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- Finite-Elemente-Methode (3)
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- Gashochdruckleitungen (2)
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- Probabilistik (2)
- Sicherheit (2)
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- Aerodynamic Stability (1)
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The phenomenon of aerodynamic instability caused by the wind is usually a major design criterion for long-span cable-supported bridges. If the wind speed exceeds the critical flutter speed of the bridge, this constitutes an Ultimate Limit State. The prediction of the flutter boundary, therefore, requires accurate and robust models. The complexity and uncertainty of models for such engineering problems demand strategies for model assessment. This study is an attempt to use the concepts of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses to assess the aeroelastic instability prediction models for long-span bridges. The state-of-the-art theory concerning the determination of the flutter stability limit is presented. Since flutter is a coupling of aerodynamic forcing with a structural dynamics problem, different types and classes of structural and aerodynamic models can be combined to study the interaction. Here, both numerical approaches and analytical models are utilised and coupled in different ways to assess the prediction quality of the coupled model.

The Variability of the Void Ratio of Sand and its Effect on Settlement and Infinite Slope Stability
(2018)

The uncertainty of a soil property can significantly affect the physical behavior of soil, so as to influence geotechnical practice. The uncertainty can be expressed by its stochastic parameters, including the mean, the standard deviation, and the spatial correlation length. These stochastic parameters are regarded as constant value in most of the former studies. The main aim of this thesis is to prove whether they are depth-dependent, and to evaluate the effect of this depth-dependent character on both the settlement and the infinite slope stability during rainwater infiltration.
A stochastic one-dimensional settlement simulation is carried out using random finite element method with the von Wolffersdorff hypoplastic model, so as to evaluate the effect of stress level on the stochastic parameters of void ratio related parameters of sand. It is found that these stochastic parameters are both stress-dependent and depth-dependent.
The non-stationary random field, considering the depth-dependent character of these stochastic parameters, can be generated through the distortion of the stationary random field.
The one-dimensional settlement analysis is carried out to evaluation the effect of the depth-dependent character of the stochastic parameters of void ratio on the strain. It is found that the depth-dependent character has low effect on the strain.
The deterministic analysis of infinite slope stability during rainwater infiltration is simulated.
The transient seepage is carried out using finite difference method, while the steady state seepage is simulated using the analytical solution. The saturated hydraulic conductivity (ks) is taken as the only variable. The results show that the depth-dependent ks has a significant influence on the stability of the slope when the negative flux is high. Without considering the depth-dependent character, can overestimate the factor of safety of the slope. A slope can fail if the depth-dependent character is considered, while it is stable if the depth-dependent character is neglected. The failure time of the slope with a greater depth-dependent ks is earlier during transient infiltration.
Meanwhile, the stochastic infinite slope stability analysis during infiltration, is also carried out to highlight the effect of the depth-dependent character of the stochastic parameters of ks. The results show that: the probability of failure is significantly increased if the depth-dependent character of mean is considered, while, it is moderately reduced if the depth-dependent character of the standard deviation is accounted. If the depth-dependent character of both the mean and standard deviation of ks is considered, the depth-dependent mean value plays a dominant influence on the results. Furthermore, the depth-dependent character of the spatial correlation length can slightly reduce the probability of failure.

