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The 19th International Conference on the Applications of Computer Science and Mathematics in Architecture and Civil Engineering will be held at the Bauhaus University Weimar from 4th till 6th July 2012. Architects, computer scientists, mathematicians, and engineers from all over the world will meet in Weimar for an interdisciplinary exchange of experiences, to report on their results in research, development and practice and to discuss. The conference covers a broad range of research areas: numerical analysis, function theoretic methods, partial differential equations, continuum mechanics, engineering applications, coupled problems, computer sciences, and related topics. Several plenary lectures in aforementioned areas will take place during the conference.
We invite architects, engineers, designers, computer scientists, mathematicians, planners, project managers, and software developers from business, science and research to participate in the conference!

The 20th International Conference on the Applications of Computer Science and Mathematics in Architecture and Civil Engineering will be held at the Bauhaus University Weimar from 20th till 22nd July 2015. Architects, computer scientists, mathematicians, and engineers from all over the world will meet in Weimar for an interdisciplinary exchange of experiences, to report on their results in research, development and practice and to discuss. The conference covers a broad range of research areas: numerical analysis, function theoretic methods, partial differential equations, continuum mechanics, engineering applications, coupled problems, computer sciences, and related topics. Several plenary lectures in aforementioned areas will take place during the conference.
We invite architects, engineers, designers, computer scientists, mathematicians, planners, project managers, and software developers from business, science and research to participate in the conference!

Diese Tagung versteht sich als Forum der Wissenschaftler und Praktiker aus Ost und West für einen fachübergreifenden Dialog. Informatiker, Ingenieure, Architekten und Mathematiker aus aller Welt treffen sich zu einem inter-disziplinären und länderübergreifenden Erfahrungsaustausch in der Klassikerstadt Weimar, um über ihre Ergebnisse in Forschung, Entwicklung und Praxis zu berichten.

From 7 till 9 July 2009, the 18th International Conference on the Applications of Computer Science and Mathematics in Architecture and Civil Engineering is going to take place at the Bauhaus University Weimar. Architects, computer scientists, mathematicians, and engineers from all over the world will meet in Weimar for an interdisciplinary exchange of experiences to report on their results in research, development and practice and to discuss. The conference offers several topics. Plenary lectures and thematic sessions will take place under the chairmanship of the mentioned colleagues.
We invite architects, civil engineers, designers, computer scientists, engineers, mathematicians, planners, project managers, and software developers from business, science and research to participate in the conference.

Long-span cable supported bridges are prone to aerodynamic instabilities caused by wind and this phenomenon is usually a major design criterion. If the wind speed exceeds the critical flutter speed of the bridge, this constitutes an Ultimate Limit State. The prediction of the flutter boundary therefore requires accurate and robust models. This paper aims at studying various combinations of models to predict the flutter phenomenon.
Since flutter is a coupling of aerodynamic forcing with a structural dynamics problem, different types and classes of models can be combined to study the interaction. Here, both numerical approaches and analytical models are utilised and coupled in different ways to assess the prediction quality of the hybrid model. Models for aerodynamic forces employed are the analytical Theodorsen expressions for the motion-enduced aerodynamic forces of a flat plate and Scanlan derivatives as a Meta model. Further, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations using the Vortex Particle Method (VPM) were used to cover numerical models.
The structural representations were dimensionally reduced to two degree of freedom section models calibrated from global models as well as a fully three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model. A two degree of freedom system was analysed analytically as well as numerically.
Generally, all models were able to predict the flutter phenomenon and relatively close agreement was found for the particular bridge. In conclusion, the model choice for a given practical analysis scenario will be discussed in the context of the analysis findings.

Fuzzy functions are suitable to deal with uncertainties and fuzziness in a closed form maintaining the informational content. This paper tries to understand, elaborate, and explain the problem of interpolating crisp and fuzzy data using continuous fuzzy valued functions. Two main issues are addressed here. The first covers how the fuzziness, induced by the reduction and deficit of information i.e. the discontinuity of the interpolated points, can be evaluated considering the used interpolation method and the density of the data. The second issue deals with the need to differentiate between impreciseness and hence fuzziness only in the interpolated quantity, impreciseness only in the location of the interpolated points and impreciseness in both the quantity and the location. In this paper, a brief background of the concept of fuzzy numbers and of fuzzy functions is presented. The numerical side of computing with fuzzy numbers is concisely demonstrated. The problem of fuzzy polynomial interpolation, the interpolation on meshes and mesh free fuzzy interpolation is investigated. The integration of the previously noted uncertainty into a coherent fuzzy valued function is discussed. Several sets of artificial and original measured data are used to examine the mentioned fuzzy interpolations.

In this paper, wavelet energy damage indicator is used in response surface methodology to identify the damage in simulated filler beam railway bridge. The approximate model is addressed to include the operational and surrounding condition in the assessment. The procedure is split into two stages, the training and detecting phase. During training phase, a so-called response surface is built from training data using polynomial regression and radial basis function approximation approaches. The response surface is used to detect the damage in structure during detection phase. The results show that the response surface model is able to detect moderate damage in one of bridge supports while the temperatures and train velocities are varied.

We give a sufficient and a necessary condition for an analytic function "f" on the unit disk "D" with Hadamard gap to belong to a class of weighted logarithmic Bloch space as well as to the corresponding little weighted logarithmic Bloch space under some conditions posed on the defined weight function. Also, we study the relations between the class of weighted logarithmic Bloch functions and some other classes of analytic functions by the help of analytic functions in the Hadamard gap class.

In this study we introduce a concept of discrete Laplacian on the plane lattice and consider its iteration dynamical system. At first we discuss some basic properties on the dynamical system to be proved. Next making their computer simulations, we show that we can realize the following phenomena quite well:(1) The crystal of waters (2) The designs of carpets, embroideries (3) The time change of the numbers of families of extinct animals, and (4) The echo systems of life things. Hence we may expect that we can understand the evolutions and self organizations by use of the dynamical systems. Here we want to make a stress on the following fact: Although several well known chaotic dynamical systems can describe chaotic phenomena, they have difficulties in the descriptions of the evolutions and self organizations.

The p-Laplace equation is a nonlinear generalization of the Laplace equation. This generalization is often used as a model problem for special types of nonlinearities. The p-Laplace equation can be seen as a bridge between very general nonlinear equations and the linear Laplace equation. The aim of this paper is to solve the p-Laplace equation for 2 < p < 3 and to find strong solutions. The idea is to apply a hypercomplex integral operator and spatial function theoretic methods to transform the p-Laplace equation into the p-Dirac equation. This equation will be solved iteratively by using a fixed point theorem.

In order to minimize the probability of foundation failure resulting from cyclic action on structures, researchers have developed various constitutive models to simulate the foundation response and soil interaction as a result of these complex cyclic loads. The efficiency and effectiveness of these model is majorly influenced by the cyclic constitutive parameters. Although a lot of research is being carried out on these relatively new models, little or no details exist in literature about the model based identification of the cyclic constitutive parameters. This could be attributed to the difficulties and complexities of the inverse modeling of such complex phenomena. A variety of optimization strategies are available for the solution of the sum of least-squares problems as usually done in the field of model calibration. However for the back analysis (calibration) of the soil response to oscillatory load functions, this paper gives insight into the model calibration challenges and also puts forward a method for the inverse modeling of cyclic loaded foundation response such that high quality solutions are obtained with minimum computational effort. Therefore model responses are produced which adequately describes what would otherwise be experienced in the laboratory or field.

Over the last decade, the technology of constructing buildings has been dramatically developed especially with the huge growth of CAD tools that help in modeling buildings, bridges, roads and other construction objects. Often quality control and size accuracy in the factory or on construction site are based on manual measurements of discrete points. These measured points of the realized object or a part of it will be compared with the points of the corresponding CAD model to see whether and where the construction element fits into the respective CAD model. This process is very complicated and difficult even when using modern measuring technology. This is due to the complicated shape of the components, the large amount of manually detected measured data and the high cost of manual processing of measured values. However, by using a modern 3D scanner one gets information of the whole constructed object and one can make a complete comparison against the CAD model. It gives an idea about quality of objects on the whole. In this paper, we present a case study of controlling the quality of measurement during the constructing phase of a steel bridge by using 3D point cloud technology. Preliminary results show that an early detection of mismatching between real element and CAD model could save a lot of time, efforts and obviously expenses.

SYSBAT - An Application to the Building ProductionBased on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
(2003)

Our proposed solution is to enable partners of a construction project to share all the technical data produced and handled during the building production process by building a system through the use of internet technology. The system links distributed databases and allows building partners to access remotely and manipulate specific information. It provides an updated building representation that is being enriched and refined all along the building production process. A recent collaboration with Nemetschek France (subsidiary company of Nemetschek AG, AEC CAD software leader) focus on a building product repository available in a web context. The aim is to help building project actors to choose a technical solution that fits its professional needs, and maintain our information system with up to date information. It starts with the possibility to build on line building product catalogs, in order to link Allplan CAD entities with building technical features. This paper presents the conceptual approaches on which our information system is built. Starting from a general organization diagram organization, we focus on the product and the description branches of construction works (including last IFC model specifications). Our aim is to add decisional support to the construction works selection process. To do so, we consider the actor's role upon the system and the pieces of information each one needs to achieve a given task.

Interactive visualization based on 3D computer graphics nowadays is an indispensable part of any simulation software used in engineering. Nevertheless, the implementation of such visualization software components is often avoided in research projects because it is a challenging and potentially time consuming task. In this contribution, a novel Java framework for the interactive visualization of engineering models is introduced. It supports the task of implementing engineering visualization software by providing adequate program logic as well as high level classes for the visual representation of entities typical for engineering models. The presented framework is built on top of the open source visualization toolkit VTK. In VTK, a visualization model is established by connecting several filter objects in a so called visualization pipeline. Although designing and implementing a good pipeline layout is demanding, VTK does not support the reuse of pipeline layouts directly. Our framework tailors VTK to engineering applications on two levels. On the first level it adds new – engineering model specific – filter classes to VTK. On the second level, ready made pipeline layouts for certain aspects of engineering models are provided. For instance there is a pipeline class for one-dimensional elements like trusses and beams that is capable of showing the elements along with deformations and member forces. In order to facilitate the implementation of a graphical user interface (GUI) for each pipeline class, there exists a reusable Java Swing GUI component that allows the user to configure the appearance of the visualization model. Because of the flexible structure, the framework can be easily adapted and extended to new problem domains. Currently it is used in (i) an object-oriented p-version finite element code for design optimization, (ii) an agent based monitoring system for dam structures and (iii) the simulation of destruction processes by controlled explosives based on multibody dynamics. Application examples from all three domains illustrates that the approach presented is powerful as well as versatile.

The paper introduces a systematic construction management approach, supporting expansion of a specified construction process, both automatically and semi-automatically. Throughout the whole design process, many requirements must be taken into account in order to fulfil demands defined by clients. In implementing those demands into a design concept up to the execution plan, constraints such as site conditions, building code, and legal framework are to be considered. However, complete information, which is needed to make a sound decision, is not yet acquired in the early phase. Decisions are traditionally taken based on experience and assumptions. Due to a vast number of appropriate available solutions, particularly in building projects, it is necessary to make those decisions traceable. This is important in order to be able to reconstruct considerations and assumptions taken, should there be any changes in the future project’s objectives. The research will be carried out by means of building information modelling, where rules deriving from standard logics of construction management knowledge will be applied. The knowledge comprises a comprehensive interaction amongst bidding process, cost-estimation, construction site preparation as well as specific project logistics – which are usually still separately considered. By means of these rules, favourable decision taking regarding prefabrication and in-situ implementation can be justified. Modifications depending on the available information within current design stage will consistently be traceable.

