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Modern distributed engineering applications are based on complex systems consisting of various subsystems that are connected through the Internet. Communication and collaboration within an entire system requires reliable and efficient data exchange between the subsystems. Middleware developed within the web evolution during the past years provides reliable and efficient data exchange for web applications, which can be adopted for solving the data exchange problems in distributed engineering applications. This paper presents a generic approach for reliable and efficient data exchange between engineering devices using existing middleware known from web applications. Different existing middleware is examined with respect to the suitability in engineering applications. In this paper, a suitable middleware is shown and a prototype implementation simulating distributed wind farm control is presented and validated using several performance measurements.

The Carbon journal is pleased to introduce a themed collection of recent articles in the area of computational carbon nanoscience. This virtual special issue was assembled from previously published Carbon articles by Guest Editors Quan Wang and Behrouz Arash, and can be accessed as a set in the special issue section of the journal website homepage: www.journals.elsevier.com/carbon. The article below by our guest editors serves as an introduction to this virtual special issue, and also a commentary on the growing role of computation as a tool to understand the synthesis and properties of carbon nanoforms and their behavior in composite materials.

Nanostructured materials are extensively applied in many fields of material science for new industrial applications, particularly in the automotive, aerospace industry due to their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. Experimental testing of nanomaterials is expensive, timeconsuming,challenging and sometimes unfeasible. Therefore,computational simulations have been employed as alternative method to predict macroscopic material properties. The behavior of polymeric nanocomposites (PNCs) are highly complex.
The origins of macroscopic material properties reside in the properties and interactions taking place on finer scales. It is therefore essential to use multiscale modeling strategy to properly account for all large length and time scales associated with these material systems, which across many orders of magnitude. Numerous multiscale models of PNCs have been established, however, most of them connect only two scales. There are a few multiscale models for PNCs bridging four length scales (nano-, micro-, meso- and macro-scales). In addition, nanomaterials are stochastic in nature and the prediction of macroscopic mechanical properties are influenced by many factors such as fine-scale features. The predicted mechanical properties obtained by traditional approaches significantly deviate from the measured values in experiments due to neglecting uncertainty of material features. This discrepancy is indicated that the effective macroscopic properties of materials are highly sensitive to various sources of uncertainty, such as loading and boundary conditions and material characteristics, etc., while very few stochastic multiscale models for PNCs have been developed. Therefore, it is essential to construct PNC models within the framework of stochastic modeling and quantify the stochastic effect of the input parameters on the macroscopic mechanical properties of those materials.
This study aims to develop computational models at four length scales (nano-, micro-, meso- and macro-scales) and hierarchical upscaling approaches bridging length scales from nano- to macro-scales. A framework for uncertainty quantification (UQ) applied to predict the mechanical properties
of the PNCs in dependence of material features at different scales is studied. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are of great helps in quantifying the effect of input parameters, considering both main and interaction effects, on the mechanical properties of the PNCs. To achieve this major
goal, the following tasks are carried out:
At nano-scale, molecular dynamics (MD) were used to investigate deformation mechanism of glassy amorphous polyethylene (PE) in dependence of temperature and strain rate. Steered molecular dynamics (SMD)were also employed to investigate interfacial characteristic of the PNCs.
At mico-scale, we developed an atomistic-based continuum model represented by a representative volume element (RVE) in which the SWNT’s properties and the SWNT/polymer interphase are modeled at nano-scale, the surrounding polymer matrix is modeled by solid elements. Then, a two-parameter model was employed at meso-scale. A hierarchical multiscale approach has been developed to obtain the structure-property relations at one length scale and transfer the effect to the higher length
scales. In particular, we homogenized the RVE into an equivalent fiber.
The equivalent fiber was then employed in a micromechanical analysis (i.e. Mori-Tanaka model) to predict the effective macroscopic properties of the PNC. Furthermore, an averaging homogenization process was also used to obtain the effective stiffness of the PCN at meso-scale.
Stochastic modeling and uncertainty quantification consist of the following ingredients:
- Simple random sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, Sobol’ quasirandom sequences, Iman and Conover’s method (inducing correlation in Latin hypercube sampling) are employed to generate independent and dependent sample data, respectively.
- Surrogate models, such as polynomial regression, moving least squares (MLS), hybrid method combining polynomial regression and MLS, Kriging regression, and penalized spline regression, are employed as an approximation of a mechanical model. The advantage of the surrogate models is the high computational efficiency and robust as they can be constructed from a limited amount of available data.
- Global sensitivity analysis (SA) methods, such as variance-based methods for models with independent and dependent input parameters, Fourier-based techniques for performing variance-based methods and partial derivatives, elementary effects in the context of local SA, are used to quantify the effects of input parameters and their interactions on the mechanical properties of the PNCs. A bootstrap technique is used to assess the robustness of the global SA methods with respect to their performance.
In addition, the probability distribution of mechanical properties are determined by using the probability plot method. The upper and lower bounds of the predicted Young’s modulus according to 95 % prediction intervals were provided.
The above-mentioned methods study on the behaviour of intact materials. Novel numerical methods such as a node-based smoothed extended finite element method (NS-XFEM) and an edge-based smoothed phantom node method (ES-Phantom node) were developed for fracture problems. These methods can be used to account for crack at macro-scale for future works. The predicted mechanical properties were validated and verified. They show good agreement with previous experimental and simulations results.

