## The 50 most recently published documents

For the safe and efficient operation of dams, frequent monitoring and maintenance are required. These are usually expensive, time consuming, and cumbersome. To alleviate these issues, we propose applying a wave-based scheme for the location and quantification of damages in dams.
To obtain high-resolution “interpretable” images of the damaged regions, we drew inspiration from non-linear full-multigrid methods for inverse problems and applied a new cyclic multi-stage full-waveform inversion (FWI) scheme. Our approach is less susceptible to the stability issues faced by the standard FWI scheme when dealing with ill-posed problems. In this paper, we first selected an optimal acquisition setup and then applied synthetic data to demonstrate the capability of our approach in identifying a series of anomalies in dams by a mixture of reflection and transmission tomography. The results had sufficient robustness, showing the prospects of application in the field of non-destructive testing of dams.

Encapsulation-based self-healing concrete (SHC) is the most promising technique for providing a self-healing mechanism to concrete. This is due to its capacity to heal fractures effectively without human interventions, extending the operational life and lowering maintenance costs. The healing mechanism is created by embedding capsules containing the healing agent inside the concrete. The healing agent will be released once the capsules are fractured and the healing occurs in the vicinity of the damaged part. The healing efficiency of the SHC is still not clear and depends on several factors; in the case of microcapsules SHC the fracture of microcapsules is the most important aspect to release the healing agents and hence heal the cracks. This study contributes to verifying the healing efficiency of SHC and the fracture mechanism of the microcapsules. Extended finite element method (XFEM) is a flexible, and powerful discrete crack method that allows crack propagation without the requirement for re-meshing and has been shown high accuracy for modeling fracture in concrete. In this thesis, a computational fracture modeling approach of Encapsulation-based SHC is proposed based on the XFEM and cohesive surface technique (CS) to study the healing efficiency and the potential of fracture and debonding of the microcapsules or the solidified healing agents from the concrete matrix as well. The concrete matrix and a microcapsule shell both are modeled by the XFEM and combined together by CS. The effects of the healed-crack length, the interfacial fracture properties, and microcapsule size on the load carrying capability and fracture pattern of the SHC have been studied. The obtained results are compared to those obtained from the zero thickness cohesive element approach to demonstrate the significant accuracy and the validity of the proposed simulation. The present fracture simulation is developed to study the influence of the capsular clustering on the fracture mechanism by varying the contact surface area of the CS between the microcapsule shell and the concrete matrix. The proposed fracture simulation is expanded to 3D simulations to validate the 2D computational simulations and to estimate the accuracy difference ratio between 2D and 3D simulations. In addition, a proposed design method is developed to design the size of the microcapsules consideration of a sufficient volume of healing agent to heal the expected crack width. This method is based on the configuration of the unit cell (UC), Representative Volume Element (RVE), Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC), and associated them to the volume fraction (Vf) and the crack width as variables. The proposed microcapsule design is verified through computational fracture simulations.

The computational costs of newly developed numerical simulation play a critical role in their acceptance within both academic use and industrial employment. Normally, the refinement of a method in the area of interest reduces the computational cost. This is unfortunately not true for most nonlocal simulation, since refinement typically increases the size of the material point neighborhood. Reducing the discretization size while keep- ing the neighborhood size will often require extra consideration. Peridy- namic (PD) is a newly developed numerical method with nonlocal nature. Its straightforward integral form equation of motion allows simulating dy- namic problems without any extra consideration required. The formation of crack and its propagation is known as natural to peridynamic. This means that discontinuity is a result of the simulation and does not demand any post-processing. As with other nonlocal methods, PD is considered an expensive method. The refinement of the nodal spacing while keeping the neighborhood size (i.e., horizon radius) constant, emerges to several nonphysical phenomena.
This research aims to reduce the peridynamic computational and imple- mentation costs. A novel refinement approach is introduced. The pro- posed approach takes advantage of the PD flexibility in choosing the shape of the horizon by introducing multiple domains (with no intersections) to the nodes of the refinement zone. It will be shown that no ghost forces will be created when changing the horizon sizes in both subdomains. The approach is applied to both bond-based and state-based peridynamic and verified for a simple wave propagation refinement problem illustrating the efficiency of the method. Further development of the method for higher dimensions proves to have a direct relationship with the mesh sensitivity of the PD. A method for solving the mesh sensitivity of the PD is intro- duced. The application of the method will be examined by solving a crack propagation problem similar to those reported in the literature.
New software architecture is proposed considering both academic and in- dustrial use. The available simulation tools for employing PD will be collected, and their advantages and drawbacks will be addressed. The challenges of implementing any node base nonlocal methods while max- imizing the software flexibility to further development and modification
will be discussed and addressed. A software named Relation-Based Sim- ulator (RBS) is developed for examining the proposed architecture. The exceptional capabilities of RBS will be explored by simulating three dis- tinguished models. RBS is available publicly and open to further develop- ment. The industrial acceptance of the RBS will be tested by targeting its performance on one Mac and two Linux distributions.

A safe and economic structural design based on the semi-probabilistic concept requires statistically representative safety elements, such as characteristic values, design values, and partial safety factors. Regarding climate loads, the safety levels of current design codes strongly reflect experiences based on former measurements and investigations assuming stationary conditions, i.e. involving constant frequencies and intensities. However, due to climate change, occurrence of corresponding extreme weather events is expected to alter in the future influencing the reliability and safety of structures and their components. Based on established approaches, a systematically refined data-driven methodology for the determination of design parameters considering nonstationarity as well as standardized targets of structural reliability or safety, respectively, is therefore proposed. The presented procedure picks up fundamentals of European standardization and extends them with respect to nonstationarity by applying a shifting time window method. Taking projected snow loads into account, the application of the method is exemplarily demonstrated and various influencing parameters are discussed.

