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The Laguerre polynomials appear naturally in many branches of pure and applied mathematics and mathematical physics. Debnath introduced the Laguerre transform and derived some of its properties. He also discussed the applications in study of heat conduction and to the oscillations of a very long and heavy chain with variable tension. An explicit boundedness for some class of Laguerre integral transforms will be present.

The sizing of simple resonators like guitar strings or laser mirrors is directly connected to the wavelength and represents no complex optimisation problem. This is not the case with liquid-filled acoustic resonators of non-trivial geometries, where several masses and stiffnesses of the structure and the fluid have to fit together. This creates a scenario of many competing and interacting resonances varying in relative strength and frequency when design parameters change. Hence, the resonator design involves a parameter-tuning problem with many local optima. As its solution evolutionary algorithms (EA) coupled to a forced-harmonic FE simulation are presented. A new hybrid EA is proposed and compared to two state-of-theart EAs based on selected test problems. The motivating background is the search for better resonators suitable for sonofusion experiments where extreme states of matter are sought in collapsing cavitation bubbles.

What is nowadays called (classic) Clifford analysis consists in the establishment of a function theory for functions belonging to the kernel of the Dirac operator. While such functions can very well describe problems of a particle with internal SU(2)-symmetries, higher order symmetries are beyond this theory. Although many modifications (such as Yang-Mills theory) were suggested over the years they could not address the principal problem, the need of a n-fold factorization of the d’Alembert operator. In this paper we present the basic tools of a fractional function theory in higher dimensions, for the transport operator (alpha = 1/2 ), by means of a fractional correspondence to the Weyl relations via fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives. A Fischer decomposition, fractional Euler and Gamma operators, monogenic projection, and basic fractional homogeneous powers are constructed.

VARIATIONAL POSITING AND SOLUTION OF COUPLED THERMOMECHANICAL PROBLEMS IN A REFERENCE CONFIGURATION
(2015)

Variational formulation of a coupled thermomechanical problem of anisotropic solids for the case of non-isothermal finite deformations in a reference configuration is shown. The formulation of the problem includes: a condition of equilibrium flow of a deformation process in the reference configuration; an equation of a coupled heat conductivity in a variational form, in which an influence of deformation characteristics of a process on the temperature field is taken into account; tensor-linear constitutive relations for a hypoelastic material; kinematic and evolutional relations; initial and boundary conditions. Based on this formulation several axisymmetric isothermal and coupled problems of finite deformations of isotropic and anisotropic bodies are solved. The solution of coupled thermomechanical problems for a hollow cylinder in case of finite deformation showed an essential influence of coupling on distribution of temperature, stresses and strains. The obtained solutions show the development of stressstrain state and temperature changing in axisymmetric bodies in the case of finite deformations.

In this paper we present some rudiments of a generalized Wiman-Valiron theory in the context of polymonogenic functions. In particular, we analyze the relations between different notions of growth orders and the Taylor coefficients. Our main intention is to look for generalizations of the Lindel¨of-Pringsheim theorem. In contrast to the classical holomorphic and the monogenic setting we only obtain inequality relations in the polymonogenic setting. This is due to the fact that the Almansi-Fischer decomposition of a polymonogenic function consists of different monogenic component functions where each of them can have a totally different kind of asymptotic growth behavior.

Steel profiles with slender cross-sections are characterized by their high susceptibility to instability phenomena, especially local buckling, which are intensified under fire conditions. This work presents a study on numerical modelling of the behaviour of steel structural elements in case of fire with slender cross-sections. To accurately carry out these analyses it is necessary to take into account those local instability modes, which normally is only possible with shell finite elements. However, aiming at the development of more expeditious methods, particularly important for analysing complete structures in case of fire, recent studies have proposed the use of beam finite elements considering the presence of local buckling through the implementation of a new effective steel constitutive law. The objective of this work is to develop a study to validate this methodology using the program SAFIR. Comparisons are made between the results obtained applying the referred new methodology and finite element analyses using shell elements. The studies were made to laterally restrained beams, unrestrained beams, axially compressed columns and columns subjected to bending plus compression.

Portugal is one of the European countries with higher spatial and population freeway network coverage. The sharp growth of this network in the last years instigates the use of methods of analysis and the evaluation of their quality of service in terms of the traffic performance, typically performed through internationally accepted methodologies, namely that presented in the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM). Lately, the use of microscopic traffic simulation models has been increasingly widespread. These models simulate the individual movement of the vehicles, allowing to perform traffic analysis. The main target of this study was to verify the possibility of using microsimulation as an auxiliary tool in the adaptation of the methodology by HCM 2000 to Portugal. For this purpose, were used the microscopic simulators AIMSUN and VISSIM for the simulation of the traffic circulation in the A5 Portuguese freeway. The results allowed the analysis of the influence of the main geometric and traffic factors involved in the methodology by HCM 2000. In conclusion, the study presents the main advantages and limitations of the microsimulators AIMSUN and VISSIM in modelling the traffic circulation in Portuguese freeways. The main limitation is that these microsimulators are not able to simulate explicitly some of the factors considered in the HCM 2000 methodology, which invalidates their direct use as a tool in the quantification of those effects and, consequently, makes the direct adaptation of this methodology to Portugal impracticable.

In this paper, we present an empirical approach for objective and quantitative benchmarking of optimization algorithms with respect to characteristics induced by the forward calculation. Due to the professional background of the authors, this benchmarking strategy is illustrated on a selection of search methods in regard to expected characteristics of geotechnical parameter back calculation problems. Starting from brief introduction into the approach employed, a strategy for optimization algorithm benchmarking is introduced. The benchmarking utilizes statistical tests carried out on well-known test functions superposed with perturbations, both chosen to mimic objective function topologies found for geotechnical objective function topologies. Here, the moved axis parallel hyper-ellipsoid test function and the generalized Ackley test function in conjunction with an adjustable quantity of objective function topology roughness and fraction of failing forward calculations is analyzed. In total, results for 5 optimization algorithms are presented, compared and discussed.

This article presents the Rigid Finite Element Method in the calculation of reinforced concrete beam deflection with cracks. Initially, this method was used in the shipbuilding industry. Later, it was adapted in the homogeneous calculations of the bar structures. In this method, rigid mass discs serve as an element model. In the flat layout, three generalized coordinates (two translational and one rotational) correspond to each disc. These discs are connected by elastic ties. The genuine idea is to take into account a discrete crack in the Rigid Finite Element Method. It consists in the suitable reduction of the rigidity in rotational ties located in the spots, where cracks occurred. The susceptibility of this tie results from the flexural deformability of the element and the occurrence of the crack. As part of the numerical analyses, the influence of cracks on the total deflection of beams was determined. Furthermore, the results of the calculations were compared to the results of the experiment. Overestimations of the calculated deflections against the measured deflections were found. The article specifies the size of the overestimation and describes its causes.

The theory of regular quaternionic functions of a reduced quaternionic variable is a 3-dimensional generalization of complex analysis. The Moisil-Theodorescu system (MTS) is a regularity condition for such functions depending on the radius vector r = ix+jy+kz seen as a reduced quaternionic variable. The analogues of the main theorems of complex analysis for the MTS in quaternion forms are established: Cauchy, Cauchy integral formula, Taylor and Laurent series, approximation theorems and Cauchy type integral properties. The analogues of positive powers (inner spherical monogenics) are investigated: the set of recurrence formulas between the inner spherical monogenics and the explicit formulas are established. Some applications of the regular function in the elasticity theory and hydrodynamics are given.

Performing parameter identification prior to numerical simulation is an essential task in geotechnical engineering. However, it has to be kept in mind that the accuracy of the obtained parameter is closely related to the chosen experimental setup, such as the number of sensors as well as their location. A well considered position of sensors can increase the quality of the measurement and to reduce the number of monitoring points. This Paper illustrates this concept by means of a loading device that is used to identify the stiffness and permeability of soft clays. With an initial setup of the measurement devices the pore water pressure and the vertical displacements are recorded and used to identify the afore mentioned parameters. Starting from these identified parameters, the optimal measurement setup is investigated with a method based on global sensitivity analysis. This method shows an optimal sensor location assuming three sensors for each measured quantity, and the results are discussed.

It is well-known that the solution of the fundamental equations of linear elasticity for a homogeneous isotropic material in plane stress and strain state cases can be equivalently reduced to the solution of a biharmonic equation. The discrete version of the Theorem of Goursat is used to describe the solution of the discrete biharmonic equation by the help of two discrete holomorphic functions. In order to obtain a Taylor expansion of discrete holomorphic functions we introduce a basis of discrete polynomials which fulfill the so-called Appell property with respect to the discrete adjoint Cauchy-Riemann operator. All these steps are very important in the field of fracture mechanics, where stress and displacement fields in the neighborhood of singularities caused by cracks and notches have to be calculated with high accuracy. Using the sum representation of holomorphic functions it seems possible to reproduce the order of singularity and to determine important mechanical characteristics.

SELECTION AND SCALING OF GROUND MOTION RECORDS FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS USING AN OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM
(2015)

The nonlinear time history analysis and seismic performance based methods require a set of scaled ground motions. The conventional procedure of ground motion selection is based on matching the motion properties, e.g. magnitude, amplitude, fault distance, and fault mechanism. The seismic target spectrum is only used in the scaling process following the random selection process. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to present a procedure to select a sets of ground motions from a built database of ground motions. The selection procedure is based on running an optimization problem using Dijkstra’s algorithm to match the selected set of ground motions to a target response spectrum. The selection and scaling procedure of optimized sets of ground motions is presented by examining the analyses of nonlinear single degree of freedom systems.

The p-Laplace equation is a nonlinear generalization of the Laplace equation. This generalization is often used as a model problem for special types of nonlinearities. The p-Laplace equation can be seen as a bridge between very general nonlinear equations and the linear Laplace equation. The aim of this paper is to solve the p-Laplace equation for 2 < p < 3 and to find strong solutions. The idea is to apply a hypercomplex integral operator and spatial function theoretic methods to transform the p-Laplace equation into the p-Dirac equation. This equation will be solved iteratively by using a fixed point theorem.

Recently there has been a surge of interest in PDEs involving fractional derivatives in different fields of engineering. In this extended abstract we present some of the results developedin [3]. We compute the fundamental solution for the three-parameter fractional Laplace operator Δ by transforming the eigenfunction equation into an integral equation and applying the method of separation of variables. The obtained solutions are expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffer functions. For more details we refer the interested reader to [3] where it is also presented an operational approach based on the two Laplace transform.

