, ob es möglich ist, mit einer großen Sicherheit das Reiseziel in einer vorgegebenen Zeit zu erreichen. Im Vortrag soll dieser Zuverlässigkeitsbegriff mathematisch gefasst werden. Dabei wird zunächst auf den üblichen Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit eines Netzes im Sinne paarweiser Zusammenhangswahrscheinlichkeiten eingegangen. Dieser Begriff wird erweitert durch die Betrachtung der Zuverlässigkeit unter Einbeziehung einer maximal zulässigen Reisezeit. In vergangenen Arbeiten hat sich die Ring-Radius-Struktur als bewährtes Modell für die theoretische Beschreibung von Verkehrsnetzen erwiesen. Diese Überlegungen sollen nun durch Einbeziehung realer Verkehrsnetzstrukturen erweitert werden. Als konkretes Beispiel dient das Straßenbahnnetz von Krakau. Hier soll insbesondere untersucht werden, welche Auswirkungen ein geplanter Ausbau des Netzes auf die Zuverlässigkeit haben wird. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

The execution of project activities generally requires the use of (renewable) resources like machines, equipment or manpower. The resource allocation problem consists in assigning time intervals to the execution of the project activities while taking into account temporal constraints between activities emanating from technological or organizational requirements and costs incurred by the resource allocation. If the total procurement cost of the different renewable resources has to be minimized we speak of a resource investment problem. If the cost depends on the smoothness of the resource utilization over time the underlying problem is called a resource levelling problem. In this paper we consider a new tree-based enumeration method for solving resource investment and resource levelling problems exploiting some fundamental properties of spanning trees. The enumeration scheme is embedded in a branch-and-bound procedure using a workload-based lower bound and a depth first search. Preliminary computational results show that the proposed procedure is promising for instances with up to 30 activities.

Digital models of buildings are widely used in civil engineering. In these models, geometric information is used as leading information. Engineers are used to have geometric information, and, for instance, it is state of the art to specify a point by its three coordinates. However, the traditional approaches have disadvantages. Geometric information is over-determined. Thus, more geometric information is specified and stored than needed. In addition, engineers already deal with topological information. A denotation of objects in buildings is of topological nature. It has to be answered whether approaches where topological information becomes a leading role would be more efficient in civil engineering. This paper presents such an approach. Topological information is modelled independently of geometric information. It is used for denoting the objects of a building. Geometric information is associated to topological information so that geometric information “weights” a topology.
The concept presented in this paper has already been used in surveying existing buildings. Experiences in the use of this concept showed that the number of geometric information that is required for a complete specification of a building could be reduced by a factor up to 100. Further research will show how this concept can be used in planning processes.

Design activity could be treated as state transition computationally. In stepwise processing, in-between form-states are not easily observed. However, in this research time-based concept is introduced and applied in order to bridge the gap. In architecture, folding is one method of form manipulation and architects also want to search for alternatives by this operation. Besides, folding operation has to be defined and parameterized before time factor is involved as a variable of folding. As a result, time-based transformation provides sequential form states and redirects design activity.

The concrete is modeled as a material with damage and plasticity, whereat the viscoplastic and the viscoelastic behaviour depends on the rate of the total strains. Due to the damage behaviour the compliance tensor develops different properties in tension and compression. There have been tested various yield surfaces and flow rules, damage rules respectively to their usability in a concrete model. One three-dimensional yield surface was developed from a failure surface based on the Willam--Warnke five-parameter model by the author. Only one general uni-axial stress-strain-relation is used for the numeric control of the yield surface. From that curve all necessary parameters for different strengths of concrete and different strain rates can be derived by affine transformations. For the flow rule in the compression zone a non associated inelastic potential is used, in the tension zone a Rankine potential. Conditional on the time-dependent formulation, the symmetry of the system equations is maintained in spite of the usage of non-associated potentials for the derivation of the inelastic strains. In case of quasi statical computations a simple viscoplastic law is used that is rested on an approach to Perzyna. The principle of equality of dissipation power in the uni-axial and the three-axial state of stress is used. It is modified by a factor that depends on the actual stress ratio and in comparison with the Kupfer experiments it implicates strains that are more realistic. The implementation of the concrete model is conducted in a mixed hybrid finite element. Examples in the structural level are introduced for verification of the concrete model.

For assessment of old buildings, thermal graphic analysis aided with infra-red camera have been employed in a wide range nowadays. Image processing and evaluation can be economically practicable only if the image evaluation can also be automated to the largest extend. For that reason methods of computer vision are presented in this paper to evaluate thermal images. To detect typical thermal image elements, such as thermal bridges and lintels in thermal images respectively gray value images, methods of digital image processing have been applied, of which numerical procedures are available to transform, modify and encode images. At the same time, image processing can be regarded as a multi-stage process. In order to be able to accomplish the process of image analysis from image formation through perfecting and segmentation to categorization, appropriate functions must be implemented. For this purpose, different measuring procedures and methods for automated detection and evaluation have been tested.