The computational costs of newly developed numerical simulation play a critical role in their acceptance within both academic use and industrial employment. Normally, the refinement of a method in the area of interest reduces the computational cost. This is unfortunately not true for most nonlocal simulation, since refinement typically increases the size of the material point neighborhood. Reducing the discretization size while keep- ing the neighborhood size will often require extra consideration. Peridynamic (PD) is a newly developed numerical method with nonlocal nature. Its straightforward integral form equation of motion allows simulating dynamic problems without any extra consideration required. The formation of crack and its propagation is known as natural to peridynamic. This means that discontinuity is a result of the simulation and does not demand any post-processing. As with other nonlocal methods, PD is considered an expensive method. The refinement of the nodal spacing while keeping the neighborhood size (i.e., horizon radius) constant, emerges to several nonphysical phenomena.
This research aims to reduce the peridynamic computational and imple- mentation costs. A novel refinement approach is introduced. The pro- posed approach takes advantage of the PD flexibility in choosing the shape of the horizon by introducing multiple domains (with no intersections) to the nodes of the refinement zone. It will be shown that no ghost forces will be created when changing the horizon sizes in both subdomains. The approach is applied to both bond-based and state-based peridynamic and verified for a simple wave propagation refinement problem illustrating the efficiency of the method. Further development of the method for higher dimensions proves to have a direct relationship with the mesh sensitivity of the PD. A method for solving the mesh sensitivity of the PD is intro- duced. The application of the method will be examined by solving a crack propagation problem similar to those reported in the literature.
New software architecture is proposed considering both academic and in- dustrial use. The available simulation tools for employing PD will be collected, and their advantages and drawbacks will be addressed. The challenges of implementing any node base nonlocal methods while max- imizing the software flexibility to further development and modification will be discussed and addressed. A software named Relation-Based Sim- ulator (RBS) is developed for examining the proposed architecture. The exceptional capabilities of RBS will be explored by simulating three distinguished models. RBS is available publicly and open to further develop- ment. The industrial acceptance of the RBS will be tested by targeting its performance on one Mac and two Linux distributions.

Finite Element Simulations of dynamically excited structures are mainly influenced by the mass, stiffness, and damping properties of the system, as well as external loads. The prediction quality of dynamic simulations of vibration-sensitive components depends significantly on the use of appropriate damping models. Damping phenomena have a decisive influence on the vibration amplitude and the frequencies of the vibrating structure. However, developing realistic damping models is challenging due to the multiple sources that cause energy dissipation, such as material damping, different types of friction, or various interactions with the environment.
This thesis focuses on thermoelastic damping, which is the main cause of material damping in homogeneous materials. The effect is caused by temperature changes due to mechanical strains. In vibrating structures, temperature gradients arise in adjacent tension and compression areas. Depending on the vibration frequency, they result in heat flows, leading to increased entropy and the irreversible transformation of mechanical energy into thermal energy.
The central objective of this thesis is the development of efficient simulation methods to incorporate thermoelastic damping in finite element analyses based on modal superposition. The thermoelastic loss factor is derived from the structure's mechanical mode shapes and eigenfrequencies. In subsequent analyses that are performed in the time and frequency domain, it is applied as modal damping.
Two approaches are developed to determine the thermoelastic loss in thin-walled plate structures, as well as three-dimensional solid structures. The realistic representation of the dissipation effects is verified by comparing the simulation results with experimentally determined data. Therefore, an experimental setup is developed to measure material damping, excluding other sources of energy dissipation.
The three-dimensional solid approach is based on the determination of the generated entropy and therefore the generated heat per vibration cycle, which is a measure for thermoelastic loss in relation to the total strain energy. For thin plate structures, the amount of bending energy in a modal deformation is calculated and summarized in the so-called Modal Bending Factor (MBF). The highest amount of thermoelastic loss occurs in the state of pure bending. Therefore, the MBF enables a quantitative classification of the mode shapes concerning the thermoelastic damping potential.
The results of the developed simulations are in good agreement with the experimental results and are appropriate to predict thermoelastic loss factors. Both approaches are based on modal superposition with the advantage of a high computational efficiency. Overall, the modeling of thermoelastic damping represents an important component in a comprehensive damping model, which is necessary to perform realistic simulations of vibration processes.

The goal of architecture is changing in response to the expanding role of cities, rapid urbanization, and transformation under changing economic, environmental, social, and demographic factors. As cities increased in the early modern era, overcrowding, urbanization, and pollution conditions led reformers to consider the future shape of the cities. One of the most critical topics in contemporary architecture is the subject of the future concepts of living. In most cases, domed cities, as a future concept of living, are rarely considered, and they are used chiefly as “utopian” visions in the discourse of future ways of living. This paper highlights the reviews of domed cities to deepen the understanding of the idea in practice, like its approach in terms of architecture. The main aim of this paper is to provide a broad overview for domed cities in the face of pollution as one of the main concerns in many European cities. As a result, the significance of the reviews of the existing projects is focused on their conceptual quality. This review will pave the way for further studies in terms of future developments in the realm of domed cities. In this paper, the city of Celje, one of the most polluted cities in Slovenia, is taken as a case study for considering the concept of Dome incorporated due to the lack of accessible literature on the topic. This review’s primary contribution is to allow architects to explore a broad spectrum of innovation by comparing today’s achievable statuses against the possibilities generated by domed cities. As a result of this study, the concept of living under the Dome remains to be developed in theory and practice. The current challenging climatic situation will accelerate the evolution of these concepts, resulting in the formation of new typologies, which are a requirement for humanity.

Design-related reassessment of structures integrating Bayesian updating of model safety factors
(2022)

In the semi-probabilistic approach of structural design, the partial safety factors are defined by considering some degree of uncertainties to actions and resistance, associated with the parameters’ stochastic nature. However, uncertainties for individual structures can be better examined by incorporating measurement data provided by sensors from an installed health monitoring scheme. In this context, the current study proposes an approach to revise the partial safety factor for existing structures on the action side, γE by integrating Bayesian model updating. A simple numerical example of a beam-like structure with artificially generated measurement data is used such that the influence of different sensor setups and data uncertainties on revising the safety factors can be investigated. It is revealed that the health monitoring system can reassess the current capacity reserve of the structure by updating the design safety factors, resulting in a better life cycle assessment of structures. The outcome is furthermore verified by analysing a real life small railway steel bridge ensuring the applicability of the proposed method to practical applications.