This thesis addresses an adaptive higher-order method based on a Geometry Independent Field approximatTion(GIFT) of polynomial/rationals plines over hierarchical T-meshes(PHT/RHT-splines).
In isogeometric analysis, basis functions used for constructing geometric models in computer-aided design(CAD) are also employed to discretize the partial differential equations(PDEs) for numerical analysis. Non-uniform rational B-Splines(NURBS) are the most commonly used basis functions in CAD. However, they may not be ideal for numerical analysis where local refinement is required.
The alternative method GIFT deploys different splines for geometry and numerical analysis. NURBS are utilized for the geometry representation, while for the field solution, PHT/RHT-splines are used. PHT-splines not only inherit the useful properties of B-splines and NURBS, but also possess the capabilities of local refinement and hierarchical structure. The smooth basis function properties of PHT-splines make them suitable for analysis purposes. While most problems considered in isogeometric analysis can be solved efficiently when the solution is smooth, many non-trivial problems have rough solutions. For example, this can be caused by the presence of re-entrant corners in the domain. For such problems, a tensor-product basis (as in the case of NURBS) is less suitable for resolving the singularities that appear since refinement propagates throughout the computational domain. Hierarchical bases and local refinement (as in the case of PHT-splines) allow for a more efficient way to resolve these singularities by adding more degrees of freedom where they are necessary. In order to drive the adaptive refinement, an efficient recovery-based error estimator is proposed in this thesis. The estimator produces a recovery solution which is a more accurate approximation than the computed numerical solution. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical investigations with PHT-splines of higher order and continuity prove that the proposed method is capable of obtaining results with higher accuracy, better convergence, fewer degrees of freedom and less computational cost than NURBS for smooth solution problems. The adaptive GIFT method utilizing PHT-splines with the recovery-based error estimator is used for solutions with discontinuities or singularities where adaptive local refinement in particular domains of interest achieves higher accuracy with fewer degrees of freedom. This method also proves that it can handle complicated multi-patch domains for two- and three-dimensional problems outperforming uniform refinement in terms of degrees of freedom and computational cost.

Gashochdruckleitungen aus Stahl werden mit Hilfe eines deterministischen Sicherheitskonzeptes bemessen. Im unveränderten Bemessungszustand und im bestimmungsgemäßem Betrieb ist die statische Tragfähigkeit der Gashochdruckleitungen gegeben.
Mit den Jahren unterliegen Gashochdruckleitungen aus Stahl geometrischen Veränderungen, die häufig durch Korrosion hervorgerufen werden. Die Beurteilung der statischen Tragfähigkeit erfolgt dann unter Berücksichtigung dieser geometrischen Änderung.
Deterministische Sicherheitsbeiwerte der Bemessung neuer Gashochdruckleitungen können für die Bemessung bestehender korrosionsgeschädigter Gashochdruckleitungen nicht herangezogen werden, da diese einen definierten Beanspruchungs- und Geometriezustand unterstellen, welcher durch den geometrischen Einfluss der Korrosion so nicht mehr besteht.
Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der Ermittlung deterministischer Sicherheitsbeiwerte für die Bemessung korrosionsgeschädigter Gashochdruckleitungen auf Basis von Versagenswahrscheinlichkeiten und stellt ein Anwendungskonzept zu deren Nutzung vor.