What is nowadays called (classic) Clifford analysis consists in the establishment of a function theory for functions belonging to the kernel of the Dirac operator. While such functions can very well describe problems of a particle with internal SU(2)-symmetries, higher order symmetries are beyond this theory. Although many modifications (such as Yang-Mills theory) were suggested over the years they could not address the principal problem, the need of a n-fold factorization of the d’Alembert operator. In this paper we present the basic tools of a fractional function theory in higher dimensions, for the transport operator (alpha = 1/2 ), by means of a fractional correspondence to the Weyl relations via fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives. A Fischer decomposition, fractional Euler and Gamma operators, monogenic projection, and basic fractional homogeneous powers are constructed.

The stress state of a piecewise-homogeneous elastic body, which has a semi-infinite crack along the interface, under in-plane and antiplane loads is considered. One of the crack edges is reinforced by a rigid patch plate on a finite interval adjacent to the crack tip. The crack edges are loaded with specified stresses. The body is stretched at infinity by specified stresses. External forces with a given principal vector and moment act on the patch plate. The problem reduces to a Riemann-Hilbert boundary-value matrix problem with a piecewise-constant coefficient for two complex potentials in the plane case and for one in the antiplane case. The complex potentials are found explicitly using a Gaussian hypergeometric function. The stress state of the body close to the ends of the patch plate, one of which is also simultaneously the crack tip, is investigated. Stress intensity factors near the singular points are determined.

In this paper we introduce LUCI, a Lightweight Urban Calculation Interchange system, designed to bring the advantages of a calculation and content co-ordination system to small planning and design groups by the means of an open source middle-ware. The middle-ware focuses on problems typical to urban planning and therefore features a geo-data repository as well as a job runtime administration, to coordinate simulation models and its multiple views. The described system architecture is accompanied by two exemplary use cases that have been used to test and further develop our concepts and implementations.

From the design experiences of arch dams in the past, it has significant practical value to carry out the shape optimization of arch dams, which can fully make use of material characteristics and reduce the cost of constructions. Suitable variables need to be chosen to formulate the objective function, e.g. to minimize the total volume of the arch dam. Additionally a series of constraints are derived and a reasonable and convenient penalty function has been formed, which can easily enforce the characteristics of constraints and optimal design. For the optimization method, a Genetic Algorithm is adopted to perform a global search. Simultaneously, ANSYS is used to do the mechanical analysis under the coupling of thermal and hydraulic loads. One of the constraints of the newly designed dam is to fulfill requirements on the structural safety. Therefore, a reliability analysis is applied to offer a good decision supporting for matters concerning predictions of both safety and service life of the arch dam. By this, the key factors which would influence the stability and safety of arch dam significantly can be acquired, and supply a good way to take preventive measures to prolong ate the service life of an arch dam and enhances the safety of structure.

Communities in discourse and space. Towards a spatial dialectic in gated residential developments
(2015)

This research projects deals with the discoursivity of spatial production.
By looking at contemporary residential development in the city of Istanbul, I will examine the reciprocity of the material production of space on one hand, and social discourses on the other, in order to make a contribution to how physical space can be used as a source of research in urban studies. In real estate marketing social discourses are used as a source of reference for place branding or identity design. Branding concepts therefore relate to how social groups imagine their position or future position in society, imaginaries that are continuously influenced and changed by social dynamics within the city but also from the outside. How such urban identities are formed and it what way they relate to the urban environment is crucial to a wide spectrum of social and cultural science. The constitutive role urban space attains has been described and analysed in much detail. Such scrutiny however has yet to be applied to the visual and communicative forms of engagement, the build environment partakes in the formation and change of social discourses.

The sizing of simple resonators like guitar strings or laser mirrors is directly connected to the wavelength and represents no complex optimisation problem. This is not the case with liquid-filled acoustic resonators of non-trivial geometries, where several masses and stiffnesses of the structure and the fluid have to fit together. This creates a scenario of many competing and interacting resonances varying in relative strength and frequency when design parameters change. Hence, the resonator design involves a parameter-tuning problem with many local optima. As its solution evolutionary algorithms (EA) coupled to a forced-harmonic FE simulation are presented. A new hybrid EA is proposed and compared to two state-of-theart EAs based on selected test problems. The motivating background is the search for better resonators suitable for sonofusion experiments where extreme states of matter are sought in collapsing cavitation bubbles.

