## 620 Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten

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#### Institute

- Institut für Strukturmechanik (11) (remove)

#### Keywords

- Finite-Elemente-Methode (5)
- Beton (2)
- Dynamik (2)
- Mehrskalenanalyse (2)
- Mehrskalenmodell (2)
- Optimierung (2)
- continuum mechanics (2)
- finite element method (2)
- Abaqus (1)
- Adaptives Verfahren (1)

#### Document Type

- Doctoral Thesis (10)
- Master's Thesis (1)

- Phase Field Modeling for Fracture with Applications to Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Materials (2017)
- The thesis presents an implementation including different applications of a variational-based approach for gradient type standard dissipative solids. Phase field model for brittle fracture is an application of the variational-based framework for gradient type solids. This model allows the prediction of different crack topologies and states. Of significant concern is the application of theoretical and numerical formulation of the phase field modeling into the commercial finite element software Abaqus in 2D and 3D. The fully coupled incremental variational formulation of phase field method is implemented by using the UEL and UMAT subroutines of Abaqus. The phase field method considerably reduces the implementation complexity of fracture problems as it removes the need for numerical tracking of discontinuities in the displacement field that are characteristic of discrete crack methods. This is accomplished by replacing the sharp discontinuities with a scalar damage phase field representing the diffuse crack topology wherein the amount of diffusion is controlled by a regularization parameter. The nonlinear coupled system consisting of the linear momentum equation and a diffusion type equation governing the phase field evolution is solved simultaneously via a Newton- Raphson approach. Post-processing of simulation results to be used as visualization module is performed via an additional UMAT subroutine implemented in the standard Abaqus viewer. In the same context, we propose a simple yet effective algorithm to initiate and propagate cracks in 2D geometries which is independent of both particular constitutive laws and specific element technology and dimension. It consists of a localization limiter in the form of the screened Poisson equation with, optionally, local mesh refinement. A staggered scheme for standard equilibrium and screened Cauchy equations is used. The remeshing part of the algorithm consists of a sequence of mesh subdivision and element erosion steps. Element subdivision is based on edge split operations using a given constitutive quantity (either damage or void fraction). Mesh smoothing makes use of edge contraction as function of a given constitutive quantity such as the principal stress or void fraction. To assess the robustness and accuracy of this algorithm, we use both quasi-brittle benchmarks and ductile tests. Furthermore, we introduce a computational approach regarding mechanical loading in microscale on an inelastically deforming composite material. The nanocomposites material of fully exfoliated clay/epoxy is shaped to predict macroscopic elastic and fracture related material parameters based on their fine–scale features. Two different configurations of polymer nanocomposites material (PNCs) have been studied. These configurations are fully bonded PNCs and PNCs with an interphase zone formation between the matrix and the clay reinforcement. The representative volume element of PNCs specimens with different clay weight contents, different aspect ratios, and different interphase zone thicknesses are generated by adopting Python scripting. Different constitutive models are employed for the matrix, the clay platelets, and the interphase zones. The brittle fracture behavior of the epoxy matrix and the interphase zones material are modeled using the phase field approach, whereas the stiff silicate clay platelets of the composite are designated as a linear elastic material. The comprehensive study investigates the elastic and fracture behavior of PNCs composites, in addition to predict Young’s modulus, tensile strength, fracture toughness, surface energy dissipation, and cracks surface area in the composite for different material parameters, geometry, and interphase zones properties and thicknesses.