Due to economical, technical or political reasons all over the world about 100 nuclear power plants have been disconnected until today. All these power stations are still waiting for their complete dismantling which, considering one reactor, causes cost of up to one Bil. Euros and lasts up to 15 years. In our contribution we present a resource-constrained project scheduling approach minimizing the total discounted cost of dismantling a nuclear power plant. A project of dismantling a nuclear power plant can be subdivided into a number of disassembling activities. The execution of these activities requires time and scarce resources like manpower, special equipment or storage facilities for the contaminated material arising from the dismantling. Moreover, we have to regard several minimum and maximum time lags (temporal constraints) between the start times of the different activities. Finally, each disassembling activity can be processed in two alternative execution modes, which lead to different disbursements and determine the resource requirements of the considered activity. The optimization problem is to determine a start time and an execution mode for each activity, such that the discounted cost of the project is minimum, and neither the temporal constraints are violated nor the activities' resource requirements exceed the availability of any scarce resource at any point in time. In our contribution we introduce an appropriate multi-mode project scheduling model with minimum and maximum time lags as well as renewable and cumulative resources for the described optimization problem. Furthermore, we show that the considered optimization problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. For small problem instances, optimal solutions can be gained from a relaxation based enumeration approach which is incorporated into a branch and bound algorithm. In order to be able to solve large problem instances, we also propose a truncated version of the devised branch and bound algorithm.

We investigate aspects of tram-network section reliability, which operates as a part of the model of whole city tram-network reliability. Here, one of the main points of interest is the character of the chronological development of the disturbances (namely the differences between time of departure provided in schedule and real time of departure) on subsequent sections during tram line operation. These developments were observed in comprehensive measurements done in Krakow, during one of the main transportation nodes (Rondo Mogilskie) rebuilding. All taken building activities cause big disturbances in tram lines operation with effects extended to neighboring sections. In a second part, the stochastic character of section running time will be analyzed more detailed. There will be taken into consideration sections with only one beginning stop and also with two or three beginning stops located at different streets at an intersection. Possibility of adding results from sections with two beginning stops to one set will be checked with suitable statistical tests which are used to compare the means of the two samples. Section running time may depend on the value of gap between two following trams and from the value of deviation from schedule. This dependence will be described by a multi regression formula. The main measurements were done in the city center of Krakow in two stages: before and after big changes in tramway infrastructure.

MODEL OF TRAM LINE OPERATION
(2006)

From passenger's perspective punctuality is one of the most important features of trams operations. Unfortunately in most cases this feature is only insufficiently fulfilled. In this paper we present a simulation model for trams operation with special focus on punctuality. The aim is to get a helpful tool for designing time-tables and for analyzing the effects by changing priorities for trams in traffic lights respectively the kind of track separation. A realization of trams operations is assumed to be a sequence of running times between successive stops and times spent by tram at the stops. In this paper the running time is modeled by the sum of its mean value and a zero-mean random variable. With the help of multiple regression we find out that the average running time is a function depending on the length of the sections and the number of intersections. The random component is modeled by a sum of two independent zero-mean random variables. One of these variables describes the disturbance caused by the process of waiting at an intersection and the other the disturbance caused by the process of driving. The time spent at a stop is assumed to be a random variable, too. Its distribution is estimated from given measurements of these stop times for different tram lines in Kraków. Finally a special case of the introduced model is considered and numerical results are presented. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

The ride of the tram along the line, defined by a time-table, consists of the travel time between the subsequent sections and the time spent by tram on the stops. In the paper, statistical data collected in the city of Krakow is presented and evaluated. In polish conditions, for trams the time spent on stops makes up the remarkable amount of 30 % of the total time of tram line operation. Moreover, this time is characterized by large variability. The time spent by tram on a stop consists of alighting and boarding time and time lost by tram on stop after alighting and boarding time ending, but before departure. Alighting and boarding time itself usually depends on the random number of alighting and boarding passengers and also on the number of passengers which are inside the vehicle. However, the time spent by tram on stop after alighting and boarding time ending is an effect of certain random events, mainly because of impossibility of departure from stop, caused by lack of priorities for public transport vehicles. The main focus of the talk lies on the description and the modelling of these effects. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

From passenger’s perspective, punctuality is one of the most important features of tram route operation. We present a stochastic simulation model with special focus on determining important factors of influence. The statistical analysis bases on large samples (sample size is nearly 2000) accumulated from comprehensive measurements on eight tram routes in Cracow. For the simulation, we are not only interested in average values but also in stochastic characteristics like the variance and other properties of the distribution. A realization of trams operations is assumed to be a sequence of running times between successive stops and times spent by tram at the stops divided in passengers alighting and boarding times and times waiting for possibility of departure . The running time depends on the kind of track separation including the priorities in traffic lights, the length of the section and the number of intersections. For every type of section, a linear mixed regression model describes the average running time and its variance as functions of the length of the section and the number of intersections. The regression coefficients are estimated by the iterative re-weighted least square method. Alighting and boarding time mainly depends on type of vehicle, number of passengers alighting and boarding and occupancy of vehicle. For the distribution of the time waiting for possibility of departure suitable distributions like Gamma distribution and Lognormal distribution are fitted.

The idea about a simulation program to support urban planning is explained: Four different, clearly defined developing paths can be calculated for the rebuilding of a shrinking town. Aided by self-organization principles, a complex system can be created. The dynamics based on the action patterns of single actors, whose behaviour is cyclically depends on the generated structure. Global influences, which control the development, can be divided at a spatial, socioeconomic, and organizational-juridical level. The simulation model should offer conclusions on new planning strategies, especially in the context of the creation process of rebuilding measures. An example of a transportation system is shown by means of prototypes for the visualisation of the dynamic development process.

Practical examples show that the improvement in cost flow and total amount of money spend in construction and further use may be cut significantly. The calculation is based on spreadsheets calculation, very easy to develop on most PC´s now a days. Construction works, are a field where the evaluation of Cash Flow can be and should be applied. Decisions about cash flow in construction are decisions with long-term impact and long-term memory. Mistakes from the distant past have a massive impact on situations in the present and into the far economic future of economic activities. Two approaches exist. The Just-in-Time (JIT) approach and life cycle costs (LCC) approach. The calculation example shows the dynamic results for the production speed in opposition to stable flow of production in duration of activities. More sophisticated rescheduling in optimal solution might bring in return extra profit. In the technologies and organizational processes for industrial buildings, railways and road reconstruction, public utilities and housing developments there are assembly procedures that are very appropriate for the given purpose, complicated research-, development-, innovation-projects are all very good aspects of these kinds of applications. The investors of large investments and all public invested money may be spent more efficiently if an optimisation speed-strategy can be calculated.

The contribution presents a model that is able to simulate construction duration and cost for a building project. This model predicts set of expected project costs and duration schedule depending on input parameters such as production speed, scope of work, time schedule, bonding conditions and maximum and minimum deviations from scope of work and production speed. The simulation model is able to calculate, on the basis of input level of probability, the adequate construction cost and time duration of a project. The reciprocal view attends to finding out the adequate level of probability for construction cost and activity durations. Among interpretive outputs of the application software belongs the compilation of a presumed dynamic progress chart. This progress chart represents the expected scenario of development of a building project with the mapping of potential time dislocations for particular activities. The calculation of a presumed dynamic progress chart is based on an algorithm, which calculates mean values as a partial result of the simulated building project. Construction cost and time models are, in many ways, useful tools in project management. Clients are able to make proper decisions about the time and cost schedules of their investments. Consequently, building contractors are able to schedule predicted project cost and duration before any decision is finalized.

Die Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit im Bereich des Bauwesens, insbesondere kleinerer und mittelständischer Betriebe erfordert ein aktives Handeln als Antwort auf die sich ändernde Wettbewerbssituation. Einen wesentlichen Wettbewerbsvorteil können kleine unternehmerische Einheiten durch höhere Flexibilität, schnelle Reaktion auf Kundenwünsche oder aktuelle Situationen auf der Baustelle und Marktnähe erreichen. Dazu ist es nötig, die Informations- und Kommunikationsströme durch Einsatz standardisierter und kostengünstiger Hard- und Software wie z.B. Handhelds zu unterstützen und insbesondere die existierenden Hindernisse im Informationsfluss zwischen Baustelle und Büro zu beseitigen. Am Beispiel der Projekte >IuK - SystemBau< und >eSharing< wird eine Einführungsstrategie für >Mobile Computing< in kleinen unternehmerischen Einheiten des Bauwesens (KMU) basierend auf einer umfangreichen Anforderungsanalyse vorgestellt. Folgende Aspekte sollen beschrieben werden: durchgängiger Einsatz der Technik unter Beachtung der verschiedenen Qualifikationsniveaus, Einführungsunterstützung durch Schulungen, Prozessanalyse und mögliche Integration in bestehende Software-Umgebungen sowie Feldtests.

Models in the context of engineering can be classified in process based and data based models. Whereas the process based model describes the problem by an explicit formulation, the data based model is often used, where no such mapping can be found due to the high complexity of the problem. Artificial Neuronal Networks (ANN) is a data based model, which is able to “learn“ a mapping from a set of training patterns. This paper deals with the application of ANN in time dependent bathymetric models. A bathymetric model is a geometric representation of the sea bed. Typically, a bathymetry is been measured and afterwards described by a finite set of measured data. Measuring at different time steps leads to a time dependent bathymetric model. To obtain a continuous surface, the measured data has to be interpolated by some interpolation method. Unlike the explicitly given interpolation methods, the presented time dependent bathymetric model using an ANN trains the approximated surface in space and time in an implicit way. The ANN is trained by topographic measured data, which consists of the location (x,y) and time t. In other words the ANN is trained to reproduce the mapping h = f(x,y,t) and afterwards it is able to approximate the topographic height for a given location and date. In a further step, this model is extended to take meteorological parameters into account. This leads to a model of more predictive character.

Objects for civil engineering applications can be identified with their reference in memory, their alpha-numeric name or their geometric location. Particularly in graphic user interfaces, it is common to identify objects geometrically by selection with the mouse. As the number of geometric objects in a graphic user interface grows, it becomes increasingly more important to treat the basic operations add, search and remove for geometric objects with great efficiency. Guttmann has proposed the Region-Tree (R-tree) for geometric identification in an environment which uses pages on disc as data structure. Minimal bounding rectangles are used to structure the data in such a way that neighborhood relations can be described effectively. The literature shows that the parameters which influence the efficiency of the R-trees have been studied extensively, but without conclusive results. The goal of the research which is reported in this paper is to determine reliably the parameters which significantly influence the efficiency of R-trees for geometric identification in technical drawings. In order to make this investigation conclusive, it must be performed with the best available software technology. Therefore an object-oriented software for the method is developed. This implementation is tested with technical drawings containing many thousands of geometric objects. These drawings are created automatically by a stochastic generator which is incorporated into a test bed consisting of an editor and a visualisor. This test bed is used to obtain statistics for the main factors which affect the efficiency of R-trees. The investigation shows that the following main factors which affect the efficiency can be identified reliably : number of geometric objects on the drawing the minimum und maximum number of children of a node of the tree the maximum width and height of the minimal bounding rectangles of the geometric objects relative to the size of the drawing.