Material properties play a critical role in durable products manufacturing. Estimation of the precise characteristics in different scales requires complex and expensive experimental measurements. Potentially, computational methods can provide a platform to determine the fundamental properties before the final experiment. Multi-scale computational modeling leads to the modeling of the various time, and length scales include nano, micro, meso, and macro scales. These scales can be modeled separately or in correlation with coarser scales. Depend on the interested scales modeling, the right selection of multi-scale methods leads to reliable results and affordable computational cost. The present dissertation deals with the problems in various length and time scales using computational methods include density functional theory (DFT), molecular mechanics (MM), molecular dynamics (MD), and finite element (FE) methods.
Physical and chemical interactions in lower scales determine the coarser scale properties. Particles interaction modeling and exploring fundamental properties are significant challenges of computational science. Downscale modelings need more computational effort due to a large number of interacted atoms/particles. To deal with this problem and bring up a fine-scale (nano) as a coarse-scale (macro) problem, we extended an atomic-continuum framework. The discrete atomic models solve as a continuum problem using the computationally efficient FE method. MM or force field method based on a set of assumptions approximates a solution on the atomic scale. In this method, atoms and bonds model as a harmonic oscillator with a system of mass and springs. The negative gradient of the potential energy equal to the forces on each atom. In this way, each bond's total potential energy includes bonded, and non-bonded energies are simulated as equivalent structural strain energies. Finally, the chemical nature of the atomic bond is modeled as a piezoelectric beam element that solves by the FE method.
Exploring novel materials with unique properties is a demand for various industrial applications. During the last decade, many two-dimensional (2D) materials have been synthesized and shown outstanding properties. Investigation of the probable defects during the formation/fabrication process and studying their strength under severe service life are the critical tasks to explore performance prospects. We studied various defects include nano crack, notch, and point vacancy (Stone-Wales defect) defects employing MD analysis. Classical MD has been used to simulate a considerable amount of molecules at micro-, and meso- scales. Pristine and defective nanosheet structures considered under the uniaxial tensile loading at various temperatures using open-source LAMMPS codes. The results were visualized with the open-source software of OVITO and VMD.
Quantum based first principle calculations have been conducting at electronic scales and known as the most accurate Ab initio methods. However, they are computationally expensive to apply for large systems. We used density functional theory (DFT) to estimate the mechanical and electrochemical response of the 2D materials. Many-body Schrödinger's equation describes the motion and interactions of the solid-state particles. Solid describes as a system of positive nuclei and negative electrons, all electromagnetically interacting with each other, where the wave function theory describes the quantum state of the set of particles. However, dealing with the 3N coordinates of the electrons, nuclei, and N coordinates of the electrons spin components makes the governing equation unsolvable for just a few interacted atoms. Some assumptions and theories like Born Oppenheimer and Hartree-Fock mean-field and Hohenberg-Kohn theories are needed to treat with this equation. First, Born Oppenheimer approximation reduces it to the only electronic coordinates. Then Kohn and Sham, based on Hartree-Fock and Hohenberg-Kohn theories, assumed an equivalent fictitious non-interacting electrons system as an electron density functional such that their ground state energies are equal to a set of interacting electrons. Exchange-correlation energy functionals are responsible for satisfying the equivalency between both systems. The exact form of the exchange-correlation functional is not known. However, there are widely used methods to derive functionals like local density approximation (LDA), Generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and hybrid functionals (e.g., B3LYP). In our study, DFT performed using VASP codes within the GGA/PBE approximation, and visualization/post-processing of the results realized via open-source software of VESTA.
The extensive DFT calculations are conducted 2D nanomaterials prospects as anode/cathode electrode materials for batteries. Metal-ion batteries' performance strongly depends on the design of novel electrode material. Two-dimensional (2D) materials have developed a remarkable interest in using as an electrode in battery cells due to their excellent properties. Desirable battery energy storage systems (BESS) must satisfy the high energy density, safe operation, and efficient production costs. Batteries have been using in electronic devices and provide a solution to the environmental issues and store the discontinuous energies generated from renewable wind or solar power plants. Therefore, exploring optimal electrode materials can improve storage capacity and charging/discharging rates, leading to the design of advanced batteries.
Our results in multiple scales highlight not only the proposed and employed methods' efficiencies but also promising prospect of recently synthesized nanomaterials and their applications as an anode material. In this way, first, a novel approach developed for the modeling of the 1D nanotube as a continuum piezoelectric beam element. The results converged and matched closely with those from experiments and other more complex models. Then mechanical properties of nanosheets estimated and the failure mechanisms results provide a useful guide for further use in prospect applications. Our results indicated a comprehensive and useful vision concerning the mechanical properties of nanosheets with/without defects. Finally, mechanical and electrochemical properties of the several 2D nanomaterials are explored for the first time—their application performance as an anode material illustrates high potentials in manufacturing super-stretchable and ultrahigh-capacity battery energy storage systems (BESS). Our results exhibited better performance in comparison to the available commercial anode materials.