- Identification and separation of physical effects of coupled systems by using defined model abstractions (2017)
- The thesis investigates at the computer aided simulation process for operational vibration analysis of complex coupled systems. As part of the internal methods project “Absolute Values” of the BMW Group, the thesis deals with the analysis of the structural dynamic interactions and excitation interactions. The overarching aim of the methods project is to predict the operational vibrations of engines. Simulations are usually used to analyze technical aspects (e. g. operational vibrations, strength, ...) of single components in the industrial development. The boundary conditions of submodels are mostly based on experiences. So the interactions with neighboring components and systems are neglected. To get physically more realistic results but still efficient simulations, this work wants to support the engineer during the preprocessing phase by useful criteria. At first suitable abstraction levels based on the existing literature are defined to identify structural dynamic interactions and excitation interactions of coupled systems. So it is possible to separate different effects of the coupled subsystems. On this basis, criteria are derived to assess the influence of interactions between the considered systems. These criteria can be used during the preprocessing phase and help the engineer to build up efficient models with respect to the interactions with neighboring systems. The method was developed by using several models with different complexity levels. Furthermore, the method is proved for the application in the industrial environment by using the example of a current combustion engine.

- Integrated structural analysis using isogeometric finite element methods (2017)
- The gradual digitization in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry over the past fifty years led to an extremely heterogeneous software environment, which today is embodied by the multitude of different digital tools and proprietary data formats used by the many specialists contributing to the design process in a construction project. Though these projects become increasingly complex, the demands on financial efficiency and the completion within a tight schedule grow at the same time. The digital collaboration of project partners has been identified as one key issue in successfully dealing with these challenges. Yet currently, the numerous software applications and their respective individual views on the design process severely impede that collaboration. An approach to establish a unified basis for the digital collaboration, regardless of the existing software heterogeneity, is a comprehensive digital building model contributed to by all projects partners. This type of data management known as building information modeling (BIM) has many benefits, yet its adoption is associated with many difficulties and thus, proceeds only slowly. One aspect in the field of conflicting requirements on such a digital model is the cooperation of architects and structural engineers. Traditionally, these two disciplines use different abstractions of reality for their models that in consequence lead to incompatible digital representations thereof. The onset of isogeometric analysis (IGA) promised to ease the discrepancy in design and analysis model representations. Yet, that initial focus quickly shifted towards using these methods as a more powerful basis for numerical simulations. Furthermore, the isogeometric representation alone is not capable of solving the model abstraction problem. It is thus the intention of this work to contribute to an improved digital collaboration of architects and engineers by exploring an integrated analysis approach on the basis of an unified digital model and solid geometry expressed by splines. In the course of this work, an analysis framework is developed that utilizes such models to automatically conduct numerical simulations commonly required in construction projects. In essence, this allows to retrieve structural analysis results from BIM models in a fast and simple manner, thereby facilitating rapid design iterations and profound design feedback. The BIM implementation Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) is reviewed with regard to its capabilities of representing the unified model. The current IFC schema strongly supports the use of redundant model data, a major pitfall in digital collaboration. Additionally, it does not allow to describe the geometry by volumetric splines. As the pursued approach builds upon a unique model for both, architectural and structural design, and furthermore requires solid geometry, necessary schema modifications are suggested. Structural entities are modeled by volumetric NURBS patches, each of which constitutes an individual subdomain that, with regard to the analysis, is incompatible with the remaining full model. The resulting consequences for numerical simulation are elaborated in this work. The individual subdomains have to be weakly coupled, for which the mortar method is used. Different approaches to discretize the interface traction fields are implemented and their respective impact on the analysis results is evaluated. All necessary coupling conditions are automatically derived from the related geometry model. The weak coupling procedure leads to a linear system of equations in saddle point form, which, owed to the volumetric modeling, is large in size and, the associated coefficient matrix has, due to the use of higher degree basis functions, a high bandwidth. The peculiarities of the system require adapted solution methods that generally cause higher numerical costs than the standard procedures for symmetric, positive-definite systems do. Different methods to solve the specific system are investigated and an efficient parallel algorithm is finally proposed. When the structural analysis model is derived from the unified model in the BIM data, it does in general initially not meet the requirements on the discretization that are necessary to obtain sufficiently accurate analysis results. The consequently necessary patch refinements must be controlled automatically to allowfor an entirely automatic analysis procedure. For that purpose, an empirical refinement scheme based on the geometrical and possibly mechanical properties of the specific entities is proposed. The level of refinement may be selectively manipulated by the structural engineer in charge. Furthermore, a Zienkiewicz-Zhu type error estimator is adapted for the use with isogeometric analysis results. It is shown that also this estimator can be used to steer an adaptive refinement procedure.