Die heutige Situation in der Tragwerksplanung ist durch das kooperative Zusammenwirken einer größeren Anzahl von Fachleuten verschiedener Disziplinen (Architektur, Tragwerksplanung, etc.) in zeitlich befristeten Projektgemeinschaften gekennzeichnet. Bei der Abstimmung der hierdurch bedingten komplexen, dynamischen und vernetzten Planungsprozesse kommt es dabei häufig zu Planungsmängeln und Qualitätseinbußen. Dieser Artikel zeigt auf, wie mit Hilfe der Agententechnologie Lösungsansätze zur Verbesserung der Planungssituation erreicht werden können. Hierzu wird ein Agentenmodell für die vernetzt-kooperative Tragwerksplanung vorgestellt und anhand der Planung einer Fußgängerbogenbrücke anschaulich demonstriert. Das Agentenmodell erfasst (1) die beteiligten Fachplaner und Organisationen, (2) die tragwerksspezifischen Planungsprozesse, (3) die zugehörigen (Teil-)Produktmodelle und (4) die genutzte (Ingenieur-)Software. Hieraus leiten sich die drei Teilmodelle (1) agentenbasiertes Kooperationsmodell, (2) agentenbasierte Produktmodellintegration und (3) Modell zur agentenbasierten Software-Integration ab. Der Fokus des Artikels liegt auf der Darstellung des agentenbasierten Kooperationsmodells.

Applications for civil engineering tasks usually contain graphical user interfaces for the engineering processes. Persistent objects of the applications are stored to data bases. The influence of the interaction between a graphical user interface and a data base for the development of an civil engineering application is investigated in this paper. A graphic application for the linear elastic analysis of plane frames, which was previously developed with standard tools of the Java platform, is compared to a redesigned implementation using a generalized data base for persistent objects. The investigation leads to the following results : - A strict distinction between persistent and transient objects influences the class structure of an application, in particular the class structure of a graphical user interface. - The structure of an application depends on the logic for updating of references to persistent and transient graphical objects after an application is read from a file. - The complexity of the reference management can usually be handled better by just in time referencing associated with String - identifiers rather than by automated referencing associated with Name - identifiers.

The contribution focuses on the development of a basic computational scheme that provides a suitable calculation environment for the coupling of analytical near-field solutions with numerical standard procedures in the far-field of the singularity. The proposed calculation scheme uses classical methods of complex function theory, which can be generalized to 3-dimensional problems by using the framework of hypercomplex analysis. The adapted approach is mainly based on the factorization of the Laplace operator EMBED Equation.3 by the Cauchy-Riemann operator EMBED Equation.3 , where exact solutions of the respective differential equation are constructed by using an orthonormal basis of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions.

In this paper the influence of changes in the mean wind velocity, the wind profile power-law coefficient, the drag coefficient of the terrain and the structural stiffness are investigated on different complex structural models. This paper gives a short introduction to wind profile models and to the approach by Davenport A. G. to compute the structural reaction of wind induced vibrations. Firstly with help of a simple example (a skyscraper) this approach is shown. Using this simple example gives the reader the possibility to study the variance differences when changing one of the above mentioned parameters on this very easy example and see the influence of different complex structural models on the result. Furthermore an approach for estimation of the needed discretization level is given. With the help of this knowledge the structural model design methodology can be base on deeper understanding of the different behavior of the single models.

In earlier research, generalized multidimensional Hilbert transforms have been constructed in m-dimensional Euclidean space, in the framework of Clifford analysis. Clifford analysis, centred around the notion of monogenic functions, may be regarded as a direct and elegant generalization to higher dimension of the theory of the holomorphic functions in the complex plane. The considered Hilbert transforms, usually obtained as a part of the boundary value of an associated Cauchy transform in m+1 dimensions, might be characterized as isotropic, since the metric in the underlying space is the standard Euclidean one. In this paper we adopt the idea of a so-called anisotropic Clifford setting, which leads to the introduction of a metric dependent m-dimensional Hilbert transform, showing, at least formally, the same properties as the isotropic one. The Hilbert transform being an important tool in signal analysis, this metric dependent setting has the advantage of allowing the adjustment of the co-ordinate system to possible preferential directions in the signals to be analyzed. A striking result to be mentioned is that the associated anisotropic (m+1)-dimensional Cauchy transform is no longer uniquely determined, but may stem from a diversity of (m+1)-dimensional "mother" metrics.

The one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform is a successful tool for signal and image analysis, with applications in physics and engineering. Clifford analysis offers an appropriate framework for taking wavelets to higher dimension. In the usual orthogonal case Clifford analysis focusses on monogenic functions, i.e. null solutions of the rotation invariant vector valued Dirac operator ∂, defined in terms of an orthogonal basis for the quadratic space Rm underlying the construction of the Clifford algebra R0,m. An intrinsic feature of this function theory is that it encompasses all dimensions at once, as opposed to a tensorial approach with products of one-dimensional phenomena. This has allowed for a very specific construction of higher dimensional wavelets and the development of the corresponding theory, based on generalizations of classical orthogonal polynomials on the real line, such as the radial Clifford-Hermite polynomials introduced by Sommen. In this paper, we pass to the Hermitian Clifford setting, i.e. we let the same set of generators produce the complex Clifford algebra C2n (with even dimension), which we equip with a Hermitian conjugation and a Hermitian inner product. Hermitian Clifford analysis then focusses on the null solutions of two mutually conjugate Hermitian Dirac operators which are invariant under the action of the unitary group. In this setting we construct new Clifford-Hermite polynomials, starting in a natural way from a Rodrigues formula which now involves both Dirac operators mentioned. Due to the specific features of the Hermitian setting, four different types of polynomials are obtained, two types of even degree and two types of odd degree. These polynomials are used to introduce a new continuous wavelet transform, after thorough investigation of all necessary properties of the involved polynomials, the mother wavelet and the associated family of wavelet kernels.

Euclidean Clifford analysis is a higher dimensional function theory offering a refinement of classical harmonic analysis. The theory is centered around the concept of monogenic functions, i.e. null solutions of a first order vector valued rotation invariant differential operator called the Dirac operator, which factorizes the Laplacian. More recently, Hermitean Clifford analysis has emerged as a new and successful branch of Clifford analysis, offering yet a refinement of the Euclidean case; it focusses on the simultaneous null solutions, called Hermitean (or h-) monogenic functions, of two Hermitean Dirac operators which are invariant under the action of the unitary group. In Euclidean Clifford analysis, the Clifford-Cauchy integral formula has proven to be a corner stone of the function theory, as is the case for the traditional Cauchy formula for holomorphic functions in the complex plane. Previously, a Hermitean Clifford-Cauchy integral formula has been established by means of a matrix approach. This formula reduces to the traditional Martinelli-Bochner formula for holomorphic functions of several complex variables when taking functions with values in an appropriate part of complex spinor space. This means that the theory of Hermitean monogenic functions should encompass also other results of several variable complex analysis as special cases. At present we will elaborate further on the obtained results and refine them, considering fundamental solutions, Borel-Pompeiu representations and the Teoderescu inversion, each of them being developed at different levels, including the global level, handling vector variables, vector differential operators and the Clifford geometric product as well as the blade level were variables and differential operators act by means of the dot and wedge products. A rich world of results reveals itself, indeed including well-known formulae from the theory of several complex variables.

Image processing has been much inspired by the human vision, in particular with regard to early vision. The latter refers to the earliest stage of visual processing responsible for the measurement of local structures such as points, lines, edges and textures in order to facilitate subsequent interpretation of these structures in higher stages (known as high level vision) of the human visual system. This low level visual computation is carried out by cells of the primary visual cortex. The receptive field profiles of these cells can be interpreted as the impulse responses of the cells, which are then considered as filters. According to the Gaussian derivative theory, the receptive field profiles of the human visual system can be approximated quite well by derivatives of Gaussians. Two mathematical models suggested for these receptive field profiles are on the one hand the Gabor model and on the other hand the Hermite model which is based on analysis filters of the Hermite transform. The Hermite filters are derivatives of Gaussians, while Gabor filters, which are defined as harmonic modulations of Gaussians, provide a good approximation to these derivatives. It is important to note that, even if the Gabor model is more widely used than the Hermite model, the latter offers some advantages like being an orthogonal basis and having better match to experimental physiological data. In our earlier research both filter models, Gabor and Hermite, have been developed in the framework of Clifford analysis. Clifford analysis offers a direct, elegant and powerful generalization to higher dimension of the theory of holomorphic functions in the complex plane. In this paper we expose the construction of the Hermite and Gabor filters, both in the classical and in the Clifford analysis framework. We also generalize the concept of complex Gaussian derivative filters to the Clifford analysis setting. Moreover, we present further properties of the Clifford-Gabor filters, such as their relationship with other types of Gabor filters and their localization in the spatial and in the frequency domain formalized by the uncertainty principle.

Für eine gesicherte Planung im Bestand, sind eine Fülle verschiedenster Informationen zu berücksichtigen, welche oft erst während des Planungs- oder Bauprozesses gewonnen werden. Voraussetzung hierfür bildet immer eine Bestandserfassung. Zwar existieren Computerprogramme zur Unterstützung der Bestandserfassung, allerdings handelt es sich hierbei ausschließlich um Insellösungen. Der Export der aufgenommenen Daten in ein Planungssystem bedingt Informationsverluste. Trotz der potentiellen Möglichkeit aktueller CAAD/BIM Systeme zur Verwaltung von Bestandsdaten, sind diese vorrangig für die Neubauplanung konzipiert. Die durchgängige Bearbeitung von Sanierungsprojekten von der Erfassung des Bestandes über die Entwurfs- und Genehmigungsplanung bis zur Ausführungsplanung innerhalb eines CAAD/BIM Systems wird derzeit nicht adäquat unterstützt. An der Professur Informatik in der Architektur (InfAR) der Fakultät Architektur der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar entstanden im Rahmen des DFG Sonderforschungsbereich 524 "Werkzeuge und Konstruktionen für die Revitalisierung von Bauwerken" in den letzten Jahren Konzepte und Prototypen zur fachlich orientierten Unterstützung der Planung im Bestand. Der Fokus lag dabei in der Erfassung aller planungsrelevanter Bestandsdaten und der Abbildung dieser in einem dynamischen Bauwerksmodell. Aufbauend auf diesen Forschungsarbeiten befasst sich der Artikel mit der kontextbezogenen Weiterverwendung und gezielten Bereitstellung von Bestandsdaten im Prozess des Planens im Bestand und der Integration von Konzepten der planungsrelevanten Bestandserfassung in marktübliche CAAD/BIM Systeme.

In the context of finite element model updating using vibration test data, natural frequencies and mode shapes are used as validation criteria. Consequently, the order of natural frequencies and mode shapes is important. As only limited spatial information is available and noise is present in the measurements, the automatic selection of the most likely numerical mode shape corresponding to a measured mode shape is a difficult task. The most common criterion to indicate corresponding mode shapes is the modal assurance criterion. Unfortunately, this criterion fails in certain cases. In this paper, the pure mathematical modal assurance criterion will be enhanced by additional physical information of the numerical model in terms of modal strain energies. A numerical example and a benchmark study with real measured data are presented to show the advantages of the enhanced energy based criterion in comparison to the traditional modal assurance criterion.