Electromagnetic wave propagation is currently present in the vast majority of situations which occur in veryday life, whether in mobile communications, DTV, satellite tracking, broadcasting, etc. Because of this the study of increasingly complex means of propagation of lectromagnetic waves has become necessary in order to optimize resources and increase the capabilities of the devices as required by the growing demand for such services.
Within the electromagnetic wave propagation different parameters are considered that characterize it under various circumstances and of particular importance are the reflectance and transmittance. There are several methods or the analysis of the reflectance and transmittance such as the method of approximation by boundary condition, the plane wave expansion method (PWE), etc., but this work focuses on the WKB and SPPS methods.
The implementation of the WKB method is relatively simple but is found to be relatively efficient only when working at high frequencies. The SPPS method (Spectral Parameter Powers Series) based on the theory of pseudoanalytic functions, is used to solve this problem through a new representation for solutions of Sturm Liouville equations and has recently proven to be a powerful tool to solve different boundary value and eigenvalue problems. Moreover, it has a very suitable structure for numerical implementation, which in this case took place in the Matlab software for the valuation of both conventional and turning points profiles.
The comparison between the two methods allows us to obtain valuable information about their perfor mance which is useful for determining the validity and propriety of their application for solving problems where these parameters are calculated in real life applications.

We study the Weinstein equation u on the upper half space R3+. The Weinstein equation is connected to the axially symmetric potentials. We compute solutions of the Weinstein equation depending on the hyperbolic distance and x2. These results imply the explicit mean value properties. We also compute the fundamental solution. The main tools are the hyperbolic metric and its invariance properties.

New foundations for geometric algebra are proposed based upon the existing isomorphisms between geometric and matrix algebras. Each geometric algebra always has a faithful real matrix representation with a periodicity of 8. On the other hand, each matrix algebra is always embedded in a geometric algebra of a convenient dimension. The geometric product is also isomorphic to the matrix product, and many vector transformations such as rotations, axial symmetries and Lorentz transformations can be written in a form isomorphic to a similarity transformation of matrices. We collect the idea that Dirac applied to develop the relativistic electron equation when he took a basis of matrices for the geometric algebra instead of a basis of geometric vectors. Of course, this way of understanding the geometric algebra requires new definitions: the geometric vector space is defined as the algebraic subspace that generates the rest of the matrix algebra by addition and multiplication; isometries are simply defined as the similarity transformations of matrices as shown above, and finally the norm of any element of the geometric algebra is defined as the nth root of the determinant of its representative matrix of order n×n. The main idea of this proposal is an arithmetic point of view consisting of reversing the roles of matrix and geometric algebras in the sense that geometric algebra is a way of accessing, working and understanding the most fundamental conception of matrix algebra as the algebra of transformations of multilinear quantities.

We briefly review and use the recent comprehensive research on the manifolds of square roots of −1 in real Clifford geometric algebras Cl(p,q) in order to construct the Clifford Fourier transform. Basically in the kernel of the complex Fourier transform the complex imaginary unit j is replaced by a square root of −1 in Cl(p,q). The Clifford Fourier transform (CFT) thus obtained generalizes previously known and applied CFTs, which replaced the complex imaginary unit j only by blades (usually pseudoscalars) squaring to −1. A major advantage of real Clifford algebra CFTs is their completely real geometric interpretation. We study (left and right) linearity of the CFT for constant multivector coefficients in Cl(p,q), translation (x-shift) and modulation (w -shift) properties, and signal dilations. We show an inversion theorem. We establish the CFT of vector differentials, partial derivatives, vector derivatives and spatial moments of the signal. We also derive Plancherel and Parseval identities as well as a general convolution theorem.

Bridge vibration due to traffic loading has been subject of extensive research in the last decades. Such studies are concerned with deriving solutions for the bridge-vehicle interaction (BVI) and analyzing the dynamic responses considering randomness of the coupled model’s (BVI) input parameters and randomness of road unevenness. This study goes further to examine the effects of such randomness of input parameters and processes on the variance of dynamic responses in quantitative measures. The input parameters examined in the sensitivity analysis are, stiffness and damping of vehicle’s suspension system, axle spacing, and stiffness and damping of bridge. This study also examines the effects of the initial excitation of a vehicle on the influences of the considered input parameters. Variance based sensitivity analysis is often applied to deterministic models. However, the models for the dynamic problem is a stochastic one due to the simulations of the random processes. Thus, a setting using a joint meta-model; one for the mean response and other for the dispersion of the response is developed. The joint model is developed within the framework of Generalized Linear Models (GLM). An enhancement of the GLM procedure is suggested and tested; this enhancement incorporates Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation algorithms in the fitting of the mean component of the joint model. The sensitivity analysis is then performed on the joint-model developed for the dynamic responses caused by BVI.

In this paper we review two distint complete orthogonal systems of monogenic polynomials over 3D prolate spheroids. The underlying functions take on either values in the reduced and full quaternions (identified, respectively, with R3 and R4), and are generally assumed to be nullsolutions of the well known Riesz and Moisil Théodoresco systems in R3. This will be done in the spaces of square integrable functions over R and H. The representations of these polynomials are explicitly given. Additionally, we show that these polynomial functions play an important role in defining the Szegö kernel function over the surface of 3D spheroids. As a concrete application, we prove the explicit expression of the monogenic Szegö kernel function over 3D prolate spheroids.

In this paper experimental studies and numerical analysis carried out on reinforced concrete beam are partially reported. They aimed to apply the rigid finite element method to calculations for reinforced concrete beams using discrete crack model. Hence rotational ductility resulting from crack occurrence had to be determined. A relationship for calculating it in static equilibrium was proposed. Laboratory experiments proved that dynamic ductility is considerably smaller. Therefore scaling of the empirical parameter was carried out. Consequently a formula for its value depending on reinforcement ratio was obtained.

BAUHAUS ISOMETRY AND FIELDS
(2012)

While integration increases by networking, segregation strides ahead too. Most of us fixate our mind on special topics. Yet we are relying on our intuition too. We are sometimes waiting for the inflow of new ideas or valuable information that we hold in high esteem, although we are not entirely conscious of its origin. We may even say the most precious intuitions are rooting in deep subconscious, collective layers of the mind. Take as a simple example the emergence of orientation in paleolithic events and its relation to the dihedral symmetry of the compass. Consider also the extension of this algebraic matter into the operational structures of the mind on the one hand and into the algebra of geometry, Clifford algebra as we use to call it today, on the other. Culture and mind, and even the individual act of creation may be connected with transient events that are subconscious and inaccessible to cognition in principle. Other events causative for our work may be merely invisible too us, though in principle they should turn out attainable. In this case we are just ignorant of the whole creative process. Sometimes we begin to use unusual tools or turn into handicraft enthusiasts. Then our small institutes turn into workshops and factories. All this is indeed joining with the Bauhaus and its spirit. We shall go together into this, and we shall present a record of this session.

The Bernstein polynomials are used for important applications in many branches of Mathematics and the other sciences, for instance, approximation theory, probability theory, statistic theory, num- ber theory, the solution of the di¤erential equations, numerical analysis, constructing Bezier curves, q-calculus, operator theory and applications in computer graphics. The Bernstein polynomials are used to construct Bezier curves. Bezier was an engineer with the Renault car company and set out in the early 1960’s to develop a curve formulation which would lend itself to shape design. Engineers may …nd it most understandable to think of Bezier curves in terms of the center of mass of a set of point masses. Therefore, in this paper, we study on generating functions and functional equations for these polynomials. By applying these functions, we investigate interpolation function and many properties of these polynomials.

The aim of this paper we discuss explicit series constructions for the fundamental solution of the Helmholtz operator on some important examples non-orientable conformally at manifolds. In the context of this paper we focus on higher dimensional generalizations of the Klein bottle which in turn generalize higher dimensional Möbius strips that we discussed in preceding works. We discuss some basic properties of pinor valued solutions to the Helmholtz equation on these manifolds.

It is well known that complex quaternion analysis plays an important role in the study of higher order boundary value problems of mathematical physics. Following the ideas given for real quaternion analysis, the paper deals with certain orthogonal decompositions of the complex quaternion Hilbert space into its subspaces of null solutions of Dirac type operator with an arbitrary complex potential. We then apply them to consider related boundary value problems, and to prove the existence and uniqueness as well as the explicit representation formulae of the underlying solutions.

This paper presents a robust model updating strategy for system identification of wind turbines. To control the updating parameters and to avoid ill-conditioning, the global sensitivity analysis using the elementary effects method is conducted. The formulation of the objective function is based on M¨uller-Slany’s strategy for multi-criteria functions. As a simulationbased optimization, a simulation adapter is developed to interface the simulation software ANSYS and the locally developed optimization software MOPACK. Model updating is firstly tested on the beam model of the rotor blade. The defect between the numerical model and the reference has been markedly reduced by the process of model updating. The effect of model updating becomes more pronounced in the comparison of the measured and the numerical properties of the wind turbine model. The deviations of the frequencies of the updated model are rather small. The complete comparison including the free vibration modes by the modal assurance criteria shows the excellent coincidence of the modal parameters of the updated model with the ones from the measurements. By successful implementation of the model validation via model updating, the applicability and effectiveness of the solution concept has been demonstrated.

The aim of our contribution is to clarify the relation between totally regular variables and Appell sequences of hypercomplex holomorphic polynomials (sometimes simply called monogenic power-like functions) in Hypercomplex Function Theory. After their introduction in 2006 by two of the authors of this note on the occasion of the 17th IKM, the latter have been subject of investigations by different authors with different methods and in various contexts. The former concept, introduced by R. Delanghe in 1970 and later also studied by K. Gürlebeck in 1982 for the case of quaternions, has some obvious relationship with the latter, since it describes a set of linear hypercomplex holomorphic functions all power of which are also hypercomplex holomorphic. Due to the non-commutative nature of the underlying Clifford algebra, being totally regular variables or Appell sequences are not trivial properties as it is for the integer powers of the complex variable z=x+ iy. Simple examples show also, that not every totally regular variable and its powers form an Appell sequence and vice versa. Under some very natural normalization condition the set of all para-vector valued totally regular variables which are also Appell sequences will completely be characterized. In some sense the result can also be considered as an answer to a remark of K. Habetha in chapter 16: Function theory in algebras of the collection Complex analysis. Methods, trends, and applications, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, (Eds. E. Lanckau and W. Tutschke) 225-237 (1983) on the use of exact copies of several complex variables for the power series representation of any hypercomplex holomorphic function.