Bolted connections are widely employed in structures like transmission poles, wind turbines, and television (TV) towers. The behaviour of bolted connections is often complex and plays a significant role in the overall dynamic characteristics of the structure. The goal of this work is to conduct a fatigue lifecycle assessment of such a bolted connection block of a 193 m tall TV tower, for which 205 days of real measurement data have been obtained from the installed monitoring devices. Based on the recorded data, the best-fit stochastic wind distribution for 50 years, the decisive wind action, and the locations to carry out the fatigue analysis have been decided. A 3D beam model of the entire tower is developed to extract the nodal forces corresponding to the connection block location under various mean wind speeds, which is later coupled with a detailed complex finite element model of the connection block, with over three million degrees of freedom, for acquiring stress histories on some pre-selected bolts. The random stress histories are analysed using the rainflow counting algorithm (RCA) and the damage is estimated using Palmgren-Miner's damage accumulation law. A modification is proposed to integrate the loading sequence effect into the RCA, which otherwise is ignored, and the differences between the two RCAs are investigated in terms of the accumulated damage.

Determining the earthquake hazard of any settlement is one of the primary studies for reducing earthquake damage. Therefore, earthquake hazard maps used for this purpose must be renewed over time. Turkey Earthquake Hazard Map has been used instead of Turkey Earthquake Zones Map since 2019. A probabilistic seismic hazard was performed by using these last two maps and different attenuation relationships for Bitlis Province (Eastern Turkey) were located in the Lake Van Basin, which has a high seismic risk. The earthquake parameters were determined by considering all districts and neighborhoods in the province. Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were carried out for these settlements using seismic sources and four different attenuation relationships. The obtained values are compared with the design spectrum stated in the last two earthquake maps. Significant differences exist between the design spectrum obtained according to the different exceedance probabilities. In this study, adaptive pushover analyses of sample-reinforced concrete buildings were performed using the design ground motion level. Structural analyses were carried out using three different design spectra, as given in the last two seismic design codes and the mean spectrum obtained from attenuation relationships. Different design spectra significantly change the target displacements predicted for the performance levels of the buildings.

Material failure can be tackled by so-called nonlocal models, which introduce an intrinsic length scale into the formulation and, in the case of material failure, restore the well-posedness of the underlying boundary value problem or initial boundary value problem. Among nonlocal models, peridynamics (PD) has attracted a lot of attention as it allows the natural transition from continuum to discontinue and thus allows modeling of discrete cracks without the need to describe and track the crack topology, which has been a major obstacle in traditional discrete crack approaches. This is achieved by replacing the divergence of the Cauchy stress tensor through an integral over so-called bond forces, which account for the interaction of particles. A quasi-continuum approach is then used to calibrate the material parameters of the bond forces, i.e., equating the PD energy with the energy of a continuum. One major issue for the application of PD to general complex problems is that they are limited to fairly simple material behavior and pure mechanical problems based on explicit time integration. PD has been extended to other applications but losing simultaneously its simplicity and ease in modeling material failure. Furthermore, conventional PD suffers from instability and hourglass modes that require stabilization. It also requires the use of constant horizon sizes, which drastically reduces its computational efficiency. The latter issue was resolved by the so-called dual-horizon peridynamics (DH-PD) formulation and the introduction of the duality of horizons.
Within the nonlocal operator method (NOM), the concept of nonlocality is further extended and can be considered a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with the energy functionals of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on the dual-support concept can be derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulations of the nonlocal theory. While traditional integral equations are formulated in an integral domain, the dual-support approaches are based on dual integral domains. One prominent feature of NOM is its compatibility with variational and weighted residual methods. The NOM yields a direct numerical implementation based on the weighted residual method for many physical problems without the need for shape functions. Only the definition of the energy or boundary value problem is needed to drastically facilitate the implementation. The nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role to the derivatives of the shape functions in meshless methods and finite element methods (FEM). Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease by a series of matrix multiplications. In addition, NOM can be used to derive many nonlocal models in strong form.
The principal contributions of this dissertation are the implementation and application of NOM, and also the development of approaches for dealing with fractures within the NOM, mostly for dynamic fractures. The primary coverage and results of the dissertation are as follows:
-The first/higher-order implicit NOM and explicit NOM, including a detailed description of the implementation, are presented. The NOM is based on so-called support, dual-support, nonlocal operators, and an operate energy functional ensuring stability. The nonlocal operator is a generalization of the conventional differential operators. Combining with the method of weighted residuals and variational principles, NOM establishes the residual and tangent stiffness matrix of operate energy functional through some simple matrix without the need of shape functions as in other classical computational methods such as FEM. NOM only requires the definition of the energy drastically simplifying its implementation. For the sake of conciseness, the implementation in this chapter is focused on linear elastic solids only, though the NOM can handle more complex nonlinear problems. An explicit nonlocal operator method for the dynamic analysis of elasticity solid problems is also presented. The explicit NOM avoids the calculation of the tangent stiffness matrix as in the implicit NOM model. The explicit scheme comprises the Verlet-velocity algorithm. The NOM can be very flexible and efficient for solving partial differential equations (PDEs). It's also quite easy for readers to use the NOM and extend it to solve other complicated physical phenomena described by one or a set of PDEs. Several numerical examples are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
-A nonlocal operator method for the dynamic analysis of (thin) Kirchhoff plates is proposed. The nonlocal Hessian operator is derived from a second-order Taylor series expansion. NOM is higher-order continuous, which is exploited for thin plate analysis that requires $C^1$ continuity. The nonlocal dynamic governing formulation and operator energy functional for Kirchhoff plates are derived from a variational principle. The Verlet-velocity algorithm is used for time discretization. After confirming the accuracy of the nonlocal Hessian operator, several numerical examples are simulated by the nonlocal dynamic Kirchhoff plate formulation.
-A nonlocal fracture modeling is developed and applied to the simulation of quasi-static and dynamic fractures using the NOM. The phase field's nonlocal weak and associated strong forms are derived from a variational principle. The NOM requires only the definition of energy. We present both a nonlocal implicit phase field model and a nonlocal explicit phase field model for fracture; the first approach is better suited for quasi-static fracture problems, while the key application of the latter one is dynamic fracture. To demonstrate the performance of the underlying approach, several benchmark examples for quasi-static and dynamic fracture are solved.