Am Beispiel eines 3-feldrigen Durchlaufträgers wird die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit von wechselnd belasteten Stahlbetonbalken bezüglich des Grenzzustandes der Adaption (Einspielen, shakedown) untersucht. Die Adaptionsanalyse erfolgt unter Berücksichtigung der beanspruchungschabhängigen Degradation der Biegesteifigkeit infolge Rissbildung. Die damit verbundene mechanische Problemstellung kann auf die Adaptionsanalyse linear elastisch - ideal plastischer Balkentragwerke mit unbekannter aber begrenzter Biegesteifigkeit zurückgeführt werden. Die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit wird unter Berücksichtigung stochastischer Tragwerks- und Belastungsgrößen berechnet. Tragwerkseigenschaften und ständige Lasten gelten als zeitunabhängige Zufallsgrößen. Zeitlich veränderliche Lasten werden als nutzungsdauerbezogene Extremwerte POISSONscher Rechteck-Pulsprozesse unter Berücksichtigung zeitlicher Überlagerungseffekte modelliert, so dass die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit ebenfalls eine nutzungsdauerbezogene Größe ist. Die mechanischen Problemstellungen werden numerisch mit der mathematischen Optimierung gelöst. Die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit wird auf statistischem Weg mit der Monte-Carlo-Methode geschätzt.

This contribution will be freewheeling in the domain of signal, image and surface processing and touch briefly upon some topics that have been close to the heart of people in our research group. A lot of the research of the last 20 years in this domain that has been carried out world wide is dealing with multiresolution. Multiresolution allows to represent a function (in the broadest sense) at different levels of detail. This was not only applied in signals and images but also when solving all kinds of complex numerical problems. Since wavelets came into play in the 1980's, this idea was applied and generalized by many researchers. Therefore we use this as the central idea throughout this text. Wavelets, subdivision and hierarchical bases are the appropriate tools to obtain these multiresolution effects. We shall introduce some of the concepts in a rather informal way and show that the same concepts will work in one, two and three dimensions. The applications in the three cases are however quite different, and thus one wants to achieve very different goals when dealing with signals, images or surfaces. Because completeness in our treatment is impossible, we have chosen to describe two case studies after introducing some concepts in signal processing. These case studies are still the subject of current research. The first one attempts to solve a problem in image processing: how to approximate an edge in an image efficiently by subdivision. The method is based on normal offsets. The second case is the use of Powell-Sabin splines to give a smooth multiresolution representation of a surface. In this context we also illustrate the general method of construction of a spline wavelet basis using a lifting scheme.

A UNIFIED APPROACH FOR THE TREATMENT OF SOME HIGHER DIMENSIONAL DIRAC TYPE EQUATIONS ON SPHERES
(2010)

Using Clifford analysis methods, we provide a unified approach to obtain explicit solutions of some partial differential equations combining the n-dimensional Dirac and Euler operators, including generalizations of the classical time-harmonic Maxwell equations. The obtained regular solutions show strong connections between hypergeometric functions and homogeneous polynomials in the kernel of the Dirac operator.

In this paper we study the structure of the solutions to higher dimensional Dirac type equations generalizing the known λ-hyperholomorphic functions, where λ is a complex parameter. The structure of the solutions to the system of partial differential equations (D- λ) f=0 show a close connection with Bessel functions of first kind with complex argument. The more general system of partial differential equations that is considered in this paper combines Dirac and Euler operators and emphasizes the role of the Bessel functions. However, contrary to the simplest case, one gets now Bessel functions of any arbitrary complex order.

The application of a recent method using formal power series is proposed. It is based on a new representation for solutions of Sturm-Liouville equations. This method is used to calculate the transmittance and reflectance coefficients of finite inhomogeneous layers with high accuracy and efficiency. Tailoring the refraction index profile defining the inhomogeneous media it is possible to develop very important applications such as optical filters. A number of profiles were evaluated and then some of them selected in order to perform an improvement of their characteristics via the modification of their profiles.

Electromagnetic wave propagation is currently present in the vast majority of situations which occur in veryday life, whether in mobile communications, DTV, satellite tracking, broadcasting, etc. Because of this the study of increasingly complex means of propagation of lectromagnetic waves has become necessary in order to optimize resources and increase the capabilities of the devices as required by the growing demand for such services.
Within the electromagnetic wave propagation different parameters are considered that characterize it under various circumstances and of particular importance are the reflectance and transmittance. There are several methods or the analysis of the reflectance and transmittance such as the method of approximation by boundary condition, the plane wave expansion method (PWE), etc., but this work focuses on the WKB and SPPS methods.
The implementation of the WKB method is relatively simple but is found to be relatively efficient only when working at high frequencies. The SPPS method (Spectral Parameter Powers Series) based on the theory of pseudoanalytic functions, is used to solve this problem through a new representation for solutions of Sturm Liouville equations and has recently proven to be a powerful tool to solve different boundary value and eigenvalue problems. Moreover, it has a very suitable structure for numerical implementation, which in this case took place in the Matlab software for the valuation of both conventional and turning points profiles.
The comparison between the two methods allows us to obtain valuable information about their perfor mance which is useful for determining the validity and propriety of their application for solving problems where these parameters are calculated in real life applications.

Design activity could be treated as state transition computationally. In stepwise processing, in-between form-states are not easily observed. However, in this research time-based concept is introduced and applied in order to bridge the gap. In architecture, folding is one method of form manipulation and architects also want to search for alternatives by this operation. Besides, folding operation has to be defined and parameterized before time factor is involved as a variable of folding. As a result, time-based transformation provides sequential form states and redirects design activity.

MICROPLANE MODEL WITH INITIAL AND DAMAGE-INDUCED ANISOTROPY APPLIED TO TEXTILE-REINFORCED CONCRETE
(2010)

The presented material model reproduces the anisotropic characteristics of textile reinforced concrete in a smeared manner. This includes both the initial anisotropy introduced by the textile reinforcement, as well as the anisotropic damage evolution reflecting fine patterns of crack bridges. The model is based on the microplane approach. The direction-dependent representation of the material structure into oriented microplanes provides a flexible way to introduce the initial anisotropy. The microplanes oriented in a yarn direction are associated with modified damage laws that reflect the tension-stiffening effect due to the multiple cracking of the matrix along the yarn.

ON THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION WITH FREE CONVECTION IN STRIP DOMAINS AND 3D TRIANGULAR CHANNELS
(2006)

The Navier-Stokes equations and related ones can be treated very elegantly with the quaternionic operator calculus developed in a series of works by K. Guerlebeck, W. Sproeossig and others. This study will be extended in this paper. In order to apply the quaternionic operator calculus to solve these types of boundary value problems fully explicitly, one basically needs to evaluate two types of integral operators: the Teodorescu operator and the quaternionic Bergman projector. While the integral kernel of the Teodorescu transform is universal for all domains, the kernel function of the Bergman projector, called the Bergman kernel, depends on the geometry of the domain. With special variants of quaternionic holomorphic multiperiodic functions we obtain explicit formulas for three dimensional parallel plate channels, rectangular block domains and regular triangular channels. The explicit knowledge of the integral kernels makes it then possible to evaluate the operator equations in order to determine the solutions of the boundary value problem explicitly.

In this paper we consider the time independent Klein-Gordon equation on some conformally flat 3-tori with given boundary data. We set up an explicit formula for the fundamental solution. We show that we can represent any solution to the homogeneous Klein-Gordon equation on the torus as finite sum over generalized 3-fold periodic elliptic functions that are in the kernel of the Klein-Gordon operator. Furthermore we prove Cauchy and Green type integral formulas and set up a Teodorescu and Cauchy transform for the toroidal Klein-Gordon operator. These in turn are used to set up explicit formulas for the solution to the inhomogeneous version of the Klein-Gordon equation on the 3-torus.

In classical complex function theory the geometric mapping property of conformality is closely linked with complex differentiability. In contrast to the planar case, in higher dimensions the set of conformal mappings is only the set of Möbius transformations. Unfortunately, the theory of generalized holomorphic functions (by historical reasons they are called monogenic functions) developed on the basis of Clifford algebras does not cover the set of Möbius transformations in higher dimensions, since Möbius transformations are not monogenic. But on the other side, monogenic functions are hypercomplex differentiable functions and the question arises if from this point of view they can still play a special role for other types of 3D-mappings, for instance, for quasi-conformal ones. On the occasion of the 16th IKM 3D-mapping methods based on the application of Bergman's reproducing kernel approach (BKM) have been discussed. Almost all authors working before that with BKM in the Clifford setting were only concerned with the general algebraic and functional analytic background which allows the explicit determination of the kernel in special situations. The main goal of the abovementioned contribution was the numerical experiment by using a Maple software specially developed for that purpose. Since BKM is only one of a great variety of concrete numerical methods developed for mapping problems, our goal is to present a complete different from BKM approach to 3D-mappings. In fact, it is an extension of ideas of L. V. Kantorovich to the 3-dimensional case by using reduced quaternions and some suitable series of powers of a small parameter. Whereas until now in the Clifford case of BKM the recovering of the mapping function itself and its relation to the monogenic kernel function is still an open problem, this approach avoids such difficulties and leads to an approximation by monogenic polynomials depending on that small parameter.

The present research analyses the error on prediction obtained under different data availability scenarios to determine which measurements contribute to an improvement of model prognosis and which not. A fully coupled 2D hydromechanical model of a water retaining dam is taken as an example. Here, the mean effective stress in the porous skeleton is reduced due to an increase in pore water pressure under drawdown conditions. Relevant model parameters are ranked by scaled sensitivities, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied to determine the optimal parameter values and model validation is performed to determine the magnitude of error forecast. We compare the predictions of the optimized models with results from a forward run of the reference model to obtain actual prediction errors.
The analyses presented here were performed to 31 data sets of 100 observations of varying data types. Calibrating with multiple information types instead of only one sort, brings better calibration results and improvement in model prognosis. However, when using several types of information the number of observations have to be increased to be able to cover a representative part of the model domain; otherwise a compromise between data availability and domain
coverage prove best. Which type of information for calibration contributes to the best prognoses, could not be determined in advance. For the error in model prognosis does not depends on the error in calibration, but on the parameter error, which unfortunately can not be determined in reality since we do not know its real value. Excellent calibration fits with parameters’ values near the limits of reasonable physical values, provided the highest prognosis errors. While models which included excess pore pressure values for calibration provided the best prognosis, independent of the calibration fit.

In the past, several types of Fourier transforms in Clifford analysis have been studied. In this paper, first an overview of these different transforms is given. Next, a new equation in a Clifford algebra is proposed, the solutions of which will act as kernels of a new class of generalized Fourier transforms. Two solutions of this equation are studied in more detail, namely a vector-valued solution and a bivector-valued solution, as well as the associated integral transforms.

THE FOURIER-BESSEL TRANSFORM
(2010)

In this paper we devise a new multi-dimensional integral transform within the Clifford analysis setting, the so-called Fourier-Bessel transform. It appears that in the two-dimensional case, it coincides with the Clifford-Fourier and cylindrical Fourier transforms introduced earlier. We show that this new integral transform satisfies operational formulae which are similar to those of the classical tensorial Fourier transform. Moreover the L2-basis elements consisting of generalized Clifford-Hermite functions appear to be eigenfunctions of the Fourier-Bessel transform.

Designing a structure follows a pattern of creating a structural design concept, executing a finite element analysis and developing a design model. A project was undertaken to create computer support for executing these tasks within a collaborative environment. This study focuses on developing a software architecture that integrates the various structural design aspects into a seamless functional collaboratory that satisfies engineering practice requirements. The collaboratory is to support both homogeneous collaboration i.e. between users operating on the same model and heterogeneous collaboration i.e. between users operating on different model types. Collaboration can take place synchronously or asynchronously, and the information exchange is done either at the granularity of objects or at the granularity of models. The objective is to determine from practicing engineers which configurations they regard as best and what features are essential for working in a collaborative environment. Based on the suggestions of these engineers a specification of a collaboration configuration that satisfies engineering practice requirements will be developed.