The Lucas-Kanade tracker has proven to be an efficient and accurate method for calculation of the optical flow. However, this algorithm can reliably track only suitable image features like corners and edges. Therefore, the optical flow can only be calculated for a few points in each image, resulting in sparse optical flow fields. Accumulation of these vectors over time is a suitable method to retrieve a dense motion vector field. However, the accumulation process limits application of the proposed method to fixed camera setups. Here, a histogram based approach is favored to allow more than a single typical flow vector per pixel. The resulting vector field can be used to detect roads and prescribed driving directions which constrain object movements. The motion structure can be modeled as a graph. The nodes represent entry and exit points for road users as well as crossings, while the edges represent typical paths.

Due to the amount of flow simulation and measurement data, automatic detection, classification and visualization of features is necessary for an inspection. Therefore, many automated feature detection methods have been developed in recent years. However, only one feature class is visualized afterwards in most cases, and many algorithms have problems in the presence of noise or superposition effects. In contrast, image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and other filter can be analyzed in detail. An application of these methods to vector fields would provide a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. The authors suggest Clifford algebra as a mathematical framework for this task. Clifford algebra provides a unified notation for scalars and vectors as well as a multiplication of all basis elements. The Clifford product of two vectors provides the complete geometric information of the relative positions of these vectors. Integration of this product results in Clifford correlation and convolution which can be used for template matching of vector fields. For frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters, a Clifford Fourier transform has been derived for 2D and 3D. Convolution and other theorems have been proved, and fast algorithms for the computation of the Clifford Fourier transform exist. Therefore the computation of Clifford convolution can be accelerated by computing it in Clifford Fourier domain. Clifford convolution and Fourier transform can be used for a thorough analysis and subsequent visualization of flow fields.

This contribution will be freewheeling in the domain of signal, image and surface processing and touch briefly upon some topics that have been close to the heart of people in our research group. A lot of the research of the last 20 years in this domain that has been carried out world wide is dealing with multiresolution. Multiresolution allows to represent a function (in the broadest sense) at different levels of detail. This was not only applied in signals and images but also when solving all kinds of complex numerical problems. Since wavelets came into play in the 1980's, this idea was applied and generalized by many researchers. Therefore we use this as the central idea throughout this text. Wavelets, subdivision and hierarchical bases are the appropriate tools to obtain these multiresolution effects. We shall introduce some of the concepts in a rather informal way and show that the same concepts will work in one, two and three dimensions. The applications in the three cases are however quite different, and thus one wants to achieve very different goals when dealing with signals, images or surfaces. Because completeness in our treatment is impossible, we have chosen to describe two case studies after introducing some concepts in signal processing. These case studies are still the subject of current research. The first one attempts to solve a problem in image processing: how to approximate an edge in an image efficiently by subdivision. The method is based on normal offsets. The second case is the use of Powell-Sabin splines to give a smooth multiresolution representation of a surface. In this context we also illustrate the general method of construction of a spline wavelet basis using a lifting scheme.

The ride of the tram along the line, defined by a time-table, consists of the travel time between the subsequent sections and the time spent by tram on the stops. In the paper, statistical data collected in the city of Krakow is presented and evaluated. In polish conditions, for trams the time spent on stops makes up the remarkable amount of 30 % of the total time of tram line operation. Moreover, this time is characterized by large variability. The time spent by tram on a stop consists of alighting and boarding time and time lost by tram on stop after alighting and boarding time ending, but before departure. Alighting and boarding time itself usually depends on the random number of alighting and boarding passengers and also on the number of passengers which are inside the vehicle. However, the time spent by tram on stop after alighting and boarding time ending is an effect of certain random events, mainly because of impossibility of departure from stop, caused by lack of priorities for public transport vehicles. The main focus of the talk lies on the description and the modelling of these effects. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

The paper presents a linear static analysis on continuous orthotropic thin-walled shell structures simply supported at the transverse ends with a random deformable contour of the cross section. The external loads can be random as well. The class of this structures involves most of the bridges, scaffold bridges, some roof structures etc. A numerical example of steel continuous structures on five spans with an open contour of the cross-section has been solved. The examination of the structure has used the following two computation models: a prismatic structure consisting of isotropic strips, a plates and ribs, with considering their real interaction, and a smooth orthotropic plate equivalent to the structure in the first model. The displacements and forces of the structure characterizing its stressed and deformed condition have been determined. The results obtained from the two solutions have been analyzed. The study on the structure is made with the force method in combination with the analytical finite strip method (AFSM) in displacements. The basic system is obtained by separating the superstructure from the understructure at the places of intermediate supports and consists of two parts. The first part is a single span thin-walled prismatic shell structure; the second part presents supports (columns, space frames etc.). The connection between the superstructure and intermediate supports is made under random supporting conditions. The forces at the supporting points in the direction of the connections removed are assumed to be the basic unknowns of the force method. The solution of the superstructure has been accomplished by the AFSM in displacements. The structure is divided in only one (transverse) direction into a finite number of plain strips connected to each other in longitudinal linear nodes. The three displacements of the points on the node lines and the rotation around those lines have been assumed to be the basic unknown in each node. The boundary conditions of each strip of the basic system correspond to the simply support along the transverse ends and the restraint along the longitudinal ones. The particular strip of the basic system has been solved by the method of the single trigonometric series. The method is reduced to solving a discrete structure in displacements and restoring its continuity at the places of the sections made in respect to both the displacements and forces. The two parts of the basic system have been solved in sequence under the action of single values of each of the basic unknowns and with the external load. The solution of the support part is accomplished using software for analyzing structures by the FEM. The basic unknown forces have been determined from system of canonic equations, the conditions of the deformations continuity on the places of the removed connections under superstructure and intermediate supports. The final displacements and forces at a random point of a continuous superstructure have been determined using the principle of superposition. The computations have been carried by software developed with Visual Fortran version 5.0 for PC.