Due to the complex interactions between the ground, the driving machine, the lining tube and the built environment, the accurate assignment of in-situ system parameters for numerical simulation in mechanized tunneling is always subject to tremendous difficulties. However, the more accurate these parameters are, the more applicable the responses gained from computations will be. In particular, if the entire length of the tunnel lining is examined, then, the appropriate selection of various kinds of ground parameters is accountable for the success of a tunnel project and, more importantly, will prevent potential casualties. In this context, methods of system identification for the adaptation of numerical simulation of ground models are presented. Hereby, both deterministic and probabilistic approaches are considered for typical scenarios representing notable variations or changes in the ground model.

A concept of non-commutative Galois extension is introduced and binary and ternary extensions are chosen. Non-commutative Galois extensions of Nonion algebra and su(3) are constructed. Then ternary and binary Clifford analysis are introduced for non-commutative Galois extensions and the corresponding Dirac operators are associated.

MODEL DESCRIBING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DISPLACEMENTS OF SILOS WALL DURING THE FLOW OF LOOSE MATERIAL
(2012)

Correct evaluation of wall displacements is a key matter when designing silos. This issue is important from both the standpoint of design engineer (load-bearing capacity of structures) and end-consumer (durability of structures). Commonplace methods of silo design mainly focus on satisfying limit states of load-bearing capacity. Current standards fail to specify methods of dynamic displacements analysis. Measurements of stressacting on silo walls prove that the actual stress is sum of static and dynamic stresses. Janssen came up with differential equation describing state of static equilibrium in cross-section of a silo. By solving the equation static stress of granular solid on silo walls can be determined. Equations of motion were determined from equilibrium equations of feature objects. General solution, describing dynamic stresses was presented as parametric model. This paper presents particular integrals of differential equation, which enable analysing displacements and vibrations for different rigidities of silo walls, types of granular solid and its flow rate.

DISCRETE CRACK MODEL OF BORCZ FOR CALCULATING THE DEFLECTIONS OF BENDING REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM
(2012)

In the design of the reinforced concrete beams loaded by the bending moment, it is assumed that the structure can be used at a level of load, that there are local discontinuities - cracks. Designing the element demands checking two limit states of construction, load capacity and usability. Limit states usability include also the deflection of the element. Deflections in the reinforced concrete beams with cracks are based on actual rigidity of the element. After cracking there is a local change in rigidity of the beam. The rigidity is variable in the element’s length and due to the heterogeneous structure of concrete, it is not possible to clearly describe those changes. Most standards of testing methods tend to simplify the calculations and take the average value of the beam’s rigidity on its entire length. The rigidity depends on the level of the maximal load of the beam. Experimental researches verify the value by inserting the coefficients into the formulas used in the theory of elasticity. The researches describe the changes in rigidity in the beam’s length more precisely. The authors take into consideration the change of rigidity, depending on the level of maximum load (continuum models), or localize the changes in rigidity in the area of the cracks (discrete models). This paper presents one of the discrete models. It is distinguished by the fact that the left side of the differential equation, that depends on the rigidity, is constant, and all effects associated with the scratches are taken as the external load and placed on the right side of the equation. This allows to generalize the description. The paper presents a particular integral of the differential equation, which allow analyzing the displacement and vibration for different rigidity of the silo’s walls, the flow rate and type of the flowing material.

Nodal integration of finite elements has been investigated recently. Compared with full integration it shows better convergence when applied to incompressible media, allows easier remeshing and highly reduces the number of material evaluation points thus improving efficiency. Furthermore, understanding it may help to create new integration schemes in meshless methods as well. The new integration technique requires a nodally averaged deformation gradient. For the tetrahedral element it is possible to formulate a nodal strain which passes the patch test. On the downside, it introduces non-physical low energy modes. Most of these "spurious modes" are local deformation maps of neighbouring elements. Present stabilization schemes rely on adding a stabilizing potential to the strain energy. The stabilization is discussed within this article. Its drawbacks are easily identified within numerical experiments: Nonlinear material laws are not well represented. Plastic strains may often be underestimated. Geometrically nonlinear stabilization greatly reduces computational efficiency. The article reinterpretes nodal integration in terms of imposing a nonconforming C0-continuous strain field on the structure. By doing so, the origins of the spurious modes are discussed and two methods are presented that solve this problem. First, a geometric constraint is formulated and solved using a mixed formulation of Hu-Washizu type. This assumption leads to a consistent representation of the strain energy while eliminating spurious modes. The solution is exact, but only of theoretical interest since it produces global support. Second, an integration scheme is presented that approximates the stabilization criterion. The latter leads to a highly efficient scheme. It can even be extended to other finite element types such as hexahedrals. Numerical efficiency, convergence behaviour and stability of the new method is validated using linear tetrahedral and hexahedral elements.

We present recent developments of adaptive wavelet solvers for elliptic eigenvalue problems. We describe the underlying abstract iteration scheme of the preconditioned perturbed iteration. We apply the iteration to a simple model problem in order to identify the main ideas which a numerical realization of the abstract scheme is based upon. This indicates how these concepts carry over to wavelet discretizations. Finally we present numerical results for the Poisson eigenvalue problem on an L-shaped domain.

Fuzzy functions are suitable to deal with uncertainties and fuzziness in a closed form maintaining the informational content. This paper tries to understand, elaborate, and explain the problem of interpolating crisp and fuzzy data using continuous fuzzy valued functions. Two main issues are addressed here. The first covers how the fuzziness, induced by the reduction and deficit of information i.e. the discontinuity of the interpolated points, can be evaluated considering the used interpolation method and the density of the data. The second issue deals with the need to differentiate between impreciseness and hence fuzziness only in the interpolated quantity, impreciseness only in the location of the interpolated points and impreciseness in both the quantity and the location. In this paper, a brief background of the concept of fuzzy numbers and of fuzzy functions is presented. The numerical side of computing with fuzzy numbers is concisely demonstrated. The problem of fuzzy polynomial interpolation, the interpolation on meshes and mesh free fuzzy interpolation is investigated. The integration of the previously noted uncertainty into a coherent fuzzy valued function is discussed. Several sets of artificial and original measured data are used to examine the mentioned fuzzy interpolations.

FREE VIBRATION FREQUENCIES OF THE CRACKED REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS - METHODS OF CALCULATIONS
(2010)

The paper presents method of calculation of natural frequencies of the cracked reinforced concrete beams including discreet model of crack. The described method is based on the stiff finite elements method. It was modified in such a way as to take into account local discontinuities (ie. cracks). In addition, some theoretical studies as well as experimental tests of concrete mechanics based on discrete crack model were taken into consideration. The calculations were performed using the author’s own numerical algorithm. Moreover, other calculation methods of dynamic reinforced concrete beams presented in standards and guidelines are discussed. Calculations performed by using different methods are compared with the results obtained in experimental tests.

Sand-bentonite mixtures are well recognized as buffer and sealing material in nuclear waste repository constructions. The behaviour of compacted sand-bentonite mixture needs to be well understood in order to guarantee the safety and the efficiency of the barrier construction. This paper presents numerical simulations of swelling test and coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) test on compacted sand-bentonite mixture in order to reveal the influence of the temperature and hydraulic gradients on the distribution of temperature, mechanical stress and water content in such materials. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to identify the parameters which influence the most the response of the numerical model. Results of back analysis of the model parameters are reported and critically assessed.

As numerical techniques for solving PDE or integral equations become more sophisticated, treatments of the generation of the geometric inputs should also follow that numerical advancement. This document describes the preparation of CAD data so that they can later be applied to hierarchical BEM or FEM solvers. For the BEM case, the geometric data are described by surfaces which we want to decompose into several curved foursided patches. We show the treatment of untrimmed and trimmed surfaces. In particular, we provide prevention of smooth corners which are bad for diffeomorphism. Additionally, we consider the problem of characterizing whether a Coons map is a diffeomorphism from the unit square onto a planar domain delineated by four given curves. We aim primarily at having not only theoretically correct conditions but also practically efficient methods. As for FEM geometric preparation, we need to decompose a 3D solid into a set of curved tetrahedra. First, we describe some method of decomposition without adding too many Steiner points (additional points not belonging to the initial boundary nodes of the boundary surface). Then, we provide a methodology for efficiently checking whether a tetrahedral transfinite interpolation is regular. That is done by a combination of degree reduction technique and subdivision. Along with the method description, we report also on some interesting practical results from real CAD data.

The paper is devoted to a study of properties of homogeneous solutions of massless field equation in higher dimensions. We first treat the case of dimension 4. Here we use the two-component spinor language (developed for purposes of general relativity). We describe how are massless field operators related to a higher spin analogues of the de Rham sequence - the so called Bernstein-Gel'fand-Gel'fand (BGG) complexes - and how are they related to the twisted Dirac operators. Then we study similar question in higher (even) dimensions. Here we have to use more tools from representation theory of the orthogonal group. We recall the definition of massless field equations in higher dimensions and relations to higher dimensional conformal BGG complexes. Then we discuss properties of homogeneous solutions of massless field equation. Using some recent techniques for decomposition of tensor products of irreducible $Spin(m)$-modules, we are able to add some new results on a structure of the spaces of homogenous solutions of massless field equations. In particular, we show that the kernel of the massless field equation in a given homogeneity contains at least on specific irreducible submodule.

Information technology plays a key role in the everyday operation of buildings and campuses. Many proprietary technologies and methodologies can assist in effective Building Performance Monitoring (BPM) and efficient managing of building resources. The integration of related tools like energy simulator packages, facility, energy and building management systems, and enterprise resource planning systems is of benefit to BPM. However, the complexity to integrating such domain specific systems prevents their common usage. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been deployed successfully in many large multinational companies to create integrated and flexible software systems, but so far this methodology has not been applied broadly to the field of BPM. This paper envisions that SOA provides an effective integration framework for BPM. Service oriented architecture for the ITOBO framework for sustainable and optimised building operation is proposed and an implementation for a building performance monitoring system is introduced.