Non-destructive techniques for damage detection became the focus of engineering interests in the last few years. However, applying these techniques to large complex structures like civil engineering buildings still has some limitations since these types of structures are
unique and the methodologies often need a large number of specimens for reliable results. For this reason, cost and time can greatly influence the final results.
Model Assisted Probability Of Detection (MAPOD) has taken its place among the ranks of damage identification techniques, especially with advances in computer capacity and modeling tools. Nevertheless, the essential condition for a successful MAPOD is having a reliable model in advance. This condition is opening the door for model assessment and model quality problems. In this work, an approach is proposed that uses Partial Models (PM) to compute the Probability Of damage Detection (POD). A simply supported beam, that can be structurally modified and
tested under laboratory conditions, is taken as an example. The study includes both experimental and numerical investigations, the application of vibration-based damage detection approaches and a comparison of the results obtained based on tests and simulations.
Eventually, a proposal for a methodology to assess the reliability and the robustness of the models is given.

This paper describes the application of interval calculus to calculation of plate deflection, taking in account inevitable and acceptable tolerance of input data (input parameters). The simply supported reinforced concrete plate was taken as an example. The plate was loaded by uniformly distributed loads. Several parameters that influence the plate deflection are given as certain closed intervals. Accordingly, the results are obtained as intervals so it was possible to follow the direct influence of a change of one or more input parameters on output (in our example, deflection) values by using one model and one computing procedure. The described procedure could be applied to any FEM calculation in order to keep calculation tolerances, ISO-tolerances, and production tolerances in close limits (admissible limits). The Wolfram Mathematica has been used as tool for interval calculation.

Reasonably accurate cost estimation of the structural system is quite desirable at the early stages of the design process of a construction project. However, the numerous interactions among the many cost-variables make the prediction difficult. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and case-based reasoning (CBR) are reported to overcome this difficulty. This paper presents a comparison of CBR and ANN augmented by genetic algorithms (GA) conducted by using spreadsheet simulations. GA was used to determine the optimum weights for the ANN and CBR models. The cost data of twenty-nine actual cases of residential building projects were used as an example application. Two different sets of cases were randomly selected from the data set for training and testing purposes. Prediction rates of 84% in the GA/CBR study and 89% in the GA/ANN study were obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches are discussed in the light of the experiments and the findings. It appears that GA/ANN is a more suitable model for this example of cost estimation where the prediction of numerical values is required and only a limited number of cases exist. The integration of GA into CBR and ANN in a spreadsheet format is likely to improve the prediction rates.

Der Beitrag beschreibt die Entwicklung eines Softwaresystems zur strukturierten Erfassung und Verwaltung bestehender Gebäude in der Architektur. Die Erfassung erfolgt durch die Aufnahme von geometrischen Daten und Sachdaten in unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsstufen unter Einbeziehung einer vorangehenden Dekomposition. Basis für die Entwicklung eines solchen Systems ist die Analyse und Systematik der Erfassungstechniken, -abläufe und der Gegenstand der architektonischen Bestandsaufnahme. Parallel hierzu erfolgt die Bewertung und Nutzung aktueller Techniken und Werkzeuge der applikativen Informatik. Schwerpunkte der Forschungsarbeit sind die Ableitung einer allgemeinen Gebäude- und Bauteilstruktur, die Einbeziehung aktueller informationstechnischer Verfahren und Werkzeuge und die Entwicklung eines entsprechenden Experimentalsystems. Auf eine Auswahl softwaretechnischer Entwicklungen wird näher eingegangen (objektspezifische Eigenschaften, flexible Geometrieerfassung und Benutzeroberflächen).

Der Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Bewertung von Verkehrsnetzen. Aus der Sicht der Nutzer des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs (ÖPNV) ist eines der wichtigsten Kriterien zur Beurteilung der Qualität des Liniennetzes, ob es möglich ist, mit einer großen Sicherheit das Reiseziel in einer vorgegebenen Zeit zu erreichen. Im Vortrag soll dieser Zuverlässigkeitsbegriff mathematisch gefasst werden. Dabei wird zunächst auf den üblichen Begriff der Zuverlässigkeit eines Netzes im Sinne paarweiser Zusammenhangswahrscheinlichkeiten eingegangen. Dieser Begriff wird erweitert durch die Betrachtung der Zuverlässigkeit unter Einbeziehung einer maximal zulässigen Reisezeit. In vergangenen Arbeiten hat sich die Ring-Radius-Struktur als bewährtes Modell für die theoretische Beschreibung von Verkehrsnetzen erwiesen. Diese Überlegungen sollen nun durch Einbeziehung realer Verkehrsnetzstrukturen erweitert werden. Als konkretes Beispiel dient das Straßenbahnnetz von Krakau. Hier soll insbesondere untersucht werden, welche Auswirkungen ein geplanter Ausbau des Netzes auf die Zuverlässigkeit haben wird. This paper is involved with CIVITAS-CARAVEL project: "Clean and better transport in cites". The project has received research funding from the Community's Sixth Framework Programme. The paper reflects only the author's views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

Wir betrachten im ÖPNV (Öffentlichen Personennahverkehr) diejenige Situation, daß zwei Bus- oder Straßenbahnlinien gemeinsame Haltestellen haben. Ziel unserer Untersuchungen ist es, für beide Linien einen solchen Fahrplan zu finden, der für die Fahrgäste möglichst viel Bequemlichkeit bietet. Die Bedarfsstruktur - die Anzahl von Personen, die die beiden Linien benutzen - setzt dabei gewisse Beschränkungen für die Taktzeiten der beiden Linien. Die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten sollen im Sinne der Zielstellung ausgenutzt werden. Im Vortrag wird folgenden Fragen nachgegangen: - nach welchen Kriterien kann man die "Bequemlichkeit" oder die "Synchonisationsgüte" messen? - wie kann man die einzelnen "Synchronisationsmaße" berechnen ? - wie kann man die verbleibenden Entscheidungsfreiheiten nutzen, um eine möglichst gute Synchronisation zu erreichen ? Die Ergebnisse werden dann auf einige Beispiele angewandt und mit den bereitgestellten Methoden Lösungsvorschläge unterbreitet.

In civil engineering it is very difficult and often expensive to excite constructions such as bridges and buildings with an impulse hammer or shaker. This problem can be avoided with the output-only method as special feature of stochastic system identification. The permanently existing ambient noise (e.g. wind, traffic, waves) is sufficient to excite the structures in their operational conditions. The output-only method is able to estimate the observable part of a state-space-model which contains the dynamic characteristics of the measured mechanical system. Because of the assumption that the ambient excitation is white there is no requirement to measure the input. Another advantage of the output-only method is the possibility to get high detailed models by a special method, called polyreference setup. To pretend the availability of a much larger set of sensors the data from varying sensor locations will be collected. Several successive data sets are recorded with sensors at different locations (moving sensors) and fixed locations (reference sensors). The covariance functions of the reference sensors are bases to normalize the moving sensors. The result of the following subspace-based system identification is a high detailed black-box-model that contains the weighting function including the well-known dynamic parameters eigenfrequencies and mode shapes of the mechanical system. Emphasis of this lecture is the presentation of an extensive damage detection experiment. A 53-year old prestressed concrete tied-arch-bridge in Hünxe (Germany) was deconstructed in 2005. Preliminary numerous vibration measurements were accomplished. The first experiment for system modification was an additional support near the bridge bearing of one main girder. During a further experiment one hanger from one tied arch was cut through as an induced damage. Some first outcomes of the described experiments will be presented.

NONZONAL WAVELETS ON S^N
(2010)

In the present article we will construct wavelets on an arbitrary dimensional sphere S^n due the approach of approximate Identities. There are two equivalently approaches to wavelets. The group theoretical approach formulates a square integrability condition for a group acting via unitary, irreducible representation on the sphere. The connection to the group theoretical approach will be sketched. The concept of approximate identities uses the same constructions in the background, here we select an appropriate section of dilations and translations in the group acting on the sphere in two steps. At First we will formulate dilations in terms of approximate identities and than we call in translations on the sphere as rotations. This leads to the construction of an orthogonal polynomial system in L²(SO(n+1)). That approach is convenient to construct concrete wavelets, since the appropriate kernels can be constructed form the heat kernel leading to the approximate Identity of Gauss-Weierstra\ss. We will work out conditions to functions forming a family of wavelets, subsequently we formulate how we can construct zonal wavelets from a approximate Identity and the relation to admissibility of nonzonal wavelets. Eventually we will give an example of a nonzonal Wavelet on $S^n$, which we obtain from the approximate identity of Gauss-Weierstraß.

Due to the amount of flow simulation and measurement data, automatic detection, classification and visualization of features is necessary for an inspection. Therefore, many automated feature detection methods have been developed in recent years. However, only one feature class is visualized afterwards in most cases, and many algorithms have problems in the presence of noise or superposition effects. In contrast, image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and other filter can be analyzed in detail. An application of these methods to vector fields would provide a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. The authors suggest Clifford algebra as a mathematical framework for this task. Clifford algebra provides a unified notation for scalars and vectors as well as a multiplication of all basis elements. The Clifford product of two vectors provides the complete geometric information of the relative positions of these vectors. Integration of this product results in Clifford correlation and convolution which can be used for template matching of vector fields. For frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters, a Clifford Fourier transform has been derived for 2D and 3D. Convolution and other theorems have been proved, and fast algorithms for the computation of the Clifford Fourier transform exist. Therefore the computation of Clifford convolution can be accelerated by computing it in Clifford Fourier domain. Clifford convolution and Fourier transform can be used for a thorough analysis and subsequent visualization of flow fields.

In nonlinear simulations the loading is, in general, applied in an incremental way. Path-following algorithms are used to trace the equilibrium path during the failure process. Standard displacement controlled solution strategies fail if snap-back phenomena occur. In this contribution, a path-following algorithm based on the dissipation of the inelastic energy is presented which allows for the simulation of snap-backs. Since the constraint is defined in terms of the internal energy, the algorithm is not restricted to continuum damage models. Furthermore, no a priori knowledge about the final damage distribution is required. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using nonlinear mesoscale simulations.

In this paper an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale model, which couples two substructures with different length scales into one numerical model is introduced for the simulation of damage in concrete. In the presented approach the initiation, propagation and coalescence of microcracks is simulated using a mesoscale model, which explicitly represents the heterogeneous material structure of concrete. The mesoscale model is restricted to the damaged parts of the structure, whereas the undamaged regions are simulated on the macroscale. As a result an adaptive enlargement of the mesoscale model during the simulation is necessary. In the first part of the paper the generation of the heterogeneous mesoscopic structure of concrete, the finite element discretization of the mesoscale model, the applied isotropic damage model and the cohesive zone model are briefly introduced. Furthermore the mesoscale simulation of a uniaxial tension test of a concrete prism is presented and own obtained numerical results are compared to experimental results. The second part is focused on the adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach. Indicators for the model adaptation and for the coupling between the different numerical models will be introduced. The transfer from the macroscale to the mesoscale and the adaptive enlargement of the mesoscale substructure will be presented in detail. A nonlinear simulation of a realistic structure using an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale model is presented at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the proposed approach to large-scale structures.