Der vorliegende Handlungsleitfaden hilft zivilgesellschaftlichen Organisationen und staatlichen Einrichtungen bei der Installation eines anonymen Behandlungs- oder Krankenschein für Menschen ohne Krankenversicherung. Dabei bündelt sich hier der Erfahrungsschatz verschiedener Initiativen aus dem gesamten Bundesgebiet.

The floods in 2002 and 2013, as well as the recent flood of 2021, caused billions Euros worth of property damage in Germany. The aim of the project Innovative Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Urban Areas against Flood Events (INNOVARU) involved the development of a practicable flood damage model that enables realistic damage statements for the residential building stock. In addition to the determination of local flood risks, it also takes into account the vulnerability of individual buildings and allows for the prognosis of structural damage. In this paper, we discuss an improved method for the prognosis of structural damage due to flood impact. Detailed correlations between inundation level and flow velocities depending on the vulnerability of the building types, as well as the number of storeys, are considered. Because reliable damage data from events with high flow velocities were not available, an innovative approach was adopted to cover a wide range of flow velocities. The proposed approach combines comprehensive damage data collected after the 2002 flood in Germany with damage data of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami in Japan. The application of the developed methods enables a reliable reinterpretation of the structural damage caused by the August flood of 2002 in six study areas in the Free State of Saxony.

The Gated Community (GC) phenomenon in Latin American cities has become an inherent element of their urban development, despite academical debate, their approach thrives within the housing market; not surprisingly, as some of the premises on which GCs are based, namely safety, control and supervision intersperse seamlessly with the insecure conditions of the contexts from which they arise. The current security crisis in Mexico, triggered in 2006 by the so-called war on drugs, has reached its peak with the highest insecurity rates in decades, representing a unique chance to study these interactions. Although the leading term of this research, Urban Agoraphobia, implies a causal dichotomy between the rise in the sense of fear amongst citizens and housing confinement as lineal consequence, I acknowledge that GCs represent a complex phenomenon, a hub of diverse factors and multidimensional processes held on four fundamental levels: global, social, individual and state-related. The focus of this dissertation is set on the individual plane and contributes, from the analysis of the GC’s resident’s perspective, experiences and perceptions, to a debate that has usually been limited to the scrutiny of other drivers, disregarding the role of dweller’s underlying fears, motivations and concerns. Assuming that the current ruling security model in Mexico tends to empower its commodification rather than its collective quality, this research draws upon the use of a methodological triangulation, along conceptual and contextual analyses, to test the hypothesis that insecurity plays an increasingly major role, leading citizens into the belief that acquiring a household in a controlled and surveilled community represents a counterweight against the feared environment of the open city. The focus of the analysis lies on the internal hatch of community ties as potential palliative for the provision of a sense of security, aiming to transcend the unidimensional discourse of GCs as defined mainly by their defensive apparatus. Residents’ perspectives acquired through ethnographical analyses may provide the chance to gain an essential view into a phenomenon that further consolidates without a critical study of its actual implications, not only for Mexican cities, but also for the Latin American and global contexts.

This report details the development of Horoskopos, a virtual planetarium for astrology. This project was an attempt to develop a learning tool for studying astrological concepts as connected to observational astronomy. The premise that astrology and observational astronomy were once inseparable from each other in ancient times guided the conceptualization of this tool as an interactive planetarium. The main references were existing software and applications for visualization in astrology and astronomy. Professional astrology teachers were consulted in order to understand better the state of astrological teaching and learning, as well as existing tools and practice. Horoskopos was built using the Unity3D development interface, which is based on the C# programming language. It also relied on the Swiss Ephemeris coding interface from Astrodienst. The development process was experimental and many of the needed skills were developed as needed. Usability tests were performed as new features were added to the interface. The final version of Horoskopos is fully usable, with many interactive visualization features and a defined visual identity. It was validated together with professional astrologers for its effectiveness in concept and visualization.

The aim of this study is controlling of spurious oscillations developing around discontinuous solutions of both linear and non-linear wave equations or hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs). The equations include both first-order and second-order (wave) hyperbolic systems. In these systems even smooth initial conditions, or smoothly varying source (load) terms could lead to discontinuous propagating solutions (fronts). For the first order hyperbolic PDEs, the concept of central high resolution schemes is integrated with the multiresolution-based adaptation to capture properly both discontinuous propagating fronts and effects of fine-scale responses on those of larger scales in the multiscale manner. This integration leads to using central high resolution schemes on non-uniform grids; however, such simulation is unstable, as the central schemes are originally developed to work properly on uniform cells/grids. Hence, the main concern is stable collaboration of central schemes and multiresoltion-based cell adapters. Regarding central schemes, the considered approaches are: 1) Second order central and central-upwind schemes; 2) Third order central schemes; 3) Third and fourth order central weighted non-oscillatory schemes (central-WENO or CWENO); 4) Piece-wise parabolic methods (PPMs) obtained with two different local stencils. For these methods, corresponding (nonlinear) stability conditions are studied and modified, as well. Based on these stability conditions several limiters are modified/developed as follows: 1) Several second-order limiters with total variation diminishing (TVD) feature, 2) Second-order uniformly high order accurate non-oscillatory (UNO) limiters, 3) Two third-order nonlinear scaling limiters, 4) Two new limiters for PPMs. Numerical results show that adaptive solvers lead to cost-effective computations (e.g., in some 1-D problems, number of adapted grid points are less than 200 points during simulations, while in the uniform-grid case, to have the same accuracy, using of 2049 points is essential). Also, in some cases, it is confirmed that fine scale responses have considerable effects on higher scales.
In numerical simulation of nonlinear first order hyperbolic systems, the two main concerns are: convergence and uniqueness. The former is important due to developing of the spurious oscillations, the numerical dispersion and the numerical dissipation. Convergence in a numerical solution does not guarantee that it is the physical/real one (the uniqueness feature). Indeed, a nonlinear systems can converge to several numerical results (which mathematically all of them are true). In this work, the convergence and uniqueness are directly studied on non-uniform grids/cells by the concepts of local numerical truncation error and numerical entropy production, respectively. Also, both of these concepts have been used for cell/grid adaptations. So, the performance of these concepts is also compared by the multiresolution-based method. Several 1-D and 2-D numerical examples are examined to confirm the efficiency of the adaptive solver. Examples involve problems with convex and non-convex fluxes. In the latter case, due to developing of complex waves, proper capturing of real answers needs more attention. For this purpose, using of method-adaptation seems to be essential (in parallel to the cell/grid adaptation). This new type of adaptation is also performed in the framework of the multiresolution analysis.
Regarding second order hyperbolic PDEs (mechanical waves), the regularization concept is used to cure artificial (numerical) oscillation effects, especially for high-gradient or discontinuous solutions. There, oscillations are removed by the regularization concept acting as a post-processor. Simulations will be performed directly on the second-order form of wave equations. It should be mentioned that it is possible to rewrite second order wave equations as a system of first-order waves, and then simulated the new system by high resolution schemes. However, this approach ends to increasing of variable numbers (especially for 3D problems).
The numerical discretization is performed by the compact finite difference (FD) formulation with desire feature; e.g., methods with spectral-like or optimized-error properties. These FD methods are developed to handle high frequency waves (such as waves near earthquake sources). The performance of several regularization approaches is studied (both theoretically and numerically); at last, a proper regularization approach controlling the Gibbs phenomenon is recommended.
At the end, some numerical results are provided to confirm efficiency of numerical solvers enhanced by the regularization concept. In this part, shock-like responses due to local and abrupt changing of physical properties, and also stress wave propagation in stochastic-like domains are studied.