- Vibration-based model updating: Reduction and quantification of uncertainties (2011)
- Numerical models and their combination with advanced solution strategies are standard tools for many engineering disciplines to design or redesign structures and to optimize designs with the purpose to improve specific requirements. As the successful application of numerical models depends on their suitability to represent the behavior related to the intended use, they should be validated by experimentally obtained results. If the discrepancy between numerically derived and experimentally obtained results is not acceptable, a model revision or a revision of the experiment need to be considered. Model revision is divided into two classes, the model updating and the basic revision of the numerical model. The presented thesis is related to a special branch of model updating, the vibration-based model updating. Vibration-based model updating is a tool to improve the correlation of the numerical model by adjusting uncertain model input parameters by means of results extracted from vibration tests. Evidently, uncertainties related to the experiment, the numerical model, or the applied numerical solving strategies can influence the correctness of the identified model input parameters. The reduction of uncertainties for two critical problems and the quantification of uncertainties related to the investigation of several nominally identical structures are the main emphases of this thesis. First, the reduction of uncertainties by optimizing reference sensor positions is considered. The presented approach relies on predicted power spectral amplitudes and an initial finite element model as a basis to define the assessment criterion for predefined sensor positions. In combination with geometry-based design variables, which represent the sensor positions, genetic and particle swarm optimization algorithms are applied. The applicability of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a numerical benchmark study of a simply supported beam and a case study of a real test specimen. Furthermore, the theory of determining the predicted power spectral amplitudes is validated with results from vibration tests. Second, the possibility to reduce uncertainties related to an inappropriate assignment for numerically derived and experimentally obtained modes is investigated. In the context of vibration-based model updating, the correct pairing is essential. The most common criterion for indicating corresponding mode shapes is the modal assurance criterion. Unfortunately, this criterion fails in certain cases and is not reliable for automatic approaches. Hence, an alternative criterion, the energy-based modal assurance criterion, is proposed. This criterion combines the mathematical characteristic of orthogonality with the physical properties of the structure by modal strain energies. A numerical example and a case study with experimental data are presented to show the advantages of the proposed energy-based modal assurance criterion in comparison to the traditional modal assurance criterion. Third, the application of optimization strategies combined with information theory based objective functions is analyzed for the purpose of stochastic model updating. This approach serves as an alternative to the common sensitivity-based stochastic model updating strategies. Their success depends strongly on the defined initial model input parameters. In contrast, approaches based on optimization strategies can be more flexible. It can be demonstrated, that the investigated nature inspired optimization strategies in combination with Bhattacharyya distance and Kullback-Leibler divergence are appropriate. The obtained accuracies and the respective computational effort are comparable with sensitivity-based stochastic model updating strategies. The application of model updating procedures to improve the quality and suitability of a numerical model is always related to additional costs. The presented innovative approaches will contribute to reduce and quantify uncertainties within a vibration-based model updating process. Therefore, the increased benefit can compensate the additional effort, which is necessary to apply model updating procedures.