Die Liquiditätsplanung von Bauunternehmen XE "Liquiditätsplanung" gilt als ein wesentliches Steuerungs-, Kontroll- sowie Informationsinstrument für interne und externe Adressaten und übt eine Entscheidungsunterstützungsfunktion aus. Da die einzelnen Bauprojekte einen wesentlichen Anteil an den Gesamtkosten des Unternehmens ausmachen, besitzen diese auch einen erheblichen Einfluß auf die Liquidität und die Zahlungsfähigkeit der Bauunternehmung. Dem folgend ist es in der Baupraxis eine übliche Verfahrensweise, die Liquiditätsplanung zuerst projektbezogen zu erstellen und anschließend auf Unternehmensebene zu verdichten. Ziel der Ausführungen ist es, die Zusammenhänge von Arbeitskalkulation XE "Arbeitskalkulation" , Ergebnisrechnung XE "Ergebnisrechnung" und Finanzrechnung XE "Finanzrechnung" in Form eines deterministischen XE "Erklärungsmodells" Planungsmodells auf Projektebene darzustellen. Hierbei soll das Verständnis und die Bedeutung der Verknüpfungen zwischen dem technisch-orientierten Bauablauf und dessen Darstellung im Rechnungs- und Finanzwesen herausgestellt werden. Die Vorgänge aus der Bauabwicklung, das heißt die Abarbeitung der Bauleistungsverzeichnispositionen und deren zeitliche Darstellung in einem Bauzeitenplan sind periodisiert in Größen der Betriebsbuchhaltung (Leistung, Kosten) zu transformieren und anschließend in der Finanzrechnung (Einzahlungen., Auszahlungen) nach Kreditoren und Debitoren aufzuschlüsseln.

We consider efficient numerical methods for the solution of partial differential equations with stochastic coefficients or right hand side. The discretization is performed by the stochastic finite element method (SFEM). Separation of spatial and stochastic variables in the random input data is achieved via a Karhunen-Loève expansion or Wiener's polynomial chaos expansion. We discuss solution strategies for the Galerkin system that take advantage of the special structure of the system matrix. For stochastic coefficients linear in a set of independent random variables we employ Krylov subspace recycling techniques after having decoupled the large SFEM stiffness matrix.

Available construction time-cost trade-off analysis models can be used to generate trade-offs between these two important objectives, however, their application is limited in large-scale construction projects due to their impractical computational requirements. This paper presents the development of a scalable and multi-objective genetic algorithm that provides the capability of simultaneously optimizing construction time and cost large-scale construction projects. The genetic algorithm was implemented in a distributed computing environment that utilizes a recent standard for parallel and distributed programming called the message passing interface (MPI). The performance of the model is evaluated using a set of measures of performance and the results demonstrate the capability of the present model in significantly reducing the computational time required to optimize large-scale construction projects.

In many branches companies often lose the visibility of their human and technical resources of their field service. On the one hand the people in the fieldservice are often free like kings on the other hand they do not take part of the daily communication in the central office and suffer under the lacking involvement in the decisions inside the central office. The result is inefficiency. Reproaches in both directions follow. With the radio systems and then mobile phones the ditch began to dry up. But the solutions are far from being productive.

We study the Weinstein equation u on the upper half space R3+. The Weinstein equation is connected to the axially symmetric potentials. We compute solutions of the Weinstein equation depending on the hyperbolic distance and x2. These results imply the explicit mean value properties. We also compute the fundamental solution. The main tools are the hyperbolic metric and its invariance properties.

HYPERMONOGENIC POLYNOMIALS
(2006)

It is well know that the power function is not monogenic. There are basically two ways to include the power function into the set of solutions: The hypermonogenic functions or holomorphic Cliffordian functions. L. Pernas has found out the dimension of the space of homogenous holomorphic Cliffordian polynomials of degree m, but his approach did not include a basis. It is known that the hypermonogenic functions are included in the space of holomorphic Cliffordian functions. As our main result we show that we can construct a basis for the right module of homogeneous holomorphic Cliffordian polynomials of degree m using hypermonogenic polynomials and their derivatives. To that end we first recall the function spaces of monogenic, hypermonogenic and holomorphic Cliffordian functions and give the results needed in the proof of our main theorem. We list some basic polynomials and their properties for the various function spaces. In particular, we consider recursive formulas, rules of differentiation and properties of linear independency for the polynomials.

Traffic simulation is a valuable tool for the design and evaluation of road networks. Over the years, the level of detail to which urban and freeway traffic can be simulated has increased steadily, shifting from a merely qualitative macroscopic perspective to a very detailed microscopic view, where the behavior of individual vehicles is emulated realistically. With the improvement of behavioral models, however, the computational complexity has also steadily increased, as more and more aspects of real-life traffic have to be considered by the simulation environment. Despite the constant increase in computing power of modern personal computers, microscopic simulation stays computationally expensive, limiting the maximum network size than can be simulated on a single-processor computer in reasonable time. Parallelization can distribute the computing load from a single computer system to a cluster of several computing nodes. To this end, the exisiting simulation framework had to be adapted to allow for a distributed approach. As the simulation is ultimately targeted to be executed in real-time, incorporating real traffic data, only a spatial partition of the simulation was considered, meaning the road network has to be partitioned into subnets of comparable complexity, to ensure a homogenous load balancing. The partition process must also ensure, that the division between subnets does only occur in regions, where no strong interaction between the separated road segments occurs (i.e. not in the direct vicinity of junctions). In this paper, we describe a new microscopic reasoning voting strategy, and discuss in how far the increasing computational costs of these more complex behaviors lend themselves to a parallelized approach. We show the parallel architecture employed, the communication between computing units using MPIJava, and the benefits and pitfalls of adapting a single computer application to be used on a multi-node computing cluster.

The use of process models in the analysis, optimization and simulation of processes has proven to be extremely beneficial in the instances where they could be applied appropriately. However, the Architecture/Engineering/Construction (AEC) industries present unique challenges that complicate the modeling of their processes. A simple Engineering process model, based on the specification of Tasks, Datasets, Persons and Tools, and certain relations between them, have been developed, and its advantages over conventional techniques have been illustrated. Graph theory is used as the mathematical foundation mapping Tasks, Datasets, Persons and Tools to vertices and the relations between them to edges forming a directed graph. The acceptance of process modeling in AEC industries not only depends on the results it can provide, but the ease at which these results can be attained. Specifying a complex AEC process model is a dynamic exercise that is characterized by many modifications over the process model's lifespan. This article looks at reducing specification complexity, reducing the probability for erroneous input and allowing consistent model modification. Furthermore, the problem of resource leveling is discussed. Engineering projects are often executed with limited resources and determining the impact of such restrictions on the sequence of Tasks is important. Resource Leveling concerns itself with these restrictions caused by limited resources. This article looks at using Task shifting strategies to find a near-optimal sequence of Tasks that guarantees consistent Dataset evolution while resolving resource restrictions.

In this paper we consider three different methods for generating monogenic functions. The first one is related to Fueter's well known approach to the generation of monogenic quaternion-valued functions by means of holomorphic functions, the second one is based on the solution of hypercomplex differential equations and finally the third one is a direct series approach, based on the use of special homogeneous polynomials. We illustrate the theory by generating three different exponential functions and discuss some of their properties. Formula que se usa em preprints e artigos da nossa UI&D (acho demasiado completo): Partially supported by the R\&D unit \emph{Matem\'atica a Aplica\c\~es} (UIMA) of the University of Aveiro, through the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), co-financed by the European Community fund FEDER.

We establish the basis of a discrete function theory starting with a Fischer decomposition for difference Dirac operators. Discrete versions of homogeneous polynomials, Euler and Gamma operators are obtained. As a consequence we obtain a Fischer decomposition for the discrete Laplacian. For the sake of simplicity we consider in the first part only Dirac operators which contain only forward or backward finite differences. Of course, these Dirac operators do not factorize the classic discrete Laplacian. Therefore, we will consider a different definition of a difference Dirac operator in the quaternionic case which do factorizes the discrete Laplacian.

Recently there has been a surge of interest in PDEs involving fractional derivatives in different fields of engineering. In this extended abstract we present some of the results developedin [3]. We compute the fundamental solution for the three-parameter fractional Laplace operator Δ by transforming the eigenfunction equation into an integral equation and applying the method of separation of variables. The obtained solutions are expressed in terms of Mittag-Leffer functions. For more details we refer the interested reader to [3] where it is also presented an operational approach based on the two Laplace transform.

SIMULATION AND MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE HYDRATION OF CONCRETE FOR AVOIDING THERMAL CRACKS
(2010)

After mixing of concrete, the hardening starts by an exothermic chemical reaction known as hydration. As the reaction rate depends on the temperature the time in the description of the hydration is replaced by the maturity which is defined as an integral over a certain function depending on the temperature. The temperature distribution is governed by the heat equation with a right hand side depending on the maturity and the temperature itself. We compare of the performance of different time integration schemes of higher order with an automatic time step control. The simulation of the heat distribution is of importance as the development of mechanical properties is driven by the hydration. During this process it is possible that the tensile stresses exceed the tensile strength and cracks occur. The goal is to produce cheap concrete without cracks. Simple crack-criterions use only temperature differences, more involved ones are based on thermal stresses. If the criterion predicts cracks some changes in the input data are needed. This can be interpreted as optimization. The final goal will be to adopt model based optimization (in contrast to simulation based optimization) to the problem of the hydration of young concrete and the avoidance of cracks. The first step is the simulation of the hydration, which we focus in this paper.

An introduction is given to Clifford Analysis over pseudo-Euclidean space of arbitrary signature, called for short Ultrahyperbolic Clifford Analysis (UCA). UCA is regarded as a function theory of Clifford-valued functions, satisfying a first order partial differential equation involving a vector-valued differential operator, called a Dirac operator. The formulation of UCA presented here pays special attention to its geometrical setting. This permits to identify tensors which qualify as geometrically invariant Dirac operators and to take a position on the naturalness of contravariant and covariant versions of such a theory. In addition, a formal method is described to construct the general solution to the aforementioned equation in the context of covariant UCA.

The methods currently used for scheduling building processes have some major advantages as well as disadvantages. The main advantages are the arrangement of the tasks of a project in a clear, easily readable form and the calculation of valuable information like critical paths. The main disadvantage on the other hand is the inflexibility of the model caused by the modeling paradigms. Small changes of the modeled information strongly influence the whole model and lead to the need to change many more details in the plan. In this article an approach is introduced allowing the creation of more flexible schedules. It aims towards a more robust model that lowers the need to change more than a few information while being able to calculate the important propositions of the known models and leading to further valuable conclusions.

Buildings can be divided into various types and described by a huge number of parameters. Within the life cycle of a building, especially during the design and construction phases, a lot of engineers with different points of view, proprietary applications and data formats are involved. The collaboration of all participating engineers is characterised by a high amount of communication. Due to these aspects, a homogeneous building model for all engineers is not feasible. The status quo of civil engineering is the segmentation of the complete model into partial models. Currently, the interdependencies of these partial models are not in the focus of available engineering solutions. This paper addresses the problem of coupling partial models in civil engineering. According to the state-of-the-art, applications and partial models are formulated by the object-oriented method. Although this method solves basic communication problems like subclass coupling directly it was found that many relevant coupling problems remain to be solved. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse and classify the relevant coupling types in building modelling. Coupling in computer science refers to the relationship between modules and their mutual interaction and can be divided into different coupling types. The coupling types differ on the degree by which the coupled modules rely upon each other. This is exemplified by a general reference example from civil engineering. A uniform formulation of coupling patterns is described analogously to design patterns, which are a common methodology in software engineering. Design patterns are templates for describing a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem. A template is independent of the programming language and the operating system. These coupling patterns are selected according to the specific problems of building modelling. A specific meta-model for coupling problems in civil engineering is introduced. In our meta-model the coupling patterns are a semantic description of a specific coupling design.