This research focuses on an approach to describe principles in architectural layout planning within the domain of revitalization. With the aid of mathematical rules, which are executed by a computer, solutions to design problems are generated. Provided that "design" is in principle a combinatorial problem, i.e. a constraint-based search for an overall optimal solution of a problem, an exemplary method will be described to solve such problems in architectural layout planning. To avoid conflicts relating to theoretical subtleness, a customary approach adopted from Operations Research has been chosen in this work. In this approach, design is a synonym for planning, which could be described as a systematic and methodical course of action for the analysis and solution of current or future problems. The planning task is defined as an analysis of a problem with the aim to prepare optimal decisions by the use of mathematical methods. The decision problem of a planning task is represented by an optimization model and the application of an efficient algorithm in order to aid finding one or more solutions to the problem. The basic principle underlying the approach presented herein is the understanding of design in terms of searching for solutions that fulfill specific criteria. This search is executed by the use of a constraint programming language.

The paper is dedicated to decidability exploration of market segmentation problem with the help of linear convolution algorithms. Mathematical formulation of this problem represents interval task of bipartite graph cover by stars. Vertices of the first partition correspond to types of commodities, vertices of the second – to customers groups. Appropriate method is offered for interval problem reduction to two-criterion task that has one implemented linear convolution algorithm. Unsolvability with the help of linear convolution algorithm of multicriterion, and consequently interval, market segmentation problem is proved.

We consider efficient numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations with stochastic coefficients or right hand side. The discretization is performed by the stochastic finite element method (SFEM). Separation of spatial and stochastic variables in the random input data is achieved via a Karhunen-Loève expansion or Wiener's polynomial chaos expansion. We discuss solution strategies for the Galerkin system that take advantage of the special structure of the system matrix. For stochastic coefficients linear in a set of independent random variables we employ Krylov subspace recycling techniques after having decoupled the large SFEM stiffness matrix.

The contribution presents a model that is able to simulate construction duration and cost for a building project. This model predicts set of expected project costs and duration schedule depending on input parameters such as production speed, scope of work, time schedule, bonding conditions and maximum and minimum deviations from scope of work and production speed. The simulation model is able to calculate, on the basis of input level of probability, the adequate construction cost and time duration of a project. The reciprocal view attends to finding out the adequate level of probability for construction cost and activity durations. Among interpretive outputs of the application software belongs the compilation of a presumed dynamic progress chart. This progress chart represents the expected scenario of development of a building project with the mapping of potential time dislocations for particular activities. The calculation of a presumed dynamic progress chart is based on an algorithm, which calculates mean values as a partial result of the simulated building project. Construction cost and time models are, in many ways, useful tools in project management. Clients are able to make proper decisions about the time and cost schedules of their investments. Consequently, building contractors are able to schedule predicted project cost and duration before any decision is finalized.

A new application of software technology is the application area of smart living or sustainable living. Within this area application platforms are designed and realized with the goal to support value added services. In this context value added services integrates microelectronics, home automation and services to enhance the attractiveness of flats, homes and buildings. Especially real estate companies or service providers dealing with home services are interested in an effective design and management of their services. Service Engineering is the approved approach for designing customer oriented service processes. Service engineering consists of several phases; from situation analysis to service creation and service design to service management. This article will describe how the method service blueprint can be used to design service processes. Smart living includes all actions to enlarge a flat to a smart home for living. One special requirement of this application domain is the use of local components (actuators, sensors) within service processes. This article will show how this extended method supports service providers to improve the quality of customer oriented service processes and the derivation of needed interfaces of involved actors. For the civil engineering process it will be possible to derive needed information from a built in home automation system. The aim is to show, how to get needed smart local components to fullfill later offered it-supported value added services. Value added services focused on inhabitants are grouped to consulting and information, care and supervision, leisure time activities, repairs, mobility and delivery, safety and security, supply and disposal.

In distributed project organisations and collaboration there is a need for integrating unstructured self-contained text information with structured project data. We consider this a process of text integration in which various text technologies can be used to externalise text content and consolidate it into structured information or flexibly interlink it with corresponding information bases. However, the effectiveness of text technologies and the potentials of text integration greatly vary with the type of documents, the project setup and the available background knowledge. The goal of our research is to establish text technologies within collaboration environments to allow for (a) flexibly combining appropriate text and data management technologies, (b) utilising available context information and (c) the sharing of text information in accordance to the most critical integration tasks. A particular focus is on Semantic Service Environments that leverage on Web service and Semantic Web technologies and adequately support the required systems integration and parallel processing of semi-structured and structured information. The paper presents an architecture for text integration that extends Semantic Service Environments with two types of integration services. Backbone to the Information Resource Sharing and Integration Service is a shared environment ontology that consolidates information on the project context and the available model, text and general linguistic resources. It also allows for the configuration of Semantic Text Analysis and Annotation Services to analyse the text documents as well as for capturing the discovered text information and sharing it through semantic notification and retrieval engines. A particular focus of the paper is the definition of the overall integration process configuring a complementary set of analyses and information sharing components.