This paper deals with the modelling and the analysis of masonry vaults. Numerical FEM analyses are performed using LUSAS code. Two vault typologies are analysed (barrel and cross-ribbed vaults) parametrically varying geometrical proportions and constraints. The proposed model and the developed numerical procedure are implemented in a computer analysis. Numerical applications are developed to assess the model effectiveness and the efficiency of the numerical procedure. The main object of the present paper is the development of a computational procedure which allows to define 3D structural behaviour of masonry vaults. For each investigated example, the homogenized limit analysis approach has been employed to predict ultimate load and failure mechanisms. Finally, both a mesh dependence study and a sensitivity analysis are reported. Sensitivity analysis is conducted varying in a wide range mortar tensile strength and mortar friction angle with the aim of investigating the influence of the mechanical properties of joints on collapse load and failure mechanisms. The proposed computer model is validated by a comparison with experimental results available in the literature.

Since the 90-ties the Pascal matrix, its generalizations and applications have been in the focus of a great amount of publications. As it is well known, the Pascal matrix, the symmetric Pascal matrix and other special matrices of Pascal type play an important role in many scientific areas, among them Numerical Analysis, Combinatorics, Number Theory, Probability, Image processing, Sinal processing, Electrical engineering, etc. We present a unified approach to matrix representations of special polynomials in several hypercomplex variables (new Bernoulli, Euler etc. polynomials), extending results of H. Malonek, G.Tomaz: Bernoulli polynomials and Pascal matrices in the context of Clifford Analysis, Discrete Appl. Math. 157(4)(2009) 838-847. The hypercomplex version of a new Pascal matrix with block structure, which resembles the ordinary one for polynomials of one variable will be discussed in detail.

A practical framework for generating cross correlated fields with a specified marginal distribution function, an autocorrelation function and cross correlation coefficients is presented in the paper. The contribution promotes a recent journal paper [1]. The approach relies on well known series expansion methods for simulation of a Gaussian random field. The proposed method requires all cross correlated fields over the domain to share an identical autocorrelation function and the cross correlation structure between each pair of simulated fields to be simply defined by a cross correlation coefficient. Such relations result in specific properties of eigenvectors of covariance matrices of discretized field over the domain. These properties are used to decompose the eigenproblem which must normally be solved in computing the series expansion into two smaller eigenproblems. Such decomposition represents a significant reduction of computational effort. Non-Gaussian components of a multivariate random field are proposed to be simulated via memoryless transformation of underlying Gaussian random fields for which the Nataf model is employed to modify the correlation structure. In this method, the autocorrelation structure of each field is fulfilled exactly while the cross correlation is only approximated. The associated errors can be computed before performing simulations and it is shown that the errors happen especially in the cross correlation between distant points and that they are negligibly small in practical situations.

We consider a structural truss problem where all of the physical model parameters are uncertain: not just the material values and applied loads, but also the positions of the nodes are assumed to be inexact but bounded and are represented by intervals. Such uncertainty may typically arise from imprecision during the process of manufacturing or construction, or round-off errors. In this case the application of the finite element method results in a system of linear equations with numerous interval parameters which cannot be solved conventionally. Applying a suitable variable substitution, an iteration method for the solution of a parametric system of linear equations is firstly employed to obtain initial bounds on the node displacements. Thereafter, an interval tightening (pruning) technique is applied, firstly on the element forces and secondly on the node displacements, in order to obtain tight guaranteed enclosures for the interval solutions for the forces and displacements.

This paper describes the application of interval calculus to calculation of plate deflection, taking in account inevitable and acceptable tolerance of input data (input parameters). The simply supported reinforced concrete plate was taken as an example. The plate was loaded by uniformly distributed loads. Several parameters that influence the plate deflection are given as certain closed intervals. Accordingly, the results are obtained as intervals so it was possible to follow the direct influence of a change of one or more input parameters on output (in our example, deflection) values by using one model and one computing procedure. The described procedure could be applied to any FEM calculation in order to keep calculation tolerances, ISO-tolerances, and production tolerances in close limits (admissible limits). The Wolfram Mathematica has been used as tool for interval calculation.

NONZONAL WAVELETS ON S^N
(2010)

In the present article we will construct wavelets on an arbitrary dimensional sphere S^n due the approach of approximate Identities. There are two equivalently approaches to wavelets. The group theoretical approach formulates a square integrability condition for a group acting via unitary, irreducible representation on the sphere. The connection to the group theoretical approach will be sketched. The concept of approximate identities uses the same constructions in the background, here we select an appropriate section of dilations and translations in the group acting on the sphere in two steps. At First we will formulate dilations in terms of approximate identities and than we call in translations on the sphere as rotations. This leads to the construction of an orthogonal polynomial system in L²(SO(n+1)). That approach is convenient to construct concrete wavelets, since the appropriate kernels can be constructed form the heat kernel leading to the approximate Identity of Gauss-Weierstra\ss. We will work out conditions to functions forming a family of wavelets, subsequently we formulate how we can construct zonal wavelets from a approximate Identity and the relation to admissibility of nonzonal wavelets. Eventually we will give an example of a nonzonal Wavelet on $S^n$, which we obtain from the approximate identity of Gauss-Weierstraß.

SIMULATION AND MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRATION OF CONCRETE FOR AVOIDING THERMAL CRACKS
(2010)

After mixing of concrete, the hardening starts by an exothermic chemical reaction known as hydration. As the reaction rate depends on the temperature the time in the description of the hydration is replaced by the maturity which is defined as an integral over a certain function depending on the temperature. The temperature distribution is governed by the heat equation with a right hand side depending on the maturity and the temperature itself. We compare of the performance of different time integration schemes of higher order with an automatic time step control. The simulation of the heat distribution is of importance as the development of mechanical properties is driven by the hydration. During this process it is possible that the tensile stresses exceed the tensile strength and cracks occur. The goal is to produce cheap concrete without cracks. Simple crack-criterions use only temperature differences, more involved ones are based on thermal stresses. If the criterion predicts cracks some changes in the input data are needed. This can be interpreted as optimization. The final goal will be to adopt model based optimization (in contrast to simulation based optimization) to the problem of the hydration of young concrete and the avoidance of cracks. The first step is the simulation of the hydration, which we focus in this paper.

An introduction is given to Clifford Analysis over pseudo-Euclidean space of arbitrary signature, called for short Ultrahyperbolic Clifford Analysis (UCA). UCA is regarded as a function theory of Clifford-valued functions, satisfying a first order partial differential equation involving a vector-valued differential operator, called a Dirac operator. The formulation of UCA presented here pays special attention to its geometrical setting. This permits to identify tensors which qualify as geometrically invariant Dirac operators and to take a position on the naturalness of contravariant and covariant versions of such a theory. In addition, a formal method is described to construct the general solution to the aforementioned equation in the context of covariant UCA.

Reducing energy consumption is one of the major challenges for present day and will continue for future generations. The emerging EU directives relating to energy (EU EPBD and the EU Directive on Emissions Trading) now place demands on building owners to rate the energy performance of their buildings for efficient energy management. Moreover European Legislation (Directive 2006/32/EC) requires Facility Managers to reduce building energy consumption and operational costs. Currently sophisticated building services systems are available integrating off-the-shelf building management components. However this ad-hoc combination presents many difficulties to building owners in the management and upgrade of these systems. This paper addresses the need for integration concepts, holistic monitoring and analysis methodologies, life-cycle oriented decision support and sophisticated control strategies through the seamless integration of people, ICT-devices and computational resources via introducing the newly developed integrated system architecture. The first concept was applied to a residential building and the results were elaborated to improve current building conditions.

In this paper we present rudiments of a higher dimensional analogue of the Szegö kernel method to compute 3D mappings from elementary domains onto the unit sphere. This is a formal construction which provides us with a good substitution of the classical conformal Riemann mapping. We give explicit numerical examples and discuss a comparison of the results with those obtained alternatively by the Bergman kernel method.

Using a quaternionic reformulation of the electrical impedance equation, we consider a two-dimensional separable-variables conductivity function and, posing two different techniques, we obtain a special class of Vekua equation, whose general solution can be approach by virtue of Taylor series in formal powers, for which is possible to introduce an explicit Bers generating sequence.

We present the way of calculation of displacement in the bent reinforced concrete bar elements where rearrangement of internal forces and plastic hinge occurred. The described solution is based on prof. Borcz’s mathematical model. It directly takes into consideration the effects connected with the occurrence of plastic hinge, such as for example a crack, by means of a differential equation of axis of the bent reinforced concrete beam. The EN Eurocode 2 makes it possible to consider the influence of plastic hinge on the values of the reinforced concrete structures. This influence can also be assumed using other analytical methods. However, the results obtained by the application of Eurocode 2 are higher from those received in testing. Just comparably big error level occurs when calculations are made by means of Borcz’s method, but in the latter case, the results depend on the assumptions made beforehand. This method makes it possible to apply the experimental results using parameters r1 i r0. When the experimental results are taken into account, one could observe the compatibility between the calculations and actual deflections of the structure.

The changed global security situation in the last eight years has shown the importance of emergency management plans in public buildings. Therefore, the use of computer simulators for surveying fire safety design and evacuation process is increasing. The aim of these simulators is to have more realistic evacuation simulations. The challenge is, firstly, to realize the virtual simulation environment based on geometrical and material boundary conditions, secondly, to considerate the mutual interaction effects between different parameters and, finally, to have a realistic visualization of the simulated results. In order to carry out this task, an especial new software method on a BIM-platform has to be developed which can integrate all required simulations and will be able to have an immersive output BIM ISEE (Immersive Safety Engineering Environment). The new BIM-ISEE will integrate the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for fire and evacuation simulation in the Autodesk Revit which is a BIM-platform and will represent the simulation results in the immersive virtual environment at the institute (CES-Lab). With BIM-ISEE the fire safety engineer will be able to obtain more realistic visualizations in the immersive environment, to modify his concept more effectively, to evaluate the simulation results more accurately and to visualize the various simulation results. It can also give the rescue staff the opportunity to perform and evaluate emergency evacuation trainings.