LIFETIME-ORIENTED OPTIMIZATION OF BRIDGE TIE RODS EXPOSED TO VORTEX-INDUCED ACROSS-WIND VIBRATIONS
(2006)

In recent years, damages in welded connections plates of vertical tie rods of several arched steel bridges have been reported. These damages are due to fatigue caused by wind-induced vibrations. In the present study, such phenomena are examined, and the corresponding lifetime of a reference bridge in Münster-Hiltrup, Germany, is estimated, based on the actual shape of the connection plate. Also, the results obtained are compared to the expected lifetime of a connection plate, whose geometry has been optimized separately. The structural optimization, focussing on the shape of the cut at the hanger ends, has been carried out using evolution strategies. The oscillation amplitudes have been computed by means of the Newmark-Wilson time-step method, using an appropriate load model, which has been validated by on-site experiments on the selected reference bridge. Corresponding stress-amplitudes are evaluated by multiplying the oscillation amplitudes with a stress concentration factor. This factor has been computed on the basis of a finite element model of the system "hanger-welding-connection plate", applying solid elements, according to the notch stress approach. The damage estimation takes into account the stochastics of the exciting wind process, as well as the stochastics of the material parameters (fatigue strength) given in terms of Woehler-curves. The shape optimization results in a substantial increase of the estimated hanger lifetime. The comparison of the lifetimes of the bulk plate and of the welding revealed that, in the optimized structure, the welding, being the most sensitive part in the original structure, shows much more resistance against potential damages than the bulk material.

The mathematical and technical foundations of optimization have been developed to a large extent. In the design of buildings, however, optimization is rarely applied because of insufficient adaptation of this method to the needs of building design. The use of design optimization requires the consideration of all relevant objectives in an interactive and multidisciplinary process. Disciplines such as structural, light, and thermal engineering, architecture, and economics impose various objectives on the design. A good solution calls for a compromise between these often contradictory objectives. This presentation outlines a method for the application of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) as a tool for the designing of buildings. An optimization model is established considering the fact that in building design the non-numerical aspects are of major importance than in other engineering disciplines. A component-based decomposition enables the designer to manage the non-numerical aspects in an interactive design optimization process. A façade example demonstrates a way how the different disciplines interact and how the components integrate the disciplines in one optimization model. In this grid-based façade example, the materials switch between a discrete number of materials and construction types. For light and thermal engineering, architecture, and economics, analysis functions calculate the performance; utility functions serve as an important means for the evaluation since not every increase or decrease of a physical value improves the design. For experimental purposes, a genetic algorithm applied to the exemplary model demonstrates the use of optimization in this design case. A component-based representation first serves to manage non-numerical characteristics such as aesthetics. Furthermore, it complies with usual fabrication methods in building design and with object-oriented data handling in CAD. Therefore, components provide an important basis for an interactive MDO process in building design.

Safety operation of important civil structures such as bridges can be estimated by using fracture analysis. Since the analytical methods are not capable of solving many complicated engineering problems, numerical methods have been increasingly adopted. In this paper, a part of isotropic material which contains a crack is considered as a partial model and the proposed model quality is evaluated. EXtended IsoGeometric Analysis (XIGA) is a new developed numerical approach [1, 2] which benefits from advantages of its origins: eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA). It is capable of simulating crack propagation problems with no remeshing necessity and capturing singular field at the crack tip by using the crack tip enrichment functions. Also, exact representation of geometry is possible using only few elements. XIGA has also been successfully applied for fracture analysis of cracked orthotropic bodies [3] and for simulation of curved cracks [4]. XIGA applies NURBS functions for both geometry description and solution field approximation. The drawback of NURBS functions is that local refinement cannot be defined regarding that it is based on tensorproduct constructs unless multiple patches are used which has also some limitations. In this contribution, the XIGA is further developed to make the local refinement feasible by using Tspline basis functions. Adopting a recovery based error estimator in the proposed approach for evaluation of the model quality and performing the adaptive processes is in progress. Finally, some numerical examples with available analytical solutions are investigated by the developed scheme.

Reducing energy consumption is one of the major challenges for present day and will continue for future generations. The emerging EU directives relating to energy (EU EPBD and the EU Directive on Emissions Trading) now place demands on building owners to rate the energy performance of their buildings for efficient energy management. Moreover European Legislation (Directive 2006/32/EC) requires Facility Managers to reduce building energy consumption and operational costs. Currently sophisticated building services systems are available integrating off-the-shelf building management components. However this ad-hoc combination presents many difficulties to building owners in the management and upgrade of these systems. This paper addresses the need for integration concepts, holistic monitoring and analysis methodologies, life-cycle oriented decision support and sophisticated control strategies through the seamless integration of people, ICT-devices and computational resources via introducing the newly developed integrated system architecture. The first concept was applied to a residential building and the results were elaborated to improve current building conditions.

New foundations for geometric algebra are proposed based upon the existing isomorphisms between geometric and matrix algebras. Each geometric algebra always has a faithful real matrix representation with a periodicity of 8. On the other hand, each matrix algebra is always embedded in a geometric algebra of a convenient dimension. The geometric product is also isomorphic to the matrix product, and many vector transformations such as rotations, axial symmetries and Lorentz transformations can be written in a form isomorphic to a similarity transformation of matrices. We collect the idea that Dirac applied to develop the relativistic electron equation when he took a basis of matrices for the geometric algebra instead of a basis of geometric vectors. Of course, this way of understanding the geometric algebra requires new definitions: the geometric vector space is defined as the algebraic subspace that generates the rest of the matrix algebra by addition and multiplication; isometries are simply defined as the similarity transformations of matrices as shown above, and finally the norm of any element of the geometric algebra is defined as the nth root of the determinant of its representative matrix of order n×n. The main idea of this proposal is an arithmetic point of view consisting of reversing the roles of matrix and geometric algebras in the sense that geometric algebra is a way of accessing, working and understanding the most fundamental conception of matrix algebra as the algebra of transformations of multilinear quantities.

The theory of regular quaternionic functions of a reduced quaternionic variable is a 3-dimensional generalization of complex analysis. The Moisil-Theodorescu system (MTS) is a regularity condition for such functions depending on the radius vector r = ix+jy+kz seen as a reduced quaternionic variable. The analogues of the main theorems of complex analysis for the MTS in quaternion forms are established: Cauchy, Cauchy integral formula, Taylor and Laurent series, approximation theorems and Cauchy type integral properties. The analogues of positive powers (inner spherical monogenics) are investigated: the set of recurrence formulas between the inner spherical monogenics and the explicit formulas are established. Some applications of the regular function in the elasticity theory and hydrodynamics are given.

In this paper we present rudiments of a higher dimensional analogue of the Szegö kernel method to compute 3D mappings from elementary domains onto the unit sphere. This is a formal construction which provides us with a good substitution of the classical conformal Riemann mapping. We give explicit numerical examples and discuss a comparison of the results with those obtained alternatively by the Bergman kernel method.

We propose a new approach to the numerical solution of quasi-static elastic-plastic problems based on the Moreau-Yosida theorem. After the time discretization, the problem is expressed as an energy minimization problem for unknown displacement and plastic strain fields. The dependency of the minimization functional on the displacement is smooth whereas the dependency on the plastic strain is non-smooth. Besides, there exists an explicit formula, how to calculate the plastic strain from a given displacement field. This allows us to reformulate the original problem as a minimization problem in the displacement only. Using the Moreau-Yosida theorem from the convex analysis, the minimization functional in the displacements turns out to be Frechet-differentiable, although the hidden dependency on the plastic strain is non-differentiable. The seconds derivative exists everywhere apart from the elastic-plastic interface dividing elastic and plastic zones of the continuum. This motivates to implement a Newton-like method, which converges super-linearly as can be observed in our numerical experiments.

RESEARCH OF DEFORMATION OF MULTILAYERED PLATES ON UNDEFORMABLE BASIS BY UNFLEXURAL SPECIFIED MODEL
(2006)

Stress-strain state (SSS) of multilayered plates on undeformable foundation is investigated. The settlement circuit of transverse loaded plate is formed by symmetrical attaching of a plate concerning a surface of contact to the foundation. The plate of the double thickness becomes bilateral symmetrically loaded concerning its median surface. It allows to model only unflexural deformation that reduces amount of unknown and the general order of differentiation of resolving system of the equations. The developed refined continual model takes into account deformations of transverse shear and transverse compression in high iterative approximation. Rigid contact between the foundation and a plate, and also shear without friction on a surface of contact of a plate with the foundation is considered. Calculations confirm efficiency of such approach, allowing to receive decisions which is qualitative and quantitatively close to three-dimensional solutions.

Using a quaternionic reformulation of the electrical impedance equation, we consider a two-dimensional separable-variables conductivity function and, posing two different techniques, we obtain a special class of Vekua equation, whose general solution can be approach by virtue of Taylor series in formal powers, for which is possible to introduce an explicit Bers generating sequence.

Polymer modification of mortar and concrete is a widely used technique in order to improve their durability properties. Hitherto, the main application fields of such materials are repair and restoration of buildings. However, due to the constant increment of service life requirements and the cost efficiency, polymer modified concrete (PCC) is also used for construction purposes. Therefore, there is a demand for studying the mechanical properties of PCC and entitative differences compared to conventional concrete (CC). It is significant to investigate whether all the assumed hypotheses and existing analytical formulations about CC are also valid for PCC. In the present study, analytical models available in the literature are evaluated. These models are used for estimating mechanical properties of concrete. The investigated property in this study is the modulus of elasticity, which is estimated with respect to the value of compressive strength. One existing database was extended and adapted for polymer-modified concrete mixtures along with their experimentally measured mechanical properties. Based on the indexed data a comparison between model predictions and experiments was conducted by calculation of forecast errors.

Ausgehend von den fundierten Erfahrungen, die für das Schweißen von verschiedensten Metallen vorliegen, wird an der Professur Stahlbau der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar ein neuartiges Verfahren zum CO2-Laserstrahlschweißen von Quarzglas numerisch untersucht. Dabei kommt die kommerzielle FE-Software SYSWELD® zum Einsatz. Die erforderlichen Versuche werden in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut für Fügetechnik und Werkstoffprüfung GmbH aus Jena realisiert. Die numerische Analyse wird eingesetzt, um geeignete Prozessparameter zu bestimmen und deren Auswirkungen auf die transienten thermischen und mechanischen Vorgänge, die während des Schweißvorgangs ablaufen abzubilden. Um die aus der Simulation erhaltenen Aussagen zu überprüfen, ist es erforderlich, das Berechnungsmodell mittels Daten aus Versuchsschweißungen zu kalibrieren. Dabei sind die verwendeten Materialmodelle sowie die der Simulation zugrunde gelegten Materialkennwerte zu validieren. Es stehen verschiedene rheologische Berechnungsmodelle zur Auswahl, die die viskosen Materialeigenschaften des Glases abbilden. Dabei werden die drei mechanischen Grundelemente, die HOOKEsche Feder, der NEWTONsche Dämpfungszylinder und das ST.-VENANT-Element miteinander kombiniert. Die Möglichkeit, thermische und mechanische Vorgänge innerhalb des Glases während des Schweißvorgangs und nach vollständiger Abkühlung, vorhersagen zu können, gestattet es den Schweißvorgang über eine Optimierung der Verfahrensparameter gezielt dahingehend zu beeinflussen, die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Schweißverfahrens zu verbessern, und ein zuverlässiges Schweißergebnis zu erhalten. Dabei können auch nur unter hohem experimentellen Aufwand durchführbare Versuche simuliert werden, um eine Vorhersage zu treffen, ob es zweckmäßig ist, den Versuch auch in der Praxis zu fahren. Dies führt zu einer Reduzierung des experimentellen Aufwandes und damit zu einer Verkürzung des Entwicklungszeitraumes für das angestrebte Verfahren.