Synergistic Framework for Analysis and Model Assessment in Bridge Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity
(2020)

Wind-induced vibrations often represent a major design criterion for long-span bridges. This work deals with the assessment and development of models for aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses of long-span bridges.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and semi-analytical aerodynamic models are employed to compute the bridge response due to both turbulent and laminar free-stream. For the assessment of these models, a comparative methodology is developed that consists of two steps, a qualitative and a quantitative one. The first, qualitative, step involves an extension
of an existing approach based on Category Theory and its application to the field of bridge aerodynamics. Initially, the approach is extended to consider model comparability and completeness. Then, the complexity of the CFD and twelve semi-analytical models are evaluated based on their mathematical constructions, yielding a diagrammatic representation of model quality.
In the second, quantitative, step of the comparative methodology, the discrepancy of a system response quantity for time-dependent aerodynamic models is quantified using comparison metrics for time-histories. Nine metrics are established on a uniform basis to quantify the discrepancies in local and global signal features that are of interest in bridge aerodynamics. These signal features involve quantities such as phase, time-varying frequency and magnitude content, probability density, non-stationarity, and nonlinearity.
The two-dimensional (2D) Vortex Particle Method is used for the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations including a Pseudo-three dimensional (Pseudo-3D) extension within an existing CFD solver. The Pseudo-3D Vortex Method considers the 3D structural behavior for aeroelastic analyses by positioning 2D fluid strips along a line-like structure. A novel turbulent Pseudo-3D Vortex Method is developed by combining the laminar Pseudo-3D VPM and a previously developed 2D method for the generation of free-stream turbulence. Using analytical derivations, it is shown that the fluid velocity correlation is maintained between the CFD strips.
Furthermore, a new method is presented for the determination of the complex aerodynamic admittance under deterministic sinusoidal gusts using the Vortex Particle Method. The sinusoidal gusts are simulated by modeling the wakes of flapping airfoils in the CFD domain with inflow vortex particles. Positioning a section downstream yields sinusoidal forces that are used for determining all six components of the complex aerodynamic admittance. A closed-form analytical relation is derived, based on an existing analytical model. With this relation, the inflow particles’ strength can be related with the target gust amplitudes a priori.
The developed methodologies are combined in a synergistic framework, which is applied to both fundamental examples and practical case studies. Where possible, the results are verified and validated. The outcome of this work is intended to shed some light on the complex wind–bridge interaction and suggest appropriate modeling strategies for an enhanced design.

Phase Field Modeling for Fracture with Applications to Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Materials
(2017)

The thesis presents an implementation including different applications of a variational-based approach for gradient type standard dissipative solids. Phase field model for brittle fracture is an application of the variational-based framework for gradient type solids. This model allows the prediction of different crack topologies and states. Of significant concern is the application of theoretical and numerical formulation of the phase field modeling into the commercial finite element software Abaqus in 2D and 3D. The fully coupled incremental variational formulation of phase field method is implemented by using the UEL and UMAT subroutines of Abaqus. The phase field method
considerably reduces the implementation complexity of fracture problems as it removes the need for numerical tracking of discontinuities in the displacement field that are characteristic of discrete crack methods. This is accomplished by replacing the sharp discontinuities with a scalar damage phase field representing the diffuse crack topology wherein the amount of diffusion is controlled by a regularization parameter. The nonlinear coupled system consisting of the linear momentum equation and a diffusion type equation governing the phase field evolution is solved simultaneously via a Newton-
Raphson approach. Post-processing of simulation results to be used as visualization
module is performed via an additional UMAT subroutine implemented in the standard Abaqus viewer.
In the same context, we propose a simple yet effective algorithm to initiate and propagate cracks in 2D geometries which is independent of both particular constitutive laws and specific element technology and dimension. It consists of a localization limiter in the form of the screened Poisson equation with, optionally, local mesh refinement. A staggered scheme for standard equilibrium and screened Cauchy equations is used. The remeshing part of the algorithm consists of a sequence of mesh subdivision and element erosion steps. Element subdivision is based on edge split operations using a
given constitutive quantity (either damage or void fraction). Mesh smoothing makes use of edge contraction as function of a given constitutive quantity such as the principal stress or void fraction. To assess the robustness and accuracy of this algorithm, we use both quasi-brittle benchmarks and ductile tests.
Furthermore, we introduce a computational approach regarding mechanical loading in microscale on an inelastically deforming composite material. The nanocomposites material of fully exfoliated clay/epoxy is shaped to predict macroscopic elastic and fracture related material parameters based on their fine–scale features. Two different configurations of polymer nanocomposites material (PNCs) have been studied. These configurations are fully bonded PNCs and PNCs with an interphase zone formation between the matrix and the clay reinforcement. The representative volume element of PNCs specimens with different clay weight contents, different aspect ratios, and different
interphase zone thicknesses are generated by adopting Python scripting. Different constitutive models are employed for the matrix, the clay platelets, and the interphase zones. The brittle fracture behavior of the epoxy matrix and the interphase zones material are modeled using the phase field approach, whereas the stiff silicate clay platelets of the composite are designated as a linear elastic material. The comprehensive study investigates the elastic and fracture behavior of PNCs composites, in addition to predict Young’s modulus, tensile strength, fracture toughness, surface energy dissipation, and cracks surface area in the composite for different material parameters, geometry, and interphase zones properties and thicknesses.