RESEARCH OF DEFORMATION OF MULTILAYERED PLATES ON UNDEFORMABLE BASIS BY UNFLEXURAL SPECIFIED MODEL
(2006)

Stress-strain state (SSS) of multilayered plates on undeformable foundation is investigated. The settlement circuit of transverse loaded plate is formed by symmetrical attaching of a plate concerning a surface of contact to the foundation. The plate of the double thickness becomes bilateral symmetrically loaded concerning its median surface. It allows to model only unflexural deformation that reduces amount of unknown and the general order of differentiation of resolving system of the equations. The developed refined continual model takes into account deformations of transverse shear and transverse compression in high iterative approximation. Rigid contact between the foundation and a plate, and also shear without friction on a surface of contact of a plate with the foundation is considered. Calculations confirm efficiency of such approach, allowing to receive decisions which is qualitative and quantitatively close to three-dimensional solutions.

In this paper we consider three different methods for generating monogenic functions. The first one is related to Fueter's well known approach to the generation of monogenic quaternion-valued functions by means of holomorphic functions, the second one is based on the solution of hypercomplex differential equations and finally the third one is a direct series approach, based on the use of special homogeneous polynomials. We illustrate the theory by generating three different exponential functions and discuss some of their properties. Formula que se usa em preprints e artigos da nossa UI&D (acho demasiado completo): Partially supported by the R\&D unit \emph{Matem\'atica a Aplica\c\~es} (UIMA) of the University of Aveiro, through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), co-financed by the European Community fund FEDER.

The concept is presented of the sensitivity analysis of the limit state of the structure with respect to selected basic variables. The sensitivity is presented in the form of the probability distribution of the limit state of the structure. The analysis is performed by the problem-oriented Monte Carlo simulation procedure. The procedure is based on the problem's definition of the elementary event, as a structural limit state. Thus the sample space consists of limit states of the structure. Defined on the sample space the one-dimensional random multiplier is introduced. This multiplier refers to the dominant basic variable (group of variables) of the problem. Numerical procedure results in the set of random numbers. Normalized relative histogram of this set is an estimator of the PDF of the limit state of the structure. Estimators of reliability, or the probability of failure are statistical characteristics of this histogram. The procedure is illustrated by the example of sensitivity analysis of the serviceability limit state of monumental structure. It is the colonnade of Licheń Basilica, situated in central Poland. Limit state of the structure is examined with reference to the upper deck horizontal deflection. Wind actions are taken as dominant variables. An assumption is made that the wind load intensities acting on the lower and on the upper storey of the colonnade, respectively, are identically distributed, but correlated random variables. Three correlation variants of these variables are considered. Relevant limit state histograms are analysed thereafter. The paper ends with the conclusions referring to the method and some general remarks on the fully probabilistic design.

The paper proposes a new method for general 3D measurement and 3D point reconstruction. Looking at its features, the method explicitly aims at practical applications. These features especially cover low technical expenses and minimal user interaction, a clear problem separation into steps that are solved by simple mathematical methods (direct, stable and optimal with respect to least error squares), and scalability. The method expects the internal and radial distortion parameters of the used camera(s) as inputs, and a plane quadrangle with known geometry within the scene. At first, for each single picture the 3D position of the reference quadrangle (with respect to each camera coordinate frame) is calculated. These 3D reconstructions of the reference quadrangle are then used to yield the relative external parameters of each camera regarding the first one. With known external parameters, triangulation is finally possible. The differences from other known procedures are outlined, paying attention to the stable mathematical methods (no usage of nonlinear optimization) and the low user interaction with good results at the same time.

Traffic simulation is a valuable tool for the design and evaluation of road networks. Over the years, the level of detail to which urban and freeway traffic can be simulated has increased steadily, shifting from a merely qualitative macroscopic perspective to a very detailed microscopic view, where the behavior of individual vehicles is emulated realistically. With the improvement of behavioral models, however, the computational complexity has also steadily increased, as more and more aspects of real-life traffic have to be considered by the simulation environment. Despite the constant increase in computing power of modern personal computers, microscopic simulation stays computationally expensive, limiting the maximum network size than can be simulated on a single-processor computer in reasonable time. Parallelization can distribute the computing load from a single computer system to a cluster of several computing nodes. To this end, the exisiting simulation framework had to be adapted to allow for a distributed approach. As the simulation is ultimately targeted to be executed in real-time, incorporating real traffic data, only a spatial partition of the simulation was considered, meaning the road network has to be partitioned into subnets of comparable complexity, to ensure a homogenous load balancing. The partition process must also ensure, that the division between subnets does only occur in regions, where no strong interaction between the separated road segments occurs (i.e. not in the direct vicinity of junctions). In this paper, we describe a new microscopic reasoning voting strategy, and discuss in how far the increasing computational costs of these more complex behaviors lend themselves to a parallelized approach. We show the parallel architecture employed, the communication between computing units using MPIJava, and the benefits and pitfalls of adapting a single computer application to be used on a multi-node computing cluster.

