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The phenomenological and computational aspects of the various damage models applications for the low and multi cyclic fatigue processes are investigated. Damage is considered as internal state variable, describing macroscopic effects of the progressive material degradation, within the framework of continuum damage mechanics. Present analysis is restricted to the case of isotropic damage, which can be modeled by a scalar variable. The strain, force and power types of kinetic equations for the damage evolution description are considered. The original mixed strain-power type damage model is developed for taking into account the different physical fracture mechanism in monotone and cyclic loading. The constitutive equations of plastic flow theory coupled and uncoupled to damage has been considered. The rational algorithm of implementation into finite element code is considered for developed damage models. Set of the computational experiments has been carried out for the various structures (huge aerials, pipelines, fastening units, vessel of nuclear reactor) and cases of loading. The comparison of the predictions of the developed model with experimental data is performed for 1X18H10T steel tubular specimens for complex paths of loading and for complex profiles beams under cyclic loading. Damage field distribution is the basic information for the prediction of crack initiation in structures. The developed method of structural parameter for stress concentration zones is discussed for correcting of crack location. It allows to describe the crack initiation near surface domain as observe in numerous experiments.

The steel structure design codes require to check up the member strength when evaluating plastic deformations. The model of perfectly plastic material is accepted. The strength criteria for simple cross-sections (I section, etc.) of steel members are given in design codes. The analytical strength criteria for steel cross-sections and numerical approaches based on stepwise procedure are investigated in many articles. Another way for checking the carrying capacity of cross-sections is the use of methods that are applied for defining strain-deformed state of elastic perfectly plastic systems. In this paper non-iterative methods are suggested for checking strength of cross-sections. Carrying capacity of cross section is verified according to extremum principle of plastic fail under monotonically loading and the strain-deformed state of cross-section is defined according to extremum energy principals of elastic potential of residual stresses and complementary work of residual displacements. The mathematical expressions of these principals for discrete cross-section are formulated as problems of convex mathematical programming. The cross-section of steel member using finite element method is divided into free form plane elements. The constant distribution of stresses along the finite element is accepted. The relationships of finite elements for static formulation of the problem are formed so, that kinematics formulation relationships could be obtained in a formal way using the theory of duality. Numerical examples of determination of cross-section strength, composition of interactive curves and composition of moment-curvature curves for different axial force levels are presented.

Rectangular steel frames are considered and subjected to strong ground motion. Their behavior factor is numerically evaluated using nonlinear time history analysis and different ground acceleration records. The behavior factor is determined assuming severe collapse mechanism occurs throughout the time history. The system of equations is transformed into single equation end then the energy balance concept is applied. The expression for the behavior factor is derived and its application to four story two bays steel frame is illustrated and the corresponding results are discussed.