Die Zonenmethode nach Hertz ist ein vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Heißbemessung von Stahlbetonbauteilen. Um eine händische Bemessung zu ermöglichen, werden daher verschiedene Annahmen und Vereinfachungen getroffen. Insbesondere werden die thermischen Dehnungen vernachlässigt und das mechanische Verhalten durch einen verkleinerten Querschnitt mit konstanten Stoffeigenschaften beschrieben.
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist, dieses vereinfachte Verfahren in ein nichtlineares Verfahren zur Heißbemessung von Stahlbetondruckgliedern bei Brandbeanspruchung durch die Einheits-Temperaturzeitkurve zu überführen. Dazu werden die wesentlichen Annahmen der Zonenmethode überprüft und ein Vorschlag zur Weiterentwicklung vorgestellt. Dieser beruht im Wesentlichen auf der Modellierung der druckbeanspruchten Bewehrung. Diese weiterentwickelte Zonenmethode wird durch die Nachrechnung von Laborversuchen validiert und das Sicherheitsniveau durch eine vollprobabilistische Analyse und den Vergleich mit dem allgemeinen Verfahren bestimmt.

Briefly, the two basic questions that this research is supposed to answer are:
1. Howmuch fiber is needed and how fibers should be distributed through a fiber reinforced composite (FRC) structure in order to obtain the optimal and reliable structural response?
2. How do uncertainties influence the optimization results and reliability of the structure?
Giving answer to the above questions a double stage sequential optimization algorithm for finding the optimal content of short fiber reinforcements and their distribution in the composite structure, considering uncertain design parameters, is presented. In the first stage, the optimal amount of short fibers in a FRC structure with uniformly distributed fibers is conducted in the framework of a Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO) problem. Presented model considers material, structural and modeling uncertainties. In the second stage, the fiber distribution optimization (with the aim to further increase in structural reliability) is performed by defining a fiber distribution function through a Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) surface. The advantages of using the NURBS surface as a fiber distribution function include: using the same data set for the optimization and analysis; high convergence rate due to the smoothness of the NURBS; mesh independency of the optimal layout; no need for any post processing technique and its non-heuristic nature. The output of stage 1 (the optimal fiber content for homogeneously distributed fibers) is considered as the input of stage 2. The output of stage 2 is the Reliability Index (b ) of the structure with the optimal fiber content and distribution.
First order reliability method (in order to approximate the limit state function) as well as different material models including Rule of Mixtures, Mori-Tanaka, energy-based approach and stochastic multi-scales are implemented in different examples. The proposed combined model is able to capture the role of available uncertainties in FRC structures through a computationally efficient algorithm using all sequential, NURBS and sensitivity based techniques. The methodology is successfully implemented for interfacial shear stress optimization in sandwich beams and also for optimization of the internal cooling channels in a ceramic matrix composite.
Finally, after some changes and modifications by combining Isogeometric Analysis, level set and point wise density mapping techniques, the computational framework is extended for topology optimization of piezoelectric / flexoelectric materials.