In this work, the degradation performance for the photocatalytic oxidation of eight micropollutants (amisulpride, benzotriazole, candesartan, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gabapentin, methlybenzotriazole, and metoprolol) within real secondary effluent was investigated using three different reactor designs. For all reactor types, the influence of irradiation power on its reaction rate and energetic efficiency was investigated. Flat cell and batch reactor showed almost similar substance specific degradation behavior. Within the immersion rotary body reactor, benzotriazole and methylbenzotriazole showed a significantly lower degradation affinity. The flat cell reactor achieved the highest mean degradation rate, with half time values ranging from 5 to 64 min with a mean of 18 min, due to its high catalysts surface to hydraulic volume ratio. The EE/O values were calculated for all micro-pollutants as well as the mean degradation rate constant of each experimental step. The lowest substance specific energy per order (EE/O) values of 5 kWh/m3 were measured for benzotriazole within the batch reactor. The batch reactor also reached the lowest mean values (11.8–15.9 kWh/m3) followed by the flat cell reactor (21.0–37.0 kWh/m3) and immersion rotary body reactor (23.9–41.0 kWh/m3). Catalyst arrangement and irradiation power were identified as major influences on the energetic performance of the reactors. Low radiation intensities as well as the use of submerged catalyst arrangement allowed a reduction in energy demand by a factor of 3–4. A treatment according to existing treatment goals of wastewater treatment plants (80% total degradation) was achieved using the batch reactor with a calculated energy demand of 7000 Wh/m3.

The current thesis presents research about new methods of citizen participation based on digital technologies. The focus on the research lies on decentralized methods of participation where citizens take the role of co-creators. The research project first conducted a review of the literature on citizen participation, its origins and the different paradigms that have emerged over the years. The literature review also looked at the influence of technologies on participation processes and the theoretical frameworks that have emerged to understand the introduction of technologies in the context of urban development. The literature review generated the conceptual basis for the further development of the thesis.
The research begins with a survey of technology enabled participation applications that examined the roles and structures emerging due to the introduction of technology. The results showed that cities use technology mostly to control and monitor urban infrastructure and are rather reluctant to give citizens the role of co-creators. Based on these findings, three case studies were developed. Digital tools for citizen participation were conceived and introduced for each case study. The adoption and reaction of the citizens were observed using three data collection methods.
The results of the case studies showed consistently that previous participation and engagement with informal citizen participation are a determinining factor in the potential adoption of digital tools for decentralized engagement. Based on these results, the case studies proposed methods and frameworks that can be used for the conception and introduction of technologies for decentralized citizen participation.