The main aim of the research project in progress is to develop virtual models as tools to support decision-making in the planning of construction maintenance. The virtual models gives the capacity to allow them to transmit, visually and interactively, information related to the physical behaviour of materials, components of given infrastructures, defined as a function of the time variable. The interactive application allows decisions to be made on conception options in the definition of plans for maintenance, conservation or rehabilitation. The first virtual prototype that is now in progress concerns just lamps. It allows the examination of the physical model, visualizing, for each element modelled in 3D and linked to a database, the corresponding technical information concerned with the wear and tear aspects of the material, calculated for that period of time. In addition, the analysis of solutions for repair work or substitution and inherent cost are predicted, the results being obtained interactively and visualized in the virtual environment itself. The aim is that the virtual model should be able to be applied directly over the 3D models of new constructions, in situations of rehabilitation. The practical usage of these models is directed, then, towards supporting decision-making in the conception phase and the planning of maintenance. In further work other components will be analysed and incorporated into the virtual system.

Quality is one of the most important properties of a product. Providing the optimal quality can reduce costs for rework, scrap, recall or even legal actions while satisfying customers demand for reliability. The aim is to achieve ``built-in'' quality within product development process (PDP). The common approach therefore is the robust design optimization (RDO). It uses stochastic values as constraint and/or objective to obtain a robust and reliable optimal design. In classical approaches the effort required for stochastic analysis multiplies with the complexity of the optimization algorithm. The suggested approach shows that it is possible to reduce this effort enormously by using previously obtained data. Therefore the support point set of an underlying metamodel is filled iteratively during ongoing optimization in regions of interest if this is necessary. In a simple example, it will be shown that this is possible without significant loss of accuracy.

The uncertainty existing in the construction industry is bigger than in other industries. Consequently, most construction projects do not go totally as planned. The project management plan needs therefore to be adapted repeatedly within the project lifecycle to suit the actual project conditions. Generally, the risks of change in the project management plan are difficult to be identified in advance, especially if these risks are caused by unexpected events such as human errors or changes in the client preferences. The knowledge acquired from different resources is essential to identify the probable deviations as well as to find proper solutions to the faced change risks. Hence, it is necessary to have a knowledge base that contains known solutions for the common exceptional cases that may cause changes in each construction domain. The ongoing research work presented in this paper uses the process modeling technique of Event-driven Process Chains to describe different patterns of structure changes in the schedule networks. This results in several so called “change templates”. Under each template different types of change risk/ response pairs can be categorized and stored in a knowledge base. This knowledge base is described as an ontology model populated with reference construction process data. The implementation of the developed approach can be seen as an iterative scheduling cycle that will be repeated within the project lifecycle as new change risks surface. This can help to check the availability of ready solutions in the knowledge base for the situation at hand. Moreover, if the solution is adopted, CPSP, “Change Project Schedule Plan „a prototype developed for the purpose of this research work, will be used to make the needed structure changes of the schedule network automatically based on the change template. What-If scenarios can be implemented using the CPSP prototype in the planning phase to study the effect of specific situations without endangering the success of the project objectives. Hence, better designed and more maintainable project schedules can be achieved.

CRITICAL STRESS ASSESSMENT IN ANGLE TO GUSSET PLATE BOLTED CONNECTION BY SIMPLIFIED FEM MODELLING
(2010)

Simplified modelling of friction grip bolted connections of steel member – to – gusset plate is often applied in engineering practise. The paper deals with the simplification of pre-tensioned bolt model and simplification of load transfer within connection. Influence on normal strain (and thus stress) distribution at critical cross-section is investigated. Laboratory testing of single-angle or double-angle members – to – gusset plates bolted connections were taken as basis for numerical analysis. FE models were created using 1D and 2D elements. Angles and gusset plates were modelled with shell elements. Two methods of modelling of friction grip bolting were considered: bolt-regarding approach with 1D element systems modelling bolts and two variants of bolt-disregarding approach with special constraints over some part of member and gusset plate surfaces in contact: a) constraints over whole area of contact, b) constraints over the area around each bolt shank (“partially tied”). Modelling of friction grip bolted connections using simplified bolt modelling may be effective, especially in the case of analysis concerning elastic range only. In such a case disregarding bolts and replacing them with “partially tied” modelling seems to be more attractive. It is less time-consuming and provides results of similar accuracy in comparison to analysis utilizing simplified bolt modelling.

In order to model and simulate collapses of large scale complex structures, a user-friendly and high performance software system is essential. Because a large number of simulation experiments have to be performed, therefore, next to an appropriate simulation model and high performance computing, efficient interactive control and visualization capabilities of model parameters and simulation results are crucial. To this respect, this contribution is concerned with advancements of the software system CADCE (Computer Aided Demolition using Controlled Explosives) that is extended under particular consideration of computational steering concepts. Thereby, focus is placed on problems and solutions for the collapse simulation of real world large scale complex structures. The simulation model applied is based on a multilevel approach embedding finite element models on a local as well as a near field length scale, and multibody models on a global scale. Within the global level simulation, relevant effects of the local and the near field scale, such as fracture and failure processes of the reinforced concrete parts, are approximated by means of tailor-made multibody subsystems. These subsystems employ force elements representing nonlinear material characteristics in terms of force/displacement relationships that, in advance, are determined by finite element analysis. In particular, enhancements concerning the efficiency of the multibody model and improvements of the user interaction are presented that are crucial for the capability of the computational steering. Some scenarios of collapse simulations of real world large scale structures demonstrate the implementation of the above mentioned approaches within the computational steering.

Due to increasing numbers of wind energy converters, the accurate assessment of the lifespan of their structural parts and the entire converter system is becoming more and more paramount. Lifespan-oriented design, inspections and remedial maintenance are challenging because of their complex dynamic behavior. Wind energy converters are subjected to stochastic turbulent wind loading causing corresponding stochastic structural response and vibrations associated with an extreme number of stress cycles (up to 109 according to the rotation of the blades). Currently, wind energy converters are constructed for a service life of about 20 years. However, this estimation is more or less made by rule of thumb and not backed by profound scientific analyses or accurate simulations. By contrast, modern structural health monitoring systems allow an improved identification of deteriorations and, thereupon, to drastically advance the lifespan assessment of wind energy converters. In particular, monitoring systems based on artificial intelligence techniques represent a promising approach towards cost-efficient and reliable real-time monitoring. Therefore, an innovative real-time structural health monitoring concept based on software agents is introduced in this contribution. For a short time, this concept is also turned into a real-world monitoring system developed in a DFG joint research project in the authors’ institute at the Ruhr-University Bochum. In this paper, primarily the agent-based development, implementation and application of the monitoring system is addressed, focusing on the real-time monitoring tasks in the deserved detail.

From passenger’s perspective, punctuality is one of the most important features of tram route operation. We present a stochastic simulation model with special focus on determining important factors of influence. The statistical analysis bases on large samples (sample size is nearly 2000) accumulated from comprehensive measurements on eight tram routes in Cracow. For the simulation, we are not only interested in average values but also in stochastic characteristics like the variance and other properties of the distribution. A realization of trams operations is assumed to be a sequence of running times between successive stops and times spent by tram at the stops divided in passengers alighting and boarding times and times waiting for possibility of departure . The running time depends on the kind of track separation including the priorities in traffic lights, the length of the section and the number of intersections. For every type of section, a linear mixed regression model describes the average running time and its variance as functions of the length of the section and the number of intersections. The regression coefficients are estimated by the iterative re-weighted least square method. Alighting and boarding time mainly depends on type of vehicle, number of passengers alighting and boarding and occupancy of vehicle. For the distribution of the time waiting for possibility of departure suitable distributions like Gamma distribution and Lognormal distribution are fitted.

Models in the context of engineering can be classified in process based and data based models. Whereas the process based model describes the problem by an explicit formulation, the data based model is often used, where no such mapping can be found due to the high complexity of the problem. Artificial Neuronal Networks (ANN) is a data based model, which is able to “learn“ a mapping from a set of training patterns. This paper deals with the application of ANN in time dependent bathymetric models. A bathymetric model is a geometric representation of the sea bed. Typically, a bathymetry is been measured and afterwards described by a finite set of measured data. Measuring at different time steps leads to a time dependent bathymetric model. To obtain a continuous surface, the measured data has to be interpolated by some interpolation method. Unlike the explicitly given interpolation methods, the presented time dependent bathymetric model using an ANN trains the approximated surface in space and time in an implicit way. The ANN is trained by topographic measured data, which consists of the location (x,y) and time t. In other words the ANN is trained to reproduce the mapping h = f(x,y,t) and afterwards it is able to approximate the topographic height for a given location and date. In a further step, this model is extended to take meteorological parameters into account. This leads to a model of more predictive character.

Euclidean Clifford analysis is a higher dimensional function theory offering a refinement of classical harmonic analysis. The theory is centered around the concept of monogenic functions, i.e. null solutions of a first order vector valued rotation invariant differential operator called the Dirac operator, which factorizes the Laplacian. More recently, Hermitean Clifford analysis has emerged as a new and successful branch of Clifford analysis, offering yet a refinement of the Euclidean case; it focusses on the simultaneous null solutions, called Hermitean (or h-) monogenic functions, of two Hermitean Dirac operators which are invariant under the action of the unitary group. In Euclidean Clifford analysis, the Clifford-Cauchy integral formula has proven to be a corner stone of the function theory, as is the case for the traditional Cauchy formula for holomorphic functions in the complex plane. Previously, a Hermitean Clifford-Cauchy integral formula has been established by means of a matrix approach. This formula reduces to the traditional Martinelli-Bochner formula for holomorphic functions of several complex variables when taking functions with values in an appropriate part of complex spinor space. This means that the theory of Hermitean monogenic functions should encompass also other results of several variable complex analysis as special cases. At present we will elaborate further on the obtained results and refine them, considering fundamental solutions, Borel-Pompeiu representations and the Teoderescu inversion, each of them being developed at different levels, including the global level, handling vector variables, vector differential operators and the Clifford geometric product as well as the blade level were variables and differential operators act by means of the dot and wedge products. A rich world of results reveals itself, indeed including well-known formulae from the theory of several complex variables.

A UNIFIED APPROACH FOR THE TREATMENT OF SOME HIGHER DIMENSIONAL DIRAC TYPE EQUATIONS ON SPHERES
(2010)

Using Clifford analysis methods, we provide a unified approach to obtain explicit solutions of some partial differential equations combining the n-dimensional Dirac and Euler operators, including generalizations of the classical time-harmonic Maxwell equations. The obtained regular solutions show strong connections between hypergeometric functions and homogeneous polynomials in the kernel of the Dirac operator.