- Adaptation of atomistic and continuum methods for multiscale simulation of quasi-brittle intergranular damage (2010)
- The numerical simulation of damage using phenomenological models on the macroscale was state of the art for many decades. However, such models are not able to capture the complex nature of damage, which simultaneously proceeds on multiple length scales. Furthermore, these phenomenological models usually contain damage parameters, which are physically not interpretable. Consequently, a reasonable experimental determination of these parameters is often impossible. In the last twenty years, the ongoing advance in computational capacities provided new opportunities for more and more detailed studies of the microstructural damage behavior. Today, multiphase models with several million degrees of freedom enable for the numerical simulation of micro-damage phenomena in naturally heterogeneous materials. Therewith, the application of multiscale concepts for the numerical investigation of the complex nature of damage can be realized. The presented thesis contributes to a hierarchical multiscale strategy for the simulation of brittle intergranular damage in polycrystalline materials, for example aluminum. The numerical investigation of physical damage phenomena on an atomistic microscale and the integration of these physically based information into damage models on the continuum meso- and macroscale is intended. Therefore, numerical methods for the damage analysis on the micro- and mesoscale including the scale transfer are presented and the transition to the macroscale is discussed. The investigation of brittle intergranular damage on the microscale is realized by the application of the nonlocal Quasicontinuum method, which fully describes the material behavior by atomistic potential functions, but reduces the number of atomic degrees of freedom by introducing kinematic couplings. Since this promising method is applied only by a limited group of researchers for special problems, necessary improvements have been realized in an own parallelized implementation of the 3D nonlocal Quasicontinuum method. The aim of this implementation was to develop and combine robust and efficient algorithms for a general use of the Quasicontinuum method, and therewith to allow for the atomistic damage analysis in arbitrary grain boundary configurations. The implementation is applied in analyses of brittle intergranular damage in ideal and nonideal grain boundary models of FCC aluminum, considering arbitrary misorientations. From the microscale simulations traction separation laws are derived, which describe grain boundary decohesion on the mesoscale. Traction separation laws are part of cohesive zone models to simulate the brittle interface decohesion in heterogeneous polycrystal structures. 2D and 3D mesoscale models are presented, which are able to reproduce crack initiation and propagation along cohesive interfaces in polycrystals. An improved Voronoi algorithm is developed in 2D to generate polycrystal material structures based on arbitrary distribution functions of grain size. The new model is more flexible in representing realistic grain size distributions. Further improvements of the 2D model are realized by the implementation and application of an orthotropic material model with Hill plasticity criterion to grains. The 2D and 3D polycrystal models are applied to analyze crack initiation and propagation in statically loaded samples of aluminum on the mesoscale without the necessity of initial damage definition.

- Adaptive heterogeneous multiscale models for the nonlinear simulation of concrete (2009)
- The nonlinear behavior of concrete can be attributed to the propagation of microcracks within the heterogeneous internal material structure. In this thesis, a mesoscale model is developed which allows for the explicit simulation of these microcracks. Consequently, the actual physical phenomena causing the complex nonlinear macroscopic behavior of concrete can be represented using rather simple material formulations. On the mesoscale, the numerical model explicitly resolves the components of the internal material structure. For concrete, a three-phase model consisting of aggregates, mortar matrix and interfacial transition zone is proposed. Based on prescribed grading curves, an efficient algorithm for the generation of three-dimensional aggregate distributions using ellipsoids is presented. In the numerical model, tensile failure of the mortar matrix is described using a continuum damage approach. In order to reduce spurious mesh sensitivities, introduced by the softening behavior of the matrix material, nonlocal integral-type material formulations are applied. The propagation of cracks at the interface between aggregates and mortar matrix is represented in a discrete way using a cohesive crack approach. The iterative solution procedure is stabilized using a new path following constraint within the framework of load-displacement-constraint methods which allows for an efficient representation of snap-back phenomena. In several examples, the influence of the randomly generated heterogeneous material structure on the stochastic scatter of the results is analyzed. Furthermore, the ability of mesoscale models to represent size effects is investigated. Mesoscale simulations require the discretization of the internal material structure. Compared to simulations on the macroscale, the numerical effort and the memory demand increases dramatically. Due to the complexity of the numerical model, mesoscale simulations are, in general, limited to small specimens. In this thesis, an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach is presented which allows for the incorporation of mesoscale models within nonlinear simulations of concrete structures. In heterogeneous multiscale models, only critical regions, i.e. regions in which damage develops, are resolved on the mesoscale, whereas undamaged or sparsely damage regions are modeled on the macroscale. A crucial point in simulations with heterogeneous multiscale models is the coupling of sub-domains discretized on different length scales. The sub-domains differ not only in the size of the finite elements but also in the constitutive description. In this thesis, different methods for the coupling of non-matching discretizations - constraint equations, the mortar method and the arlequin method - are investigated and the application to heterogeneous multiscale models is presented. Another important point is the detection of critical regions. An adaptive solution procedure allowing the transfer of macroscale sub-domains to the mesoscale is proposed. In this context, several indicators which trigger the model adaptation are introduced. Finally, the application of the proposed adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach in nonlinear simulations of concrete structures is presented.