In civil engineering it is very difficult and often expensive to excite constructions such as bridges and buildings with an impulse hammer or shaker. This problem can be avoided with the output-only method as special feature of stochastic system identification. The permanently existing ambient noise (e.g. wind, traffic, waves) is sufficient to excite the structures in their operational conditions. The output-only method is able to estimate the observable part of a state-space-model which contains the dynamic characteristics of the measured mechanical system. Because of the assumption that the ambient excitation is white there is no requirement to measure the input. Another advantage of the output-only method is the possibility to get high detailed models by a special method, called polyreference setup. To pretend the availability of a much larger set of sensors the data from varying sensor locations will be collected. Several successive data sets are recorded with sensors at different locations (moving sensors) and fixed locations (reference sensors). The covariance functions of the reference sensors are bases to normalize the moving sensors. The result of the following subspace-based system identification is a high detailed black-box-model that contains the weighting function including the well-known dynamic parameters eigenfrequencies and mode shapes of the mechanical system. Emphasis of this lecture is the presentation of an extensive damage detection experiment. A 53-year old prestressed concrete tied-arch-bridge in Hünxe (Germany) was deconstructed in 2005. Preliminary numerous vibration measurements were accomplished. The first experiment for system modification was an additional support near the bridge bearing of one main girder. During a further experiment one hanger from one tied arch was cut through as an induced damage. Some first outcomes of the described experiments will be presented.

This paper deals with the development of a new multi-objective evolution strategy in combination with an integrated pollution-load and water-quality model. The optimization algorithm combines the advantages of the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm and Self-Adaptive Evolution Strategies. The identification of a good spread of solutions on the pareto-optimum front and the optimization of a large number of decision variables equally demands numerous simulation runs. In addition, statements with regard to the frequency of critical concentrations and peak discharges require continuous long-term simulations. Therefore, a fast operating integrated simulation model is needed providing the required precision of the results. For this purpose, a hydrological deterministic pollution-load model has been coupled with a river water-quality and a rainfall-runoff model. Wastewater treatment plants are simulated in a simplified way. The functionality of the optimization and simulation tool has been validated by analyzing a real catchment area including sewer system, WWTP, water body and natural river basin. For the optimization/rehabilitation of the urban drainage system, both innovative and approved measures have been examined and used as decision variables. As objective functions, investment costs and river water quality criteria have been used.

In many branches companies often lose the visibility of their human and technical resources of their field service. On the one hand the people in the fieldservice are often free like kings on the other hand they do not take part of the daily communication in the central office and suffer under the lacking involvement in the decisions inside the central office. The result is inefficiency. Reproaches in both directions follow. With the radio systems and then mobile phones the ditch began to dry up. But the solutions are far from being productive.

ON THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH FREE CONVECTION IN STRIP DOMAINS AND 3D TRIANGULAR CHANNELS
(2006)

The Navier-Stokes equations and related ones can be treated very elegantly with the quaternionic operator calculus developed in a series of works by K. Guerlebeck, W. Sproeossig and others. This study will be extended in this paper. In order to apply the quaternionic operator calculus to solve these types of boundary value problems fully explicitly, one basically needs to evaluate two types of integral operators: the Teodorescu operator and the quaternionic Bergman projector. While the integral kernel of the Teodorescu transform is universal for all domains, the kernel function of the Bergman projector, called the Bergman kernel, depends on the geometry of the domain. With special variants of quaternionic holomorphic multiperiodic functions we obtain explicit formulas for three dimensional parallel plate channels, rectangular block domains and regular triangular channels. The explicit knowledge of the integral kernels makes it then possible to evaluate the operator equations in order to determine the solutions of the boundary value problem explicitly.

We show a close relation between the Schrödinger equation and the conductivity equation to a Vekua equation of a special form. Under quite general conditions we propose an algorithm for explicit construction of pseudoanalytic positive formal powers for the Vekua equation that as a consequence gives us a complete system of solutions for the Schrödinger and the conductivity equations. Besides the construction of complete systems of exact solutions for the above mentioned second order equations and the Dirac equation, we discuss some other applications of pseudoanalytic function theory.

Durch die Betrachtung des Produktions-Prozesses als zentrales Transformationselement wird die Struktur der Bauproduktion realitätsnah gefasst. Die Integration der prozessorientierten Kostendefinition setzt relevante Kostenparameter und Produktionsfaktoren so in Beziehung, dass sie im Einklang mit der realen Kostenstruktur und Kostendynamik einer Baustelle stehen. Die Beziehung zwischen Bauzeit und Kosten wird direkt erfasst und ausgewertet. Der hohen Dynamik der Bauproduktion zwischen kapazitätsbeschränkten Einsatzmitteln und Produktionsprozessen wurde durch das Poolmodell und der Simulation als Berechnungsmethode Rechnung getragen. Eine einfache Modellierung von sich zyklusartig wiederholenden Arbeitsvorgängen (Taktplanung) ist möglich. Die Taktbildung vollzieht sich bei der Simulation durch Kapazitätsbeschränkungen ohne Zutun des Benutzers. Durch eine Optimierungsmethode kann automatisiert nach der kostengünstigsten oder zeitlich schnellsten Produktionsvariante gesucht werden