Solid behavior as well as liquid behavior characterizes the flow of granular material in silos. The presented model is based on an appropriate interaction of a displacement field and a velocity field. The constitutive equations and the applied algorithm are developed from the exact solution for a standard case. The standard case evolves from a very tall vertical plane strain silo containing material that flows at a constant speed. No horizontal displacements and velocities take place. No changes regarding the field values arise in the vertical direction and in time. Tension is not allowed at any point. Coulomb friction represents the effects of the vertical walls. The interaction between the flowing material and the walls is covered by a forced boundary condition resulting in an additional matrix for the solid component as well as for the liquid component. The resulting integral equations are designed to be solved directly. Three coefficients describe the properties of the granular material. They govern elastic solid behavior in combination with viscous liquid behavior.

Within the scheduling of construction projects, different, partly conflicting objectives have to be considered. The specification of an efficient construction schedule is a challenging task, which leads to a NP-hard multi-criteria optimization problem. In the past decades, so-called metaheuristics have been developed for scheduling problems to find near-optimal solutions in reasonable time. This paper presents a Simulated Annealing concept to determine near-optimal construction schedules. Simulated Annealing is a well-known metaheuristic optimization approach for solving complex combinatorial problems. To enable dealing with several optimization objectives the Pareto optimization concept is applied. Thus, the optimization result is a set of Pareto-optimal schedules, which can be analyzed for selecting exactly one practicable and reasonable schedule. A flexible constraint-based simulation approach is used to generate possible neighboring solutions very quickly during the optimization process. The essential aspects of the developed Pareto Simulated Annealing concept are presented in detail.

Adopting the European laws concerning environmental protection will require sustained efforts of the authorities and communities from Romania; implementing modern solutions will become a fast and effective option for the improvement of the functioning systems, in order to prevent disasters. As a part of the urban infrastructure, the drainage networks of pluvial and residual waters are included in the plan of promoting the systems which protect the environmental quality, with the purpose of integrated and adaptive management. The paper presents a distributed control system for sewer network of Iasi town. Unsatisfactory technical state of the actual sewer system is exposed, focusing on objectives related to implementation of the control system. The proposed distributed control system of Iasi drainage network is based on the implementation of the hierarchic control theory for diagnose, sewer planning and management. There are proposed two control levels: coordinating and local execution. Configuration of the distributed control system, including data acquisition and conversion equipment, interface characteristics, local data bus, data communication network, station configuration are widely described. The project wish to be an useful instrument for the local authorities in the preventing and reducing the impact of future natural disasters over the urban areas by means of modern technologies.

In this paper three different formulations of a Bernoulli type free boundary problem are discussed. By analyzing the shape Hessian in case of matching data it is distinguished between well-posed and ill-posed formulations. A nonlinear Ritz-Galerkin method is applied for discretizing the shape optimization problem. In case of well-posedness existence and convergence of the approximate shapes is proven. In combination with a fast boundary element method efficient first and second order shape optimization algorithms are obtained.

In construction engineering, a schedule’s input data, which is usually not exactly known in the planning phase, is considered deterministic when generating the schedule. As a result, construction schedules become unreliable and deadlines are often not met. While the optimization of construction schedules with respect to costs and makespan has been a matter of research in the past decades, the optimization of the robustness of construction schedules has received little attention. In this paper, the effects of uncertainties inherent to the input data of construction schedules are discussed. Possibilities are investigated to improve the reliability of construction schedules by considering alternative processes for certain tasks and by identifying the combination of processes generating the most robust schedule with respect to the makespan of a construction project.

Für eine beherrschbare Koordination und Durchführung von Planungsaufgaben in Bauprojekten wird der Planungsprozess zunehmend in formalisierten Modellen – Prozessmodellen – beschrieben. Die Produktmodellforschung ihrerseits widmet sich der Speicherung von Planungsdaten in Form von objektorientierten Modellen im Rechner. Hauptaugenmerk sind dabei die Wahrung der Konsistenz und die Modellierung von Abhängigkeiten innerhalb dieses Planungsmaterials. Der Bezug zu den Akteuren der Planung wird nicht direkt hergestellt. Ein formal beschriebener Planungsprozesses kann in der Praxis noch nicht derart realisiert werden, dass ein Zugriff auf Einzelobjekte des Planungsprozesses gewährleistet ist. Bestehende Planungsunterstützungs- und Workflowmanagement-Systeme abstrahieren und ordnen das Planungsmaterial nach wie vor auf Dateiebene. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt eine Methode für die geeignete Verbindung von formalisierten Prozessmodellen in der Bauplanung mit den Einzelobjekten, die in den modellorientierten Objektmengen kodiert sind. Dabei wird die Zugehörigkeit bestimmter Objekte zu Plänen und Dokumenten (zum Zwecke des Datenaustauschs) nicht länger durch die physische Zuordnung zu Dateien festgelegt. Es wird ein formales Beschreibungsmittel vorgestellt, welches die entsprechende Teilmengenbildung aus der Gesamtheit der Planungsobjekte ermöglicht. Für die bisherigen Formen des Datenaustausches werden aus den Objektmodellen der Planung Teilmengen herausgelöst und physikalisch zwischen den Planern transportiert. Das neue Beschreibungsmittel hingegen erlaubt es, die Bildungsvorschrift für Objektteilmengen statt der Mengen selbst zwischen den Planern auszutauschen. Der Zugriff auf die konkreten Objekte findet dann direkt modellbasiert statt.

DECENTRALIZED APPROACHES TO ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC CONTROL AND AN EXTENDED LEVEL OF SERVICE CONCEPT
(2006)

Traffic systems are highly complex multi-component systems suffering from instabilities and non-linear dynamics, including chaos. This is caused by the non-linearity of interactions, delays, and fluctuations, which can trigger phenomena such as stop-and-go waves, noise-induced breakdowns, or slower-is-faster effects. The recently upcoming information and communication technologies (ICT) promise new solutions leading from the classical, centralized control to decentralized approaches in the sense of collective (swarm) intelligence and ad hoc networks. An interesting application field is adaptive, self-organized traffic control in urban road networks. We present control principles that allow one to reach a self-organized synchronization of traffic lights. Furthermore, vehicles will become automatic traffic state detection, data management, and communication centers when forming ad hoc networks through inter-vehicle communication (IVC). We discuss the mechanisms and the efficiency of message propagation on freeways by short-range communication. Our main focus is on future adaptive cruise control systems (ACC), which will not only increase the comfort and safety of car passengers, but also enhance the stability of traffic flows and the capacity of the road (“traffic assistance”). We present an automated driving strategy that adapts the operation mode of an ACC system to the autonomously detected, local traffic situation. The impact on the traffic dynamics is investigated by means of a multi-lane microscopic traffic simulation. The simulation scenarios illustrate the efficiency of the proposed driving strategy. Already an ACC equipment level of 10% improves the traffic flow quality and reduces the travel times for the drivers drastically due to delaying or preventing a breakdown of the traffic flow. For the evaluation of the resulting traffic quality, we have recently developed an extended level of service concept (ELOS). We demonstrate our concept on the basis of travel times as the most important variable for a user-oriented quality of service.

The concrete is modeled as a material with damage and plasticity, whereat the viscoplastic and the viscoelastic behaviour depends on the rate of the total strains. Due to the damage behaviour the compliance tensor develops different properties in tension and compression. There have been tested various yield surfaces and flow rules, damage rules respectively to their usability in a concrete model. One three-dimensional yield surface was developed from a failure surface based on the Willam--Warnke five-parameter model by the author. Only one general uni-axial stress-strain-relation is used for the numeric control of the yield surface. From that curve all necessary parameters for different strengths of concrete and different strain rates can be derived by affine transformations. For the flow rule in the compression zone a non associated inelastic potential is used, in the tension zone a Rankine potential. Conditional on the time-dependent formulation, the symmetry of the system equations is maintained in spite of the usage of non-associated potentials for the derivation of the inelastic strains. In case of quasi statical computations a simple viscoplastic law is used that is rested on an approach to Perzyna. The principle of equality of dissipation power in the uni-axial and the three-axial state of stress is used. It is modified by a factor that depends on the actual stress ratio and in comparison with the Kupfer experiments it implicates strains that are more realistic. The implementation of the concrete model is conducted in a mixed hybrid finite element. Examples in the structural level are introduced for verification of the concrete model.

In the final decades many scientists were occupied intensively with the change of materials during a process and their mathematical descriptions. The extensive and extensive analyses were supported by the advanced computer science. A mathematical description of the phase transformation is a condition for a realistic FE simulation of the state of microstructure. It is possible to simulate the temperature and stress field also in complex construction based on the state of microstructure. In the last years a great number of mathematical models were expanded to describe the transformation between different phases. For the development of the models for transformation kinetics it is practical to subdivide into isothermal and non-isothermal processes according to the thermal conditions. Some models for the description of the transformation with non-isothermal processes represent extensions for isothermal of processes. A part of parameters for the describing equations can be derived from the time-temperature-transformation diagrams in the literature. Furthermore the two possibilities of transformation are considered by different models - diffusion controlled and not diffusion controlled. The material-specific characteristics can be simulated during the transformation for each individual phase in a realistic FE analyses. Also new materials can be simulated after a modification of the parameters in the describing equations for the phase transformation. The effects in the temperature and stress field are a substantial reason for the investigation of the phase transformation during the welding and TIG-dressing processes.

We briefly review and use the recent comprehensive research on the manifolds of square roots of −1 in real Clifford geometric algebras Cl(p,q) in order to construct the Clifford Fourier transform. Basically in the kernel of the complex Fourier transform the complex imaginary unit j is replaced by a square root of −1 in Cl(p,q). The Clifford Fourier transform (CFT) thus obtained generalizes previously known and applied CFTs, which replaced the complex imaginary unit j only by blades (usually pseudoscalars) squaring to −1. A major advantage of real Clifford algebra CFTs is their completely real geometric interpretation. We study (left and right) linearity of the CFT for constant multivector coefficients in Cl(p,q), translation (x-shift) and modulation (w -shift) properties, and signal dilations. We show an inversion theorem. We establish the CFT of vector differentials, partial derivatives, vector derivatives and spatial moments of the signal. We also derive Plancherel and Parseval identities as well as a general convolution theorem.

Summer overheating in buildings is a common problem, especially in office buildings with large glazed facades, high internal loads and low thermal mass. Phase change materials (PCM) that undergo a phase transition in the temperature range of thermal comfort can add thermal mass without increasing the structural load of the building. The investigated PCM were micro-encapsulated and mixed into gypsum plaster. The experiments showed a reduction of indoor-temperature of up to 4 K when using a 3 cm layer of PCM-plaster with micro-encapsulated paraffin. The measurement results could validate a numerical model that is based on a temperature dependent function for heat capacity. Thermal building simulation showed that a 3 cm layer of PCM-plaster can help to fulfil German regulations concerning heat protection of buildings in summer for most office rooms.