- Neural networks in a multiscale approach for concrete (2009)
- From a macroscopic point of view, failure within concrete structures is characterized by the initiation and propagation of cracks. In the first part of the thesis, a methodology for macroscopic crack growth simulations for concrete structures using a cohesive discrete crack approach based on the extended finite element method is introduced. Particular attention is turned to the investigation of criteria for crack initiation and crack growth. A drawback of the macroscopic simulation is that the real physical phenomena leading to the nonlinear behavior are only modeled phenomenologically. For concrete, the nonlinear behavior is characterized by the initiation of microcracks which coalesce into macroscopic cracks. In order to obtain a higher resolution of this failure zones, a mesoscale model for concrete is developed that models particles, mortar matrix and the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) explicitly. The essential features are a representation of particles using a prescribed grading curve, a material formulation based on a cohesive approach for the ITZ and a combined model with damage and plasticity for the mortar matrix. Compared to numerical simulations, the response of real structures exhibits a stochastic scatter. This is e.g. due to the intrinsic heterogeneities of the structure. For mesoscale models, these intrinsic heterogeneities are simulated by using a random distribution of particles and by a simulation of spatially variable material parameters using random fields. There are two major problems related to numerical simulations on the mesoscale. First of all, the material parameters for the constitutive description of the materials are often difficult to measure directly. In order to estimate material parameters from macroscopic experiments, a parameter identification procedure based on Bayesian neural networks is developed which is universally applicable to any parameter identification problem in numerical simulations based on experimental results. This approach offers information about the most probable set of material parameters based on experimental data and information about the accuracy of the estimate. Consequently, this approach can be used a priori to determine a set of experiments to be carried out in order to fit the parameters of a numerical model to experimental data. The second problem is the computational effort required for mesoscale simulations of a full macroscopic structure. For this purpose, a coupling between mesoscale and macroscale model is developed. Representative mesoscale simulations are used to train a metamodel that is finally used as a constitutive model in a macroscopic simulation. Special focus is placed on the ability of appropriately simulating unloading.

- Untersuchung des dynamischen Verhaltens von Eisenbahnbrücken bei wechselnden Umweltbedingungen (2008)
- Im Zuge des Ausbaus von Eisenbahnstrecken für den Hochgeschwindigkeitsverkehr muss sichergestellt werden, dass keine Resonanz zwischen den periodisch einwirkenden Radlasten und den Brückeneigenfrequenzen entsteht. Bei der Untersuchung einzelner Bauwerke wurden teilweise recht große Schwankungen des dynamischen Verhaltens im Verlauf der Jahreszeiten festgestellt. Um diese Beobachtungen zu präzisieren, wurden an zwei ausgewählten Walzträger-in-Beton-Brücken über den Zeitraum von 15 Monaten Beschleunigungsmessungen durchgeführt. Die gewonnenen Daten wurden mit der Stochastic Subspace Methode, die im ersten Teil der Arbeit näher erläutert wird, ausgewertet. Es konnte für alle Eigenmoden ein Absinken der Eigenfrequenz bei steigender Temperatur beobachtet werden. Um die Ursachen hierfür genauer zu untersuchen, wurde für eine der beiden Brücken ein Finite-Elemente-Modell mit dem Programm SLang erstellt. Mittels einer Sensitivitätsanalyse wurden die für das Schwingverhalten maßgebenden Systemeigenschaften identifiziert. Die anschließend durchgeführte Strukturoptimierung unter Nutzung des genetischen Algorithmus sowie des adaptiven Antwortflächenverfahrens konnte die Temperaturabhängigkeit einzelner Materialparameter aufzeigen, die zumindest eine Ursache für Schwankungen der Eigenfrequenzen darstellen.