The application of a recent method using formal power series is proposed. It is based on a new representation for solutions of Sturm-Liouville equations. This method is used to calculate the transmittance and reflectance coefficients of finite inhomogeneous layers with high accuracy and efficiency. Tailoring the refraction index profile defining the inhomogeneous media it is possible to develop very important applications such as optical filters. A number of profiles were evaluated and then some of them selected in order to perform an improvement of their characteristics via the modification of their profiles.

MICROPLANE MODEL WITH INITIAL AND DAMAGE-INDUCED ANISOTROPY APPLIED TO TEXTILE-REINFORCED CONCRETE
(2010)

The presented material model reproduces the anisotropic characteristics of textile reinforced concrete in a smeared manner. This includes both the initial anisotropy introduced by the textile reinforcement, as well as the anisotropic damage evolution reflecting fine patterns of crack bridges. The model is based on the microplane approach. The direction-dependent representation of the material structure into oriented microplanes provides a flexible way to introduce the initial anisotropy. The microplanes oriented in a yarn direction are associated with modified damage laws that reflect the tension-stiffening effect due to the multiple cracking of the matrix along the yarn.

In the past, several types of Fourier transforms in Clifford analysis have been studied. In this paper, first an overview of these different transforms is given. Next, a new equation in a Clifford algebra is proposed, the solutions of which will act as kernels of a new class of generalized Fourier transforms. Two solutions of this equation are studied in more detail, namely a vector-valued solution and a bivector-valued solution, as well as the associated integral transforms.

THE FOURIER-BESSEL TRANSFORM
(2010)

In this paper we devise a new multi-dimensional integral transform within the Clifford analysis setting, the so-called Fourier-Bessel transform. It appears that in the two-dimensional case, it coincides with the Clifford-Fourier and cylindrical Fourier transforms introduced earlier. We show that this new integral transform satisfies operational formulae which are similar to those of the classical tensorial Fourier transform. Moreover the L2-basis elements consisting of generalized Clifford-Hermite functions appear to be eigenfunctions of the Fourier-Bessel transform.

We give a sufficient and a necessary condition for an analytic function "f" on the unit disk "D" with Hadamard gap to belong to a class of weighted logarithmic Bloch space as well as to the corresponding little weighted logarithmic Bloch space under some conditions posed on the defined weight function. Also, we study the relations between the class of weighted logarithmic Bloch functions and some other classes of analytic functions by the help of analytic functions in the Hadamard gap class.

We investigate aspects of tram-network section reliability, which operates as a part of the model of whole city tram-network reliability. Here, one of the main points of interest is the character of the chronological development of the disturbances (namely the differences between time of departure provided in schedule and real time of departure) on subsequent sections during tram line operation. These developments were observed in comprehensive measurements done in Krakow, during one of the main transportation nodes (Rondo Mogilskie) rebuilding. All taken building activities cause big disturbances in tram lines operation with effects extended to neighboring sections. In a second part, the stochastic character of section running time will be analyzed more detailed. There will be taken into consideration sections with only one beginning stop and also with two or three beginning stops located at different streets at an intersection. Possibility of adding results from sections with two beginning stops to one set will be checked with suitable statistical tests which are used to compare the means of the two samples. Section running time may depend on the value of gap between two following trams and from the value of deviation from schedule. This dependence will be described by a multi regression formula. The main measurements were done in the city center of Krakow in two stages: before and after big changes in tramway infrastructure.

In this paper we consider the time independent Klein-Gordon equation on some conformally flat 3-tori with given boundary data. We set up an explicit formula for the fundamental solution. We show that we can represent any solution to the homogeneous Klein-Gordon equation on the torus as finite sum over generalized 3-fold periodic elliptic functions that are in the kernel of the Klein-Gordon operator. Furthermore we prove Cauchy and Green type integral formulas and set up a Teodorescu and Cauchy transform for the toroidal Klein-Gordon operator. These in turn are used to set up explicit formulas for the solution to the inhomogeneous version of the Klein-Gordon equation on the 3-torus.

For many applications, nonuniformly distributed functional data is given which lead to large–scale scattered data problems. We wish to represent the data in terms of a sparse representation with a minimal amount of degrees of freedom. For this, an adaptive scheme which operates in a coarse-to-fine fashion using a multiscale basis is proposed. Specifically, we investigate hierarchical bases using B-splines and spline-(pre)wavelets. At each stage a leastsquares approximation of the data is computed. We take into account different requests arising in large-scale scattered data fitting: we discuss the fast iterative solution of the least square systems, regularization of the data, and the treatment of outliers. A particular application concerns the approximate continuation of harmonic functions, an issue arising in geodesy.

In this note, we describe quite explicitly the Howe duality for Hodge systems and connect it with the well-known facts of harmonic analysis and Clifford analysis. In Section 2, we recall briefly the Fisher decomposition and the Howe duality for harmonic analysis. In Section 3, the well-known fact that Clifford analysis is a real refinement of harmonic analysis is illustrated by the Fisher decomposition and the Howe duality for the space of spinor-valued polynomials in the Euclidean space under the so-called L-action. On the other hand, for Clifford algebra valued polynomials, we can consider another action, called in Clifford analysis the H-action. In the last section, we recall the Fisher decomposition for the H-action obtained recently. As in Clifford analysis the prominent role plays the Dirac equation in this case the basic set of equations is formed by the Hodge system. Moreover, analysis of Hodge systems can be viewed even as a refinement of Clifford analysis. In this note, we describe the Howe duality for the H-action. In particular, in Proposition 1, we recognize the Howe dual partner of the orthogonal group O(m) in this case as the Lie superalgebra sl(2 1). Furthermore, Theorem 2 gives the corresponding multiplicity free decomposition with an explicit description of irreducible pieces.

MULTI-SITE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT SCHEDULING CONSIDERING RESOURCE MOVING TIME IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(2010)

Under the booming construction demands in developing countries, particularly in Vietnam situation, construction contractors often perform multiple concurrent projects in different places. In construction project scheduling processes, the existing scheduling methods often assume the resource moving time between activities/projects to be negligible. When multiple projects are deployed in different places and far from each other, this assumption has many shortcomings for properly modelling the real-world constraints. Especially, with respect to developing countries such as the Vietnam which contains transportation systems that are still in backward and low technical standards. This paper proposes a new algorithm named Multi-Site Construction Project Scheduling - MCOPS. The objective of this algorithm is to solve the problem of minimising multi-site construction project duration under limited available conditions of renewable resources (labour, machines and equipment) combining with the moving time of required resource among activities/projects. Additionally, in order to mitigate the impact of resource moving time into the multi-site project duration, this paper proposed a new priority rule: Minimum Resource Moving Time (MinRMT). The MinRMT is applied to rank the finished activities according to a priority order, to support the released resources to the scheduling activities. In order to investigate the impact of the resource moving time among activities during the scheduling process, computational experimentation was implemented. The results of the MCOPS-based computational experiments showed that, the resource moving time among projects has significantly impacted the multi-site project durations and this amount of time can not be ignored in the multi-site project scheduling process. Besides, the efficient application of the MinRMT is also demonstrated through the achieved results of the computational experiment in this paper. Though the efforts in this paper are based on the Vietnamese construction conditions, the proposed method can be usefully applied in other developing countries which have similar construction conditions.

The article presents analysis of stress distribution in the reinforced concrete support beam bracket which is a component of prefabricated reinforced concrete building. The building structure is spatial frame where dilatations were applied. The proper stiffness of its structure is provided by frames with stiff joints, monolithic lift shifts and staircases. The prefabricated slab floors are supported by beam shelves which are shaped as inverted letter ‘T’. Beams are supported by the column brackets. In order to lower the storey height and fulfill the architectural demands at the same time, the designer lowered the height of beam at the support zone. The analyzed case refers to the bracket zone where the slant crack. on the support beam bracket was observed. It could appear as a result of overcrossing of allowable tension stresses in reinforced concrete, in the bracket zone. It should be noted that the construction solution applied, i.e. concurrent support of the “undercut” beam on the column bracket causes local concentration of stresses in the undercut zone where the strongest transverse forces and tangent stresses occur concurrently. Some additional rectangular stresses being a result of placing the slab floors on the lower part of beam shelves sum up with those described above.

In recent years special hypercomplex Appell polynomials have been introduced by several authors and their main properties have been studied by different methods and with different objectives. Like in the classical theory of Appell polynomials, their generating function is a hypercomplex exponential function. The observation that this generalized exponential function has, for example, a close relationship with Bessel functions confirmed the practical significance of such an approach to special classes of hypercomplex differentiable functions. Its usefulness for combinatorial studies has also been investigated. Moreover, an extension of those ideas led to the construction of complete sets of hypercomplex Appell polynomial sequences. Here we show how this opens the way for a more systematic study of the relation between some classes of Special Functions and Elementary Functions in Hypercomplex Function Theory.

A stress based remodeling approach is used to investigate the sensitivity of the collagen architecture in humane eye tissues on the biomechanical response of the lamina cribrosa with a particular focus on the stress environment of the nerve fibers. This approach is based on a multi-level biomechanical framework, where the biomechanical properties of eye tissues are derived from a single crimped fibril at the micro-scale via the collagen network of distributed fibrils at the meso-scale to the incompressible and anisotropic soft tissue at the macro-scale. Biomechanically induced remodeling of the collagen network is captured on the meso-scale by allowing for a continuous reorientation of collagen fibrils. To investigate the multi-scale phenomena related to glaucomatous neuropathy a generalized computational homogenization scheme is applied to a coupled two-scale analysis of the human eye considering a numerical macro- and meso-scale model of the lamina cribrosa.

In this paper three different formulations of a Bernoulli type free boundary problem are discussed. By analyzing the shape Hessian in case of matching data it is distinguished between well-posed and ill-posed formulations. A nonlinear Ritz-Galerkin method is applied for discretizing the shape optimization problem. In case of well-posedness existence and convergence of the approximate shapes is proven. In combination with a fast boundary element method efficient first and second order shape optimization algorithms are obtained.