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used in engineering for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) over complex geometries. To this end, it is required to provide the FEM software with a geometric model that is typically constructed in a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. However, FEM and CAD use different approaches for the mathematical description of the geometry. Thus, it is required to generate a mesh, which is suitable for FEM, based on the CAD model. Nonetheless, this procedure is not a trivial task and it can be time consuming. This issue becomes more significant for solving shape and topology optimization problems, which consist in evolving the geometry iteratively. Therefore, the computational cost associated to the mesh generation process is increased exponentially for this type of applications.
The main goal of this work is to investigate the integration of CAD and CAE in shape and topology optimization. To this end, numerical tools that close the gap between design and analysis are presented. The specific objectives of this work are listed below:
• Automatize the sensitivity analysis in an isogeometric framework for applications in shape optimization. Applications for linear elasticity are considered.
• A methodology is developed for providing a direct link between the CAD model and the analysis mesh. In consequence, the sensitivity analysis can be performed in terms of the design variables located in the design model.
• The last objective is to develop an isogeometric method for shape and topological optimization. This method should take advantage of using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) with higher continuity as basis functions.
Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) is a framework designed to integrate the design and analysis in engineering problems. The fundamental idea of IGA is to use the same basis functions for modeling the geometry, usually NURBS, for the approximation of the solution fields. The advantage of integrating design and analysis is two-fold. First, the analysis stage is more accurate since the system of PDEs is not solved using an approximated geometry, but the exact CAD model. Moreover, providing a direct link between the design and analysis discretizations makes possible the implementation of efficient sensitivity analysis methods. Second, the computational time is significantly reduced because the mesh generation process can be avoided.
Sensitivity analysis is essential for solving optimization problems when gradient-based optimization algorithms are employed. Automatic differentiation can compute exact gradients, automatically by tracking the algebraic operations performed on the design variables. For the automation of the sensitivity analysis, an isogeometric framework is used. Here, the analysis mesh is obtained after carrying out successive refinements, while retaining the coarse geometry for the domain design. An automatic differentiation (AD) toolbox is used to perform the sensitivity analysis. The AD toolbox takes the code for computing the objective and constraint functions as input. Then, using a source code transformation approach, it outputs a code for computing the objective and constraint functions, and their sensitivities as well. The sensitivities obtained from the sensitivity propagation method are compared with analytical sensitivities, which are computed using a full isogeometric approach.
The computational efficiency of AD is comparable to that of analytical sensitivities. However, the memory requirements are larger for AD. Therefore, AD is preferable if the memory requirements are satisfied. Automatic sensitivity analysis demonstrates its practicality since it simplifies the work of engineers and designers.
Complex geometries with sharp edges and/or holes cannot easily be described with NURBS. One solution is the use of unstructured meshes. Simplex-elements (triangles and tetrahedra for two and three dimensions respectively) are particularly useful since they can automatically parameterize a wide variety of domains. In this regard, unstructured Bézier elements, commonly used in CAD, can be employed for the exact modelling of CAD boundary representations. In two dimensions, the domain enclosed by NURBS curves is parameterized with Bézier triangles. To describe exactly the boundary of a two-dimensional CAD model, the continuity of a NURBS boundary representation is reduced to C^0. Then, the control points are used to generate a triangulation such that the boundary of the domain is identical to the initial CAD boundary representation. Thus, a direct link between the design and analysis discretizations is provided and the sensitivities can be propagated to the design domain.
In three dimensions, the initial CAD boundary representation is given as a collection of NURBS surfaces that enclose a volume. Using a mesh generator (Gmsh), a tetrahedral mesh is obtained. The original surface is reconstructed by modifying the location of the control points of the tetrahedral mesh using Bézier tetrahedral elements and a point inversion algorithm. This method offers the possibility of computing the sensitivity analysis using the analysis mesh. Then, the sensitivities can be propagated into the design discretization. To reuse the mesh originally generated, a moving Bézier tetrahedral mesh approach was implemented.
A gradient-based optimization algorithm is employed together with a sensitivity propagation procedure for the shape optimization cases. The proposed shape optimization approaches are used to solve some standard benchmark problems in structural mechanics. The results obtained show that the proposed approach can compute accurate gradients and evolve the geometry towards optimal solutions. In three dimensions, the moving mesh approach results in faster convergence in terms of computational time and avoids remeshing at each optimization step.
For considering topological changes in a CAD-based framework, an isogeometric phase-field based shape and topology optimization is developed. In this case, the diffuse interface of a phase-field variable over a design domain implicitly describes the boundaries of the geometry. The design variables are the local values of the phase-field variable. The descent direction to minimize the objective function is found by using the sensitivities of the objective function with respect to the design variables. The evolution of the phase-field is determined by solving the time dependent Allen-Cahn equation.
Especially for topology optimization problems that require C^1 continuity, such as for flexoelectric structures, the isogeometric phase field method is of great advantage. NURBS can achieve the desired continuity more efficiently than the traditional employed functions. The robustness of the method is demonstrated when applied to different geometries, boundary conditions, and material configurations. The applications illustrate that compared to piezoelectricity, the electrical performance of flexoelectric microbeams is larger under bending. In contrast, the electrical power for a structure under compression becomes larger with piezoelectricity.

One of the most important renewable energy technologies used nowadays are wind power turbines. In this paper, we are interested in identifying the operating status of wind turbines, especially rotor blades, by means of multiphysical models. It is a state-of-the-art technology to test mechanical structures with ultrasonic-based methods. However, due to the density and the required high resolution, the testing is performed with high-frequency waves, which cannot penetrate the structure in depth. Therefore, there is a need to adopt techniques in the fields of multiphysical model-based inversion schemes or data-driven structural health monitoring. Before investing effort in the development of such approaches, further insights and approaches are necessary to make the techniques applicable to structures such as wind power plants (blades). Among the expected developments, further accelerations of the so-called “forward codes” for a more efficient implementation of the wave equation could be envisaged. Here, we employ electromagnetic waves for the early detection of cracks. Because in many practical situations, it is not possible to apply techniques from tomography (characterized by multiple sources and sensor pairs), we focus here on the question of whether the existence of cracks can be determined by using only one source for the sent waves.

Object-Oriented Damage Information Modeling Concepts and Implementation for Bridge Inspection
(2022)

Bridges are designed to last for more than 50 years and consume up to 50% of their life-cycle costs during their operation phase. Several inspections and assessment actions are executed during this period. Bridge and damage information must be gathered, digitized, and exchanged between different stakeholders. Currently, the inspection and assessment practices rely on paper-based data collection and exchange, which is time-consuming and error-prone, and leads to loss of information. Storing and exchanging damage and building information in a digital format may lower costs and errors during inspection and assessment and support future needs, for example, immediate simulations regarding performance assessment, automated maintenance planning, and mixed reality inspections. This study focused on the concept for modeling damage information to support bridge reviews and structural analysis. Starting from the definition of multiple use cases and related requirements, the data model for damage information is defined independently from the subsequent implementation. In the next step, the implementation via an established standard is explained. Functional tests aim to identify problems in the concept and implementation. To show the capability of the final model, two example use cases are illustrated: the inspection review of the entire bridge and a finite-element analysis of a single component. Main results are the definition of necessary damage data, an object-oriented damage model, which supports multiple use cases, and the implementation of the model in a standard. Furthermore, the tests have shown that the standard is suitable to deliver damage information; however, several software programs lack proper implementation of the standard.