- Cost-Benefit Based Maintenance Optimization for Deteriorating Structures (2007)
- In recent years increasingly consideration has been given to the lifetime extension of existing structures. This is based on the fact that a growing percentage of civil infrastructure as well as buildings is threatened by obsolescence and that due to simple monetary reasons this can no longer be countered by simply re-building everything anew. Hence maintenance interventions are required which allow partial or complete structural rehabilitation. However, maintenance interventions have to be economically reasonable, that is, maintenance expenditures have to be outweighed by expected future benefits. Is this not the case, then indeed the structure is obsolete - at least in its current functional, economic, technical, or social configuration - and innovative alternatives have to be evaluated. An optimization formulation for planning maintenance interventions based on cost-benefit criteria is proposed herein. The underlying formulation is as follows: (a) between maintenance interventions structural deterioration is described as a random process; (b) maintenance interventions can take place anytime throughout lifetime and comprise the rehabilitation of all deterioration states above a certain minimum level; and (c) maintenance interventions are optimized by taking into account all expected life-cycle costs (construction, failure, inspection and state-dependent repair costs) as well as state- or time-dependent benefit rates. The optimization is performed by an evolutionary algorithm. The proposed approach also allows to determine optimal lifetimes and acceptable failure rates. Numerical examples demonstrate the importance of defining benefit rates explicitly. It is shown, that the optimal solution to maintenance interventions requires to take action before reaching the acceptable failure rate or the zero expected net benefit rate level. Deferring decisions with respect to maintenance not only results, in general, in higher losses, but also results in overly hazardous structures.

- Grid-based procedures for the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous solids (2006)
- The importance of modern simulation methods in the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous solids is presented in detail. Thereby the problem is noted that even for small bodies the required high-resolution analysis reaches the limits of today's computational power, in terms of memory demand as well as acceptable computational effort. A further problem is that frequently the accuracy of geometrical modelling of heterogeneous bodies is inadequate. The present work introduces a systematic combination and adaption of grid-based methods for achieving an essentially higher resolution in the numerical analysis of heterogeneous solids. Grid-based methods are as well primely suited for developing efficient and numerically stable algorithms for flexible geometrical modeling. A key aspect is the uniform data management for a grid, which can be utilized to reduce the effort and complexity of almost all concerned methods. A new finite element program, called Mulgrido, was just developed to realize this concept consistently and to test the proposed methods. Several disadvantages which generally result from grid discretizations are selectively corrected by modified methods. The present work is structured into a geometrical model, a mechanical model and a numerical model. The geometrical model includes digital image-based modeling and in particular several methods for the theory-based generation of inclusion-matrix models. Essential contributions refer to variable shape, size distribution, separation checks and placement procedures of inclusions. The mechanical model prepares the fundamentals of continuum mechanics, homogenization and damage modeling for the following numerical methods. The first topic of the numerical model introduces to a special version of B-spline finite elements. These finite elements are entirely variable in the order k of B-splines. For homogeneous bodies this means that the approximation quality can arbitrarily be scaled. In addition, the multiphase finite element concept in combination with transition zones along material interfaces yields a valuable solution for heterogeneous bodies. As the formulation is element-based, the storage of a global stiffness matrix is superseded such that the memory demand can essentially be reduced. This is possible in combination with iterative solver methods which represent the second topic of the numerical model. Here, the focus lies on multigrid methods where the number of required operations to solve a linear equation system only increases linearly with problem size. Moreover, for badly conditioned problems quite an essential improvement is achieved by preconditioning. The third part of the numerical model discusses certain aspects of damage simulation which are closely related to the proposed grid discretization. The strong efficiency of the linear analysis can be maintained for damage simulation. This is achieved by a damage-controlled sequentially linear iteration scheme. Finally a study on the effective material behavior of heterogeneous bodies is presented. Especially the influence of inclusion shapes is examined. By means of altogether more than one hundred thousand random geometrical arrangements, the effective material behavior is statistically analyzed and assessed.