Requires for reliability and durability of structures and their elements with simultaneous material economy have stimulated improvement of constitutive equations for description of elasto-plastic deformation processes. This has led to the development of phenomenological modelling of complex phenomena of irreversible deformation including history-dependent and rate-dependent effects. During the last several decades many works have been devoted to the development of elasto-plastic models, in order to better predict the material behavior under combined variable thermo-mechanical loading. The increase of accuracy of stress analysis and safety factors for complex structures with the help of modern finite-element packages (ABAQUS, ANSYS, COSMOS, LS-DYNA, MSC.MARC, MSC.NASTRAN, PERMAS and other) can be provided only by use of complex and special variants of plasticity theories, which are adequate for the considered loading conditions and based on authentic information about properties of materials. The areas of application of the various theories (models) are as a rule unknown to the users of finite-element packages at the existing variety loading condition sin machine-building designs. At the moment a universal theory of inelasticity is absent and even the most accomplished theories can not guarantee adequate description of deformation processes for arbitrary structure under wide range of loading programs. The classifier of materials, loading conditions, effects (phenomena) and list of basic experiments are developed by the authors. Use of these classifiers for an establishment of hierarchy of models is a first step for introduction of the multimodel analysis into computational practice. The set of the classic and modern inelasticity theories is considered, so that they are applicable for stress analysis of structures under complex loading programs. Among them there are plastic flow theories with linear and nonlinear isotropic and kinematic hardening, multisurface theories, endochronic theory, holonomic theory, rheologic models, theory of elasto-plastic processes, slip theory, physical theories (single crystal and polycrystalline models) and others. The classification of materials provides rearranging by a degree of homogeneous, chemical composition, level of strength and plasticity, behavior under cyclic loading, anisotropy of properties at initial condition, anisotropy of properties during deformation process, structural stability. The classification of loading conditions takes into consideration proportional and non-proportional loading, temperature range, combination of cyclic and monotonous loading, one-axial, two-axial and complex stress state, curvature of strain path, presence of stress concentrators and level of strain gradient. A unified general form of constitutive equations is presented for all used material models based upon the concept of internal state variables. The wide range of mentioned above inelastic material models has been implemented into finite element program PANTOCRATOR developed by authors (see for details www.pantocrator.narod.ru). Application possibility of different material models is considered both for material element and for complex structures subjected to complex non-proportional loading.

The mathematical and technical foundations of optimization have been developed to a large extent. In the design of buildings, however, optimization is rarely applied because of insufficient adaptation of this method to the needs of building design. The use of design optimization requires the consideration of all relevant objectives in an interactive and multidisciplinary process. Disciplines such as structural, light, and thermal engineering, architecture, and economics impose various objectives on the design. A good solution calls for a compromise between these often contradictory objectives. This presentation outlines a method for the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) as a tool for the designing of buildings. An optimization model is established considering the fact that in building design the non-numerical aspects are of major importance than in other engineering disciplines. A component-based decomposition enables the designer to manage the non-numerical aspects in an interactive design optimization process. A façade example demonstrates a way how the different disciplines interact and how the components integrate the disciplines in one optimization model. In this grid-based façade example, the materials switch between a discrete number of materials and construction types. For light and thermal engineering, architecture, and economics, analysis functions calculate the performance; utility functions serve as an important means for the evaluation since not every increase or decrease of a physical value improves the design. For experimental purposes, a genetic algorithm applied to the exemplary model demonstrates the use of optimization in this design case. A component-based representation first serves to manage non-numerical characteristics such as aesthetics. Furthermore, it complies with usual fabrication methods in building design and with object-oriented data handling in CAD. Therefore, components provide an important basis for an interactive MDO process in building design.

MODELLING THE PLASTIC HINGE IN THE STATICALLY INDETERMINABLE REINFORCED CONCRETE BAR ELEMENTS
(2006)

The paper presents the example numerical model to calculate the reinforced concrete bar structures. Usually applied methods of structure dimensioning do not include the case of plastic hinges occurrence under the limit load of construction. The model represented by A. Borcz is based on the differential equation of deflection line of the beam and it includes the effects of rearrangement of the internal forces and reological effects. The experimental parameters obtained in earlier investigations describe effects resulting from the rise of plastic hinges in the proposed equation.

Subject of the paper is the realisation of a model based efficiency control system for PV generators using a simulation model. A standard 2-diodes model of PV generator is base of the ColSim model, which is implemented in ANSI C code for flexible code exporting. The algorithm is based on discretisized U-I characteristics, which allows the calculation of string topologies witch parallel and serial PV cells and modules. Shadowing effects can be modelled down to cell configuration using polar horizon definitions. The simulation model was ported to a real time environment, to calculate the efficiency of a PV system. Embedded System technology allows the networked operation and the integration of standard I/O devices. Futher work focus on the adaption of shadowing routine, which will be adapted to get the environment conditions from the real operation.