Superplasticizers are utilized both to improve the fluidity during the placement and to reduce the water content of concretes. Both effects have also an impact on the properties of the hardened concrete. As a side effect the presence of superplasticizers affects the strength development of concretes that is strongly retarded. This may lead to an ecomomical drawback of the concrete manufacturing. The present work is aimed at gaining insights on the causes of the retarding effect of superplasticizers on the hydration of Portland cement. In order to simplify the complex interactions occurring during the hydration of Portland cement the majority of the work focuses on the interaction of superplasticizer and tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5 or C3S, the main compound of Portland cement clinker). The tests are performed in three main parts accompanied by methods as for example isothermal conduction calorimetry, electrical conductivity, Electron Microscopy, ICP-OES, TOC, as well as Analytical Ultracentrifugation.
In the first main part and based on the interaction of cations and anionic charges of polymers, the interactions between calcium ions and superplasticizers are investigated. As a main effect calcium ions are complexed by the functional groups of the polymers (carboxy, sulfonic). Calcium ions may be both dissolved in the aqueous phase and a constitute of particle interfaces. Besides these effects it is furthermore shown that superplasticizers induce the formation of nanoscaled particles which are dispersed in the aqueous phase (cluster formation). Analogous to recent findings in the field of biomineralization, it is reasonable to assume that these nanoparticles influence the crystal growth by their assembly process.
Based on the assumption that superplasticizers hinder either or both dissolution and precipitation and by that retard the cement hydration, the impact on separate reactions is investigated. On experiments that address the solubility of C-S-H phases and portlandite, it is shown that complexation of calcium ions in the aqueous phase by functional groups of polymers increases the solubility of portlandite. Contrary, in case of C-S-H solubility the complexation of calcium ions in solution leads to decrease of the calcium ion concentration in the aqueous phase. These effects are explained by differences in adsorption of polymers on C-S-H phases and portlandite. It is proposed that adsorption is stronger on C-S-H phases compared to portlandite due to the increased specific surface area of C-S-H phases. Following that, it is claimed that before polymers are able to adsorb on C-S-H phases the functional groups must be screened by calcium ions in the aqueous phase. It is further shown that data regarding the impact of superplasticizers on the unconstrained dissolution rate of C3S does not provide a clear relation to the overall retarding effect occurring during the hydration of C3S. Both increased and decreased dissolution rate with respect to the reference sample are detected. If the complexation capability of the superplasticizers is considered then also a reduced dissolution rate of C3S is determined. Despite the fact that the global hydration process is accelerated, the addition of calcite leads to a slower dissolution rate. Thus, a hindered unconstrained dissolution of C3S as possibly cause for the retarding effect still remains open for discussion. In the last section of this part, the pure crystallization of hydrate phases (C-S-H phases, portlandite) is fathomed. Results clearly show that superplasticizers prolong the induction time and modify the rate of crystal growth during pure crystallization in particular due to the complexation of ions in solution. But this effect is insufficient to account for the overall retarding effect. Further important factors are the blocking of crystal growth faces by adsorbed polymers and the dispersion of nanoscaled particles which hinders their agglomeration in order to build up crystals.
In the last main part of the work, the previously gathered results are utilized in order to investigate hydration kinetics. During hydration, dissolution and precipitation occur in parallel. Thereby, special attention is laid on the ion composition of the aqueous phase of C3S pastes and suspensions in order to determine the rate limiting step. All in all it is concluded that the retarding effect of superplasticizers on the hydration of tricalcium silicate is based on the retardation of crystallization of hydrate phases (C-S-H phases and portlandite). Thereby, the two effects complexation of calcium ions on surfaces and stabilization of nanoscaled particles are of major importance. These mechanisms may partly be compensated by template performance and increase in solubility by complexation of ions in solution. The decreased dissolution rate of C3S by the presence of superplasticizers during the in parallel occuring hydration process can only be assessed indirectly by means of the development of the ion concentrations in the aqueous phase (reaction path). Whether this observation is the cause or the consequence within the dissolution-precipitation process and therefore accounts for the retarding effect remains a topic for further investigations.
Besides these results it is shown that superplasticizers can be associated chemically with inhibitors because they reduce the frequency factor to end the induction period. Because the activation energy is widely unaffected it is shown that the basic reaction mechanism sustain. Furthermore, a method was developed which permits for the first time the determination of ion concentrations in the aqueous phase of C3S pastes in-situ. It is shown that during the C3S hydration the ion concentration in the aqueous phase is developed correspondingly to the heat release rate (calorimetry). The method permits the differentiation of the acceleration period in three stages. It is emphasized that crystallization of the product phases of C3S hydration, namely C-S-H phases and portlandite, are responsible for the end of the induction period.