Planning and construction processes are characterized by the peculiarity that they need to be designed individually for each project. It is necessary to set up an individual schedule for each project. As a basis for a new project, schedules from already finished projects are used, but adaptions are always necessary. In practice, scheduling tools only document a process. Schedules cover a set of activities, their duration and a set of interdependencies between activities. The design of a process is up to the user. It is not necessary to specify each interdependency, and completeness and correctness need to be checked manually. No methodologies are available to guarantee properties such as correctness or completeness. The considerations presented in the paper are based on an approach where a planning and a construction process including the interdependencies between planning and construction activities are regarded as a result. Selected information need to be specified by a user, and a proposal for an order of planning and construction activities is computed. As a consequence, process properties such as correctness and completeness can be guaranteed with respect to user input. Especially in Germany, clients are allowed to modify their requirements at any time. This leads to modifications in the planning and construction processes. This paper covers a mathematical formulation for this problem based on set theory. A complex structure is set up covering objects and relations; and operations are defined that guarantee consistency in the underlying and versioned process description. The presented considerations are based on previous work. This paper can be regarded as the next step in a series of previous work describing how a suitable concept for handling, planning and construction processes in civil engineering can be formed.

Several results concerning the distribution of the headway of busses in the flow behind a traffic signal are presented. In the main focus of interest is the description of analytical models, which are verified by the results of Monte-Carlo-Methods. The advantage of analytical models (verified, but not derived by simulation methods) is their flexibility with respect to possible generalizations. For instance, several random distributions of the flow incoming to the traffic signal can be compared. The attention will be directed at the question, how the primary headway H (analyzed in front of the traffic signal) is mapped to the headway H’ analyzed behind of the traffic signal and how the random distribution of H is mapped to that of H’. For the traffic flow in front of the traffic signal several models will be discussed. The first case considers the situation, that busses operate on a common lane with the individual motor car traffic and the traffic flow is saturated. In the second situation, busses operate on a separated bus lane. Moreover, a mixed situation is discussed to model as close to reality as possible.

In order to make control decisions, Smart Buildings need to collect data from multiple sources and bring it to a central location, such as the Building Management System (BMS). This needs to be done in a timely and automated fashion. Besides data being gathered from different energy using elements, information of occupant behaviour is also important for a building’s requirement analysis. In this paper, the parameter of Occupant Density was considered to help find behaviour of occupants towards a building space. Through this parameter, support for building energy consumption and requirements based on occupant need and demands was provided. The demonstrator presented provides information on the number of people present in a particular building space at any time, giving the space density. Such collections of density data made over a certain period of time represents occupant behaviour towards the building space, giving its usage patterns. Similarly, inventory items were tracked and monitored for moving out or being brought into a particular read zone. For both, people and inventory items, this was achieved using small, low-cost, passive Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. Occupants were given the tags in a form factor of a credit card to be possessed at all times. A central database was built where occupant and inventory information for a particular building space was maintained for monitoring and providing a central data access.

Practical examples show that the improvement in cost flow and total amount of money spend in construction and further use may be cut significantly. The calculation is based on spreadsheets calculation, very easy to develop on most PC´s now a days. Construction works, are a field where the evaluation of Cash Flow can be and should be applied. Decisions about cash flow in construction are decisions with long-term impact and long-term memory. Mistakes from the distant past have a massive impact on situations in the present and into the far economic future of economic activities. Two approaches exist. The Just-in-Time (JIT) approach and life cycle costs (LCC) approach. The calculation example shows the dynamic results for the production speed in opposition to stable flow of production in duration of activities. More sophisticated rescheduling in optimal solution might bring in return extra profit. In the technologies and organizational processes for industrial buildings, railways and road reconstruction, public utilities and housing developments there are assembly procedures that are very appropriate for the given purpose, complicated research-, development-, innovation-projects are all very good aspects of these kinds of applications. The investors of large investments and all public invested money may be spent more efficiently if an optimisation speed-strategy can be calculated.

Objects for civil engineering applications can be identified with their reference in memory, their alpha-numeric name or their geometric location. Particularly in graphic user interfaces, it is common to identify objects geometrically by selection with the mouse. As the number of geometric objects in a graphic user interface grows, it becomes increasingly more important to treat the basic operations add, search and remove for geometric objects with great efficiency. Guttmann has proposed the Region-Tree (R-tree) for geometric identification in an environment which uses pages on disc as data structure. Minimal bounding rectangles are used to structure the data in such a way that neighborhood relations can be described effectively. The literature shows that the parameters which influence the efficiency of the R-trees have been studied extensively, but without conclusive results. The goal of the research which is reported in this paper is to determine reliably the parameters which significantly influence the efficiency of R-trees for geometric identification in technical drawings. In order to make this investigation conclusive, it must be performed with the best available software technology. Therefore an object-oriented software for the method is developed. This implementation is tested with technical drawings containing many thousands of geometric objects. These drawings are created automatically by a stochastic generator which is incorporated into a test bed consisting of an editor and a visualisor. This test bed is used to obtain statistics for the main factors which affect the efficiency of R-trees. The investigation shows that the following main factors which affect the efficiency can be identified reliably : number of geometric objects on the drawing the minimum und maximum number of children of a node of the tree the maximum width and height of the minimal bounding rectangles of the geometric objects relative to the size of the drawing.

In earlier research, generalized multidimensional Hilbert transforms have been constructed in m-dimensional Euclidean space, in the framework of Clifford analysis. Clifford analysis, centred around the notion of monogenic functions, may be regarded as a direct and elegant generalization to higher dimension of the theory of the holomorphic functions in the complex plane. The considered Hilbert transforms, usually obtained as a part of the boundary value of an associated Cauchy transform in m+1 dimensions, might be characterized as isotropic, since the metric in the underlying space is the standard Euclidean one. In this paper we adopt the idea of a so-called anisotropic Clifford setting, which leads to the introduction of a metric dependent m-dimensional Hilbert transform, showing, at least formally, the same properties as the isotropic one. The Hilbert transform being an important tool in signal analysis, this metric dependent setting has the advantage of allowing the adjustment of the co-ordinate system to possible preferential directions in the signals to be analyzed. A striking result to be mentioned is that the associated anisotropic (m+1)-dimensional Cauchy transform is no longer uniquely determined, but may stem from a diversity of (m+1)-dimensional "mother" metrics.

Image processing has been much inspired by the human vision, in particular with regard to early vision. The latter refers to the earliest stage of visual processing responsible for the measurement of local structures such as points, lines, edges and textures in order to facilitate subsequent interpretation of these structures in higher stages (known as high level vision) of the human visual system. This low level visual computation is carried out by cells of the primary visual cortex. The receptive field profiles of these cells can be interpreted as the impulse responses of the cells, which are then considered as filters. According to the Gaussian derivative theory, the receptive field profiles of the human visual system can be approximated quite well by derivatives of Gaussians. Two mathematical models suggested for these receptive field profiles are on the one hand the Gabor model and on the other hand the Hermite model which is based on analysis filters of the Hermite transform. The Hermite filters are derivatives of Gaussians, while Gabor filters, which are defined as harmonic modulations of Gaussians, provide a good approximation to these derivatives. It is important to note that, even if the Gabor model is more widely used than the Hermite model, the latter offers some advantages like being an orthogonal basis and having better match to experimental physiological data. In our earlier research both filter models, Gabor and Hermite, have been developed in the framework of Clifford analysis. Clifford analysis offers a direct, elegant and powerful generalization to higher dimension of the theory of holomorphic functions in the complex plane. In this paper we expose the construction of the Hermite and Gabor filters, both in the classical and in the Clifford analysis framework. We also generalize the concept of complex Gaussian derivative filters to the Clifford analysis setting. Moreover, we present further properties of the Clifford-Gabor filters, such as their relationship with other types of Gabor filters and their localization in the spatial and in the frequency domain formalized by the uncertainty principle.

The one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform is a successful tool for signal and image analysis, with applications in physics and engineering. Clifford analysis offers an appropriate framework for taking wavelets to higher dimension. In the usual orthogonal case Clifford analysis focusses on monogenic functions, i.e. null solutions of the rotation invariant vector valued Dirac operator ∂, defined in terms of an orthogonal basis for the quadratic space Rm underlying the construction of the Clifford algebra R0,m. An intrinsic feature of this function theory is that it encompasses all dimensions at once, as opposed to a tensorial approach with products of one-dimensional phenomena. This has allowed for a very specific construction of higher dimensional wavelets and the development of the corresponding theory, based on generalizations of classical orthogonal polynomials on the real line, such as the radial Clifford-Hermite polynomials introduced by Sommen. In this paper, we pass to the Hermitian Clifford setting, i.e. we let the same set of generators produce the complex Clifford algebra C2n (with even dimension), which we equip with a Hermitian conjugation and a Hermitian inner product. Hermitian Clifford analysis then focusses on the null solutions of two mutually conjugate Hermitian Dirac operators which are invariant under the action of the unitary group. In this setting we construct new Clifford-Hermite polynomials, starting in a natural way from a Rodrigues formula which now involves both Dirac operators mentioned. Due to the specific features of the Hermitian setting, four different types of polynomials are obtained, two types of even degree and two types of odd degree. These polynomials are used to introduce a new continuous wavelet transform, after thorough investigation of all necessary properties of the involved polynomials, the mother wavelet and the associated family of wavelet kernels.

In this paper we study the structure of the solutions to higher dimensional Dirac type equations generalizing the known λ-hyperholomorphic functions, where λ is a complex parameter. The structure of the solutions to the system of partial differential equations (D- λ) f=0 show a close connection with Bessel functions of first kind with complex argument. The more general system of partial differential equations that is considered in this paper combines Dirac and Euler operators and emphasizes the role of the Bessel functions. However, contrary to the simplest case, one gets now Bessel functions of any arbitrary complex order.

Design activity could be treated as state transition computationally. In stepwise processing, in-between form-states are not easily observed. However, in this research time-based concept is introduced and applied in order to bridge the gap. In architecture, folding is one method of form manipulation and architects also want to search for alternatives by this operation. Besides, folding operation has to be defined and parameterized before time factor is involved as a variable of folding. As a result, time-based transformation provides sequential form states and redirects design activity.

ON THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH FREE CONVECTION IN STRIP DOMAINS AND 3D TRIANGULAR CHANNELS
(2006)

The Navier-Stokes equations and related ones can be treated very elegantly with the quaternionic operator calculus developed in a series of works by K. Guerlebeck, W. Sproeossig and others. This study will be extended in this paper. In order to apply the quaternionic operator calculus to solve these types of boundary value problems fully explicitly, one basically needs to evaluate two types of integral operators: the Teodorescu operator and the quaternionic Bergman projector. While the integral kernel of the Teodorescu transform is universal for all domains, the kernel function of the Bergman projector, called the Bergman kernel, depends on the geometry of the domain. With special variants of quaternionic holomorphic multiperiodic functions we obtain explicit formulas for three dimensional parallel plate channels, rectangular block domains and regular triangular channels. The explicit knowledge of the integral kernels makes it then possible to evaluate the operator equations in order to determine the solutions of the boundary value problem explicitly.