MODEL OF TRAM LINE OPERATION
(2006)

From passenger's perspective punctuality is one of the most important features of trams operations. Unfortunately in most cases this feature is only insufficiently fulfilled. In this paper we present a simulation model for trams operation with special focus on punctuality. The aim is to get a helpful tool for designing time-tables and for analyzing the effects by changing priorities for trams in traffic lights respectively the kind of track separation. A realization of trams operations is assumed to be a sequence of running times between successive stops and times spent by tram at the stops. In this paper the running time is modeled by the sum of its mean value and a zero-mean random variable. With the help of multiple regression we find out that the average running time is a function depending on the length of the sections and the number of intersections. The random component is modeled by a sum of two independent zero-mean random variables. One of these variables describes the disturbance caused by the process of waiting at an intersection and the other the disturbance caused by the process of driving. The time spent at a stop is assumed to be a random variable, too. Its distribution is estimated from given measurements of these stop times for different tram lines in Kraków. Finally a special case of the introduced model is considered and numerical results are presented. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

In diesem Beitrag wird eine mobile Software-Komponente zur Vor-Ort-Unterstützung von Bauwerksprüfungen gemäß DIN 1076 „Ingenieurbauwerke im Zuge von Strassen und Wegen, Überwachung und Prüfung“ vorgestellt, welche sich im praktischen Einsatz bei der Hochbahn AG Hamburg befindet. Mit Hilfe dieses Werkzeugs kann die Aktivität am Bauwerk in den gesamten softwaregestützten Geschäftsprozess der auwerksinstandhaltung integriert und somit die Bearbeitungszeit einer Bauwerksprüfung von der Vorbereitung bis zur Prüfbericht-Erstellung reduziert werden. Die Technologie des Mobile Computing wird unter Berücksichtigung spezieller fachlicher Randbedingungen, wie z.B. dem Einsatzort unter freiem Himmel, erläutert und es werden Methoden zur effizienten Datenerfassung mit Stift und Sprache vorgestellt und bewertet. Ferner wird die Einschränkung der Hardware durch die geringere Größe der Endgeräte, die sich durch die Bedingung der Mobilität ergibt, untersucht.

Due to economical, technical or political reasons all over the world about 100 nuclear power plants have been disconnected until today. All these power stations are still waiting for their complete dismantling which, considering one reactor, causes cost of up to one Bil. Euros and lasts up to 15 years. In our contribution we present a resource-constrained project scheduling approach minimizing the total discounted cost of dismantling a nuclear power plant. A project of dismantling a nuclear power plant can be subdivided into a number of disassembling activities. The execution of these activities requires time and scarce resources like manpower, special equipment or storage facilities for the contaminated material arising from the dismantling. Moreover, we have to regard several minimum and maximum time lags (temporal constraints) between the start times of the different activities. Finally, each disassembling activity can be processed in two alternative execution modes, which lead to different disbursements and determine the resource requirements of the considered activity. The optimization problem is to determine a start time and an execution mode for each activity, such that the discounted cost of the project is minimum, and neither the temporal constraints are violated nor the activities' resource requirements exceed the availability of any scarce resource at any point in time. In our contribution we introduce an appropriate multi-mode project scheduling model with minimum and maximum time lags as well as renewable and cumulative resources for the described optimization problem. Furthermore, we show that the considered optimization problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. For small problem instances, optimal solutions can be gained from a relaxation based enumeration approach which is incorporated into a branch and bound algorithm. In order to be able to solve large problem instances, we also propose a truncated version of the devised branch and bound algorithm.

The paper is a proposal of calculation of internal forces and dislocations in the reinforced concrete beams before and after cracking. For the ideally elastic bars transfer matrix proposed by Rakowski was applied. The effects associated with cracking were introduced by means of the Borcz's theory in the spectrally way. Numerical example was shown. The presented attitude also enables to calculate dynamic problems and those connected with the stability of the compressed and bending cracked beams and columns.

The paper contains a description of dynamic effects in the silo wall during the outflow of a stored material. The work allows for determining the danger of construction damage due to resonant vibrations and is of practical importance by determining the influence of cyclic pressures and vibro–creeping during prolonged use of a silo. The paper was devised as a result of tests on silo walls in semi-technical scale. The model is generally applicable and allows for identification of parameters in real- size silos as well.

At the 16th IKM Bock, Falcão and Gürlebeck presented examples of the application of some specially developed Maple-Software in hypercomplex analysis. Other papers of those authors continued this work and showed the efficiency of such tools for concrete numerical calculations as well as for numerical experiments, supporting the detection of new relationships and even theorems in a highly technical theoretical work. The mentioned software has been developed mainly for the use on mapping problems in the Euclidean spaces of dimension 3 and 4 by means of Bergman kernel methods (BKM), which are related to monogenic functions as solutions of generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations with respect to the Euclidean metric (Riesz system). The developed procedures concerning generalized powers of totally regular variables and the corresponding homogeneous polynomials basically rely on results and conventions introduced in the paper "Power series representation for monogenic functions in Rm+1 based on a permutational product", Complex Variables, 15, No.3, 181-191 (1990) by H. Malonek. Since 1992 H. Leutwiler, S. L. Eriksson and others developed in a number of papers a modified Clifford analysis and, particularly, a modified quaternionic analysis. The modification mainly consists in considering generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations with respect to a hyperbolic metric in a half space. The aim of this contribution is to show how through a change of the basic combinatorial relations used in the modified quaternionic analysis the aforementioned Maple-software (that has been recently published on CD-Rom as integrated part of the text book "Funktionentheorie in der Ebene und im Raum" by K. Gürlebeck, K. Habetha, and W. Sprössig, in the series "Grundstudium Mathematik" of Birkhäuser Verlag, 2006) can directly be used for numerical calculations in the modified theory.