Reine Calciumsulfatbindemittel weisen eine hohe Löslichkeit auf. Feuchteinwirkung führt zudem zu starken Festigkeitsverlusten. Aus diesem Grund werden diese Bindemittel ausschließlich für Baustoffe und -produkte im Innenbereich ohne permanenten Feuchtebeanspruchung eingesetzt. Eine Möglichkeit, die Feuchtebeständigkeit zu erhöhen, ist die Beimischung puzzolanischer und zementärer Komponenten. Diese Mischsysteme werden Gips-Zement-Puzzolan-Bindemittel (kurz: GZPB) genannt.
Mischungen aus Calciumsulfaten und Portlandzementen allein sind aufgrund der treibenden Ettringitbildung nicht raumbeständig. Durch die Zugabe von puzzolanischen Stoffen können aber Bedingungen im hydratisierenden System geschaffen werden, welche eine rissfreie Erhärtung ermöglichen. Hierfür ist eine exakte Rezeptierung der GZPB notwendig, um die GZPB-typischen, ettringitbedingten Dehnungen zeitlich zu begrenzen. Insbesondere bei alumosilikatischen Puzzolanen treten während der Hydratation gegenüber rein silikatischen Puzzolanen deutlich höhere Expansionen auf, wodurch die Gefahr einer potenziellen Rissbildung steigt. Für die Erstellung geeigneter GZPB-Zusammensetzungen bedarf es daher einer Methodik, um raumbeständig erhärtende Systeme sicher von destruktiven Mischungen unterscheiden zu können.
Sowohl für die Rezeptierung als auch für die Anwendung der GZPB existieren in Deutschland keinerlei Normen. Darüber hinaus sind die Hydratationsvorgänge sowie die entstehenden Produkte nicht konsistent beschrieben. Auch auf die Besonderheiten der GZPB mit alumosilikatischen Puzzolanen wird in der Literatur nur unzureichend eingegangen.
Ziel war es daher, ein grundlegendes Verständnis der Hydratation sowie eine sichere Methodik zur Rezeptierung raumbeständig und rissfrei erhärtender GZPB, insbesondere in Hinblick auf die Verwendung alumosilikatischer Puzzolane, zu erarbeiten. Darüber hinaus sollte systematisch der Einfluss der Einzelkomponenten auf Hydratation und Eigenschaften dieser Bindemittelsysteme untersucht werden. Dies soll ermöglichen, die GZPB für ein breites Anwendungsspektrum als Bindemittel zu etablieren, und somit vorteilhafte Eigenschaften der Calciumsulfate (geringe Schwindneigung, geringe CO2-Emission etc.) mit der Leistungs-fähigkeit von Zementen (Wasserbeständigkeit, Festigkeit, Dauerhaftigkeit etc.) zu verbinden.
Als Ausgangsstoffe der Untersuchungen zu den GZPB wurden Stuckgips und Alpha-Halbhydrat als Calciumsulfatbindemittel in unterschiedlichen Anteilen im GZPB verwendet. Die Puzzolan-Zement-Verhältnisse wurden ebenfalls variiert. Als Puzzolan kam für den Großteil der Untersuchungen ein alumosilikatisches Metakaolin zum Einsatz. Als kalkspendende Komponente diente ein reiner Portlandzement.
Das Untersuchungsprogramm gliederte sich in 4 Teile. Zuerst wurde anhand von CaO- und pH-Wert-Messungen in Suspensionen sowie dem Längenänderungsverhalten von Bindemittelleimen verschiedener Zusammensetzungen eine Vorauswahl geeigneter GZPB-Rezepturen ermittelt. Danach erfolgten, ebenfalls an Bindemittelleimen, Untersuchungen zu den Eigenschaften der als geeignet eingeschätzten GZPB-Mischungen. Hierzu zählten Langzeitbetrachtungen zur rissfreien Erhärtung bei unterschiedlichen Umgebungsbedingungen sowie die Festigkeitsentwicklung im trockenen und feuchten Zustand. Im nächsten Schritt wurde anhand zweier exemplarischer GZPB-Zusammensetzungen (mit silikatischen und alumosilikatischen Puzzolan) die prinzipiell mögliche Phasenzusammensetzung unter Variation des Puzzolan-Zement-Verhältnisses (P/Z-Verhältnis) und des Calciumsulfatanteils im thermodynamischen Gleichgewichtszustand berechnet. Hier wurde im Besonderen auf Unterschiede der silikatischen und alumosilikatischen Puzzolane eingegangen. Im letzten Teil der Untersuchungen wurden die Hydratationskinetik der GZPB sowie die Gefügeentwicklung näher betrachtet. Hierfür wurden die Porenlösungen chemisch analysiert und Sättigungsindizes berechnet, sowie elektronenmikropische, porosimetrische und röntgenografische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Abschließend wurden die Ergebnisse gesamtheitlich interpretiert, da die Ergebnisse der einzelnen Untersuchungsprogramme miteinander in Wechselwirkung stehen.
Als hauptsächliche Hydratationsprodukte wurden Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat, Ettringit und
C-(A)-S-H-Phasen ermittelt, deren Anteile im GZPB neben dem Calciumsulfatanteil und dem Puzzolan-Zement-Verhältnis auch deutlich vom Wasserangebot und der Gefügeentwicklung abhängen. Bei Verwendung von alumosilikatischen Puzzolans kommt es wahrscheinlich zur teilweisen Substitution des Siliciums durch Aluminium in den C-S-H-Phasen. Dies erscheint aufgrund des Nachweises der für diese Phasen typischen, folienartigen Morphologie wahrscheinlich. Portlandit wurde in raumbeständigen GZPB-Systemen nur zu sehr frühen Zeitpunkten in geringen Mengen gefunden.
In den Untersuchungen konnte ein Teil der in der Literatur beschriebenen, prinzipiellen Hydratationsabläufe bestätigt werden. Bei Verwendung von Halbhydrat als Calciumsulfatkomponente entsteht zuerst Dihydrat und bildet die Primärstruktur der GZPB. In dieses existierende Grundgefüge kristallisieren dann das Ettringit und die C-(A)-S-H-Phasen. In den GZPB sorgen entgegen der Beschreibungen in der Literatur nicht ausschließlich die
C-(A)-S-H-Phasen zur Verbesserung der Feuchtebeständigkeit und der Erhöhung des Festigkeitsniveaus, sondern auch das Ettringit. Beide Phasen überwachsen im zeitlichen Verlauf der Hydratation die Dihydratkristalle in der Matrix und hüllen diese – je nach Calciumsulfatanteil im GZPB – teilweise oder vollständig ein. Diese Umhüllung sowie die starke Gefügeverdichtung durch die C-(A)-S-H-Phasen und das Ettringit bedingen, dass ein lösender Angriff durch Wasser erschwert oder gar verhindert wird. Gleichzeitig wird die Gleitfähigkeit an den Kontaktstellen der Dihydratkristalle verringert.
Eine rissfreie und raumbeständige Erhärtung ist für die gefahrlose Anwendung eines GZPB-Systems essentiell. Hierfür ist die Kinetik der Ettringitbildung von elementarer Bedeutung. Die gebildete Ettringitmenge spielt nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Selbst ausgeprägte, ettringitbedingte Dehnungen und hohe sich bildende Mengen führen zu frühen Zeitpunkten, wenn die Dihydratkristalle noch leicht gegeneinander verschiebbar sind, zu keinen Schäden. Bleibt die Übersättigung bezüglich Ettringit und somit auch der Kristallisationsdruck allerdings über einen langen Zeitraum hoch, genügen bereits geringe Ettringitmengen, um das sich stetig verfestigende Gefüge stark zu schädigen.
Die für die raumbeständige Erhärtung der GZPB notwendige, schnelle Abnahme der Ettringitübersättigung wird hauptsächlich durch die Reaktivität des Puzzolans beeinflusst. Die puzzolanische Reaktion führt zur Bindung des aus dem Zement stammenden Calciumhydroxid durch die Bildung von C-(A)-S-H-Phasen und Ettringit. Hierdurch sinkt die Calcium- und Hydroxidionenkonzentration in der Porenlösung im Verlauf der Hydratation, wodurch auch die Übersättigung bezüglich Ettringit abnimmt. Je höher die Reaktivität des Puzzolans ist, desto schneller sinkt der Sättigungsindex des Ettringits und somit auch der Kristallisationsdruck. Nach Unterschreiten eines noch näher zu klärendem Grenzwert der Übersättigung stagnieren die Dehnungen. Das Ettringit kristallisiert bzw. wächst nun bevorzugt in den Poren ohne eine weitere, äußere Volumenzunahme zu verursachen.
Um eine schadensfreie Erhärtung des GZPB zu gewährleisten, muss gerade in der frühen Phase der Hydratation ein ausreichendes Wasserangebot gewährleistet werden, so dass die Ettringitbildung möglichst vollständig ablaufen kann. Andernfalls kann es bei einer Wiederbefeuchtung zur Reaktivierung der Ettringitbildung kommen, was im eingebauten Zustand Schäden verursachen kann. Die Gewährleistung eines ausreichenden Wasserangebots ist im GZPB-System nicht unproblematisch. In Abhängigkeit der GZPB-Zusammensetzung können sich große Ettringitmengen bilden, die einen sehr hohen Wasserbedarf aufweisen. Deshalb kann es, je nach verwendeten Wasser-Bindemittel-Wert, im Bindemittelleim zu einem Wassermangel kommen, welcher die weitere Hydratation verlangsamt bzw. komplett verhindert. Zudem können GZPB-Systeme teils sehr dichte Gefüge ausbilden, wodurch der Wassertransport zum Reaktionsort des Ettringits zusätzlich behindert wird.
Die Konzeption raumbeständiger GZPB-Systeme muss anhand mehrerer aufeinander aufbauender Untersuchungen erfolgen. Zur Vorauswahl geeigneter Puzzolan-Zementverhältnisse eignen sich die Messungen der CaO-Konzentration und des pH-Wertes in Suspensionen. Als alleinige Beurteilungsgrundlage reicht dies allerdings nicht aus. Zusätzlich muss das Längenänderungs-verhalten beurteilt werden. Raumbeständige Mischungen mit alumosilikatischen Puzzolanen zeigen zu frühen Zeitpunkten starke Dehnungen, welche dann abrupt stagnieren. Stetige – auch geringe – Dehnungen weisen auf eine destruktive Zusammensetzung hin.
Mit diesem mehrstufigen Vorgehen können raumbeständige, stabile GZPB-Systeme konzipiert werden, so dass die Zielstellung der Arbeit erreicht wurde und ein sicherer praktischer Einsatz dieser Bindemittelart gewährleistet werden kann.