In this paper we consider three different methods for generating monogenic functions. The first one is related to Fueter's well known approach to the generation of monogenic quaternion-valued functions by means of holomorphic functions, the second one is based on the solution of hypercomplex differential equations and finally the third one is a direct series approach, based on the use of special homogeneous polynomials. We illustrate the theory by generating three different exponential functions and discuss some of their properties. Formula que se usa em preprints e artigos da nossa UI&D (acho demasiado completo): Partially supported by the R\&D unit \emph{Matem\'atica a Aplica\c\~es} (UIMA) of the University of Aveiro, through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), co-financed by the European Community fund FEDER.

In classical complex function theory the geometric mapping property of conformality is closely linked with complex differentiability. In contrast to the planar case, in higher dimensions the set of conformal mappings is only the set of Möbius transformations. Unfortunately, the theory of generalized holomorphic functions (by historical reasons they are called monogenic functions) developed on the basis of Clifford algebras does not cover the set of Möbius transformations in higher dimensions, since Möbius transformations are not monogenic. But on the other side, monogenic functions are hypercomplex differentiable functions and the question arises if from this point of view they can still play a special role for other types of 3D-mappings, for instance, for quasi-conformal ones. On the occasion of the 16th IKM 3D-mapping methods based on the application of Bergman's reproducing kernel approach (BKM) have been discussed. Almost all authors working before that with BKM in the Clifford setting were only concerned with the general algebraic and functional analytic background which allows the explicit determination of the kernel in special situations. The main goal of the abovementioned contribution was the numerical experiment by using a Maple software specially developed for that purpose. Since BKM is only one of a great variety of concrete numerical methods developed for mapping problems, our goal is to present a complete different from BKM approach to 3D-mappings. In fact, it is an extension of ideas of L. V. Kantorovich to the 3-dimensional case by using reduced quaternions and some suitable series of powers of a small parameter. Whereas until now in the Clifford case of BKM the recovering of the mapping function itself and its relation to the monogenic kernel function is still an open problem, this approach avoids such difficulties and leads to an approximation by monogenic polynomials depending on that small parameter.

Designing a structure follows a pattern of creating a structural design concept, executing a finite element analysis and developing a design model. A project was undertaken to create computer support for executing these tasks within a collaborative environment. This study focuses on developing a software architecture that integrates the various structural design aspects into a seamless functional collaboratory that satisfies engineering practice requirements. The collaboratory is to support both homogeneous collaboration i.e. between users operating on the same model and heterogeneous collaboration i.e. between users operating on different model types. Collaboration can take place synchronously or asynchronously, and the information exchange is done either at the granularity of objects or at the granularity of models. The objective is to determine from practicing engineers which configurations they regard as best and what features are essential for working in a collaborative environment. Based on the suggestions of these engineers a specification of a collaboration configuration that satisfies engineering practice requirements will be developed.

Reasonably accurate cost estimation of the structural system is quite desirable at the early stages of the design process of a construction project. However, the numerous interactions among the many cost-variables make the prediction difficult. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and case-based reasoning (CBR) are reported to overcome this difficulty. This paper presents a comparison of CBR and ANN augmented by genetic algorithms (GA) conducted by using spreadsheet simulations. GA was used to determine the optimum weights for the ANN and CBR models. The cost data of twenty-nine actual cases of residential building projects were used as an example application. Two different sets of cases were randomly selected from the data set for training and testing purposes. Prediction rates of 84% in the GA/CBR study and 89% in the GA/ANN study were obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed in the light of the experiments and the findings. It appears that GA/ANN is a more suitable model for this example of cost estimation where the prediction of numerical values is required and only a limited number of cases exist. The integration of GA into CBR and ANN in a spreadsheet format is likely to improve the prediction rates.

Der Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Bewertung von Verkehrsnetzen. Aus der Sicht der Nutzer des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs (ÖPNV) ist eines der wichtigsten Kriterien zur Beurteilung der Qualität des Liniennetzes, ob es möglich ist, mit einer großen Sicherheit das Reiseziel in einer vorgegebenen Zeit zu erreichen. Im Vortrag soll dieser Zuverlässigkeitsbegriff mathematisch gefasst werden. Dabei wird zunächst auf den üblichen Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit eines Netzes im Sinne paarweiser Zusammenhangswahrscheinlichkeiten eingegangen. Dieser Begriff wird erweitert durch die Betrachtung der Zuverlässigkeit unter Einbeziehung einer maximal zulässigen Reisezeit. In vergangenen Arbeiten hat sich die Ring-Radius-Struktur als bewährtes Modell für die theoretische Beschreibung von Verkehrsnetzen erwiesen. Diese Überlegungen sollen nun durch Einbeziehung realer Verkehrsnetzstrukturen erweitert werden. Als konkretes Beispiel dient das Straßenbahnnetz von Krakau. Hier soll insbesondere untersucht werden, welche Auswirkungen ein geplanter Ausbau des Netzes auf die Zuverlässigkeit haben wird. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

Wir betrachten im ÖPNV (Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr) diejenige Situation, daß zwei Bus- oder Straßenbahnlinien gemeinsame Haltestellen haben. Ziel unserer Untersuchungen ist es, für beide Linien einen solchen Fahrplan zu finden, der für die Fahrgäste möglichst viel Bequemlichkeit bietet. Die Bedarfsstruktur - die Anzahl von Personen, die die beiden Linien benutzen - setzt dabei gewisse Beschränkungen für die Taktzeiten der beiden Linien. Die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten sollen im Sinne der Zielstellung ausgenutzt werden. Im Vortrag wird folgenden Fragen nachgegangen: - nach welchen Kriterien kann man die "Bequemlichkeit" oder die "Synchonisationsgüte" messen? - wie kann man die einzelnen "Synchronisationsmaße" berechnen ? - wie kann man die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten nutzen, um eine möglichst gute Synchronisation zu erreichen ? Die Ergebnisse werden dann auf einige Beispiele angewandt und mit den bereitgestellten Methoden Lösungsvorschläge unterbreitet.

In civil engineering it is very difficult and often expensive to excite constructions such as bridges and buildings with an impulse hammer or shaker. This problem can be avoided with the output-only method as special feature of stochastic system identification. The permanently existing ambient noise (e.g. wind, traffic, waves) is sufficient to excite the structures in their operational conditions. The output-only method is able to estimate the observable part of a state-space-model which contains the dynamic characteristics of the measured mechanical system. Because of the assumption that the ambient excitation is white there is no requirement to measure the input. Another advantage of the output-only method is the possibility to get high detailed models by a special method, called polyreference setup. To pretend the availability of a much larger set of sensors the data from varying sensor locations will be collected. Several successive data sets are recorded with sensors at different locations (moving sensors) and fixed locations (reference sensors). The covariance functions of the reference sensors are bases to normalize the moving sensors. The result of the following subspace-based system identification is a high detailed black-box-model that contains the weighting function including the well-known dynamic parameters eigenfrequencies and mode shapes of the mechanical system. Emphasis of this lecture is the presentation of an extensive damage detection experiment. A 53-year old prestressed concrete tied-arch-bridge in Hünxe (Germany) was deconstructed in 2005. Preliminary numerous vibration measurements were accomplished. The first experiment for system modification was an additional support near the bridge bearing of one main girder. During a further experiment one hanger from one tied arch was cut through as an induced damage. Some first outcomes of the described experiments will be presented.

Due to the amount of flow simulation and measurement data, automatic detection, classification and visualization of features is necessary for an inspection. Therefore, many automated feature detection methods have been developed in recent years. However, only one feature class is visualized afterwards in most cases, and many algorithms have problems in the presence of noise or superposition effects. In contrast, image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and other filter can be analyzed in detail. An application of these methods to vector fields would provide a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. The authors suggest Clifford algebra as a mathematical framework for this task. Clifford algebra provides a unified notation for scalars and vectors as well as a multiplication of all basis elements. The Clifford product of two vectors provides the complete geometric information of the relative positions of these vectors. Integration of this product results in Clifford correlation and convolution which can be used for template matching of vector fields. For frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters, a Clifford Fourier transform has been derived for 2D and 3D. Convolution and other theorems have been proved, and fast algorithms for the computation of the Clifford Fourier transform exist. Therefore the computation of Clifford convolution can be accelerated by computing it in Clifford Fourier domain. Clifford convolution and Fourier transform can be used for a thorough analysis and subsequent visualization of flow fields.

Solid behavior as well as liquid behavior characterizes the flow of granular material in silos. The presented model is based on an appropriate interaction of a displacement field and a velocity field. The constitutive equations and the applied algorithm are developed from the exact solution for a standard case. The standard case evolves from a very tall vertical plane strain silo containing material that flows at a constant speed. No horizontal displacements and velocities take place. No changes regarding the field values arise in the vertical direction and in time. Tension is not allowed at any point. Coulomb friction represents the effects of the vertical walls. The interaction between the flowing material and the walls is covered by a forced boundary condition resulting in an additional matrix for the solid component as well as for the liquid component. The resulting integral equations are designed to be solved directly. Three coefficients describe the properties of the granular material. They govern elastic solid behavior in combination with viscous liquid behavior.

We propose a new approach to the numerical solution of quasi-static elastic-plastic problems based on the Moreau-Yosida theorem. After the time discretization, the problem is expressed as an energy minimization problem for unknown displacement and plastic strain fields. The dependency of the minimization functional on the displacement is smooth whereas the dependency on the plastic strain is non-smooth. Besides, there exists an explicit formula, how to calculate the plastic strain from a given displacement field. This allows us to reformulate the original problem as a minimization problem in the displacement only. Using the Moreau-Yosida theorem from the convex analysis, the minimization functional in the displacements turns out to be Frechet-differentiable, although the hidden dependency on the plastic strain is non-differentiable. The seconds derivative exists everywhere apart from the elastic-plastic interface dividing elastic and plastic zones of the continuum. This motivates to implement a Newton-like method, which converges super-linearly as can be observed in our numerical experiments.