This paper presents results of applying Fuzzy Inference System for estimation of the number of potential Park and Ride users. Usually it is difficult to evaluate the number of users because it depends on human factor and data in the considered system are uncertain. In such situation the traditional mathematical approaches can not take into consideration rough data. Therefore a fuzzy approach can be applied in this case. A fuzzy methodology is treated as a proper way to describe choice of mode of transport, and especially that uncertainty accompanied of choosing process has rather fuzzy character. The proposed approach is based on the Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System and for calculation there is used Matlab software with Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Mamdani model requires, as an input data, knowledge of the shape of membership function. These functions can be calibrated taking into consideration results of questionnaires conducted among users of Park and Ride system. Due to lack of representative sample of users, one has decided to use results of experts' questionnaires as a input data for calibration the shape of membership functions. Describing factor will be generalized cost of the trip for different modes of transport. Proposed approach consists of two main stages: modeling of share of public/private transport trips and Multimodal model estimating number of Park and Ride users. Verification of presented methodology is treated as an indirect proof. Proposed approach can be applied for estimation of bi-modal split. Then the results are compared with traditional approaches based on logit functions. Comparable results of proposed fuzzy approach with traditional logit models can be treated as a confirmation of chosen methodology.

Die Liquiditätsplanung von Bauunternehmen XE "Liquiditätsplanung" gilt als ein wesentliches Steuerungs-, Kontroll- sowie Informationsinstrument für interne und externe Adressaten und übt eine Entscheidungsunterstützungsfunktion aus. Da die einzelnen Bauprojekte einen wesentlichen Anteil an den Gesamtkosten des Unternehmens ausmachen, besitzen diese auch einen erheblichen Einfluß auf die Liquidität und die Zahlungsfähigkeit der Bauunternehmung. Dem folgend ist es in der Baupraxis eine übliche Verfahrensweise, die Liquiditätsplanung zuerst projektbezogen zu erstellen und anschließend auf Unternehmensebene zu verdichten. Ziel der Ausführungen ist es, die Zusammenhänge von Arbeitskalkulation XE "Arbeitskalkulation" , Ergebnisrechnung XE "Ergebnisrechnung" und Finanzrechnung XE "Finanzrechnung" in Form eines deterministischen XE "Erklärungsmodells" Planungsmodells auf Projektebene darzustellen. Hierbei soll das Verständnis und die Bedeutung der Verknüpfungen zwischen dem technisch-orientierten Bauablauf und dessen Darstellung im Rechnungs- und Finanzwesen herausgestellt werden. Die Vorgänge aus der Bauabwicklung, das heißt die Abarbeitung der Bauleistungsverzeichnispositionen und deren zeitliche Darstellung in einem Bauzeitenplan sind periodisiert in Größen der Betriebsbuchhaltung (Leistung, Kosten) zu transformieren und anschließend in der Finanzrechnung (Einzahlungen., Auszahlungen) nach Kreditoren und Debitoren aufzuschlüsseln.

LIFETIME-ORIENTED OPTIMIZATION OF BRIDGE TIE RODS EXPOSED TO VORTEX-INDUCED ACROSS-WIND VIBRATIONS
(2006)

In recent years, damages in welded connections plates of vertical tie rods of several arched steel bridges have been reported. These damages are due to fatigue caused by wind-induced vibrations. In the present study, such phenomena are examined, and the corresponding lifetime of a reference bridge in Münster-Hiltrup, Germany, is estimated, based on the actual shape of the connection plate. Also, the results obtained are compared to the expected lifetime of a connection plate, whose geometry has been optimized separately. The structural optimization, focussing on the shape of the cut at the hanger ends, has been carried out using evolution strategies. The oscillation amplitudes have been computed by means of the Newmark-Wilson time-step method, using an appropriate load model, which has been validated by on-site experiments on the selected reference bridge. Corresponding stress-amplitudes are evaluated by multiplying the oscillation amplitudes with a stress concentration factor. This factor has been computed on the basis of a finite element model of the system "hanger-welding-connection plate", applying solid elements, according to the notch stress approach. The damage estimation takes into account the stochastics of the exciting wind process, as well as the stochastics of the material parameters (fatigue strength) given in terms of Woehler-curves. The shape optimization results in a substantial increase of the estimated hanger lifetime. The comparison of the lifetimes of the bulk plate and of the welding revealed that, in the optimized structure, the welding, being the most sensitive part in the original structure, shows much more resistance against potential damages than the bulk material.