Die Europatournee des Indischen Menaka-Balletts von 1936-38 ist der Ausgangspunkt dieser archivologischen Navigation entlang der Spuren indischer KünstlerInnen in Europa. In einer breit angelegten Archivrecherche wurden dazu Dokumente, Fundstücke, orale Erinnerungen und ethnografische Beobachtungen aus dem Kontext der Menaka-Tournee durch das nationalsozialistische Deutschland zusammengetragen.
Das Buch beschreibt den Rekonstruktionsprozess eines bedeutsamen Projekts der indischen Tanzmoderne. Es verfolgt dabei eine Methode, mit der sich die fragmentierten Dokumente des Medienereignisses als Spur lesen lassen und nutzt eine künstlerisch-forschende Involvierung in gegenwärtige Erinnerungspolitiken, in welche die verflochtenen Strukturen der künstlerischen Avantgarde zwischen Kolkata, Mumbai und Berlin hineinreichen. Die Spur des Menaka-Ballett erweist sich dabei als Teil weitreichender ideologischer, tänzerischer, musikalischer, filmischer und literarischer Strömungen, die auch in gegenwärtigen kulturellen Bestimmungen fortwirken.
Fotografien, Zeitungsberichte, Film- und Tonaufnahmen, Briefe und persönliche Erinnerungstücke erzählen davon, wie sich, vor dem Hintergrund der im antikolonialen Aufbruch befindlichen Kulturreform in Indien, und der nationsozialistisch-völkischen Kulturpolitik in Deutschland, die Tänzerinnen und Musiker der indischen Ballettgruppe und die deutsche Öffentlichkeit im gegenseitigen Spiegel betrachteten, während die Vorzeichen des kommenden Krieges immer deutlicher wurden.

In this thesis, a new approach is developed for applications of shape optimization on the time harmonic wave propagation (Helmholtz equation) for acoustic problems. This approach is introduced for different dimensional problems: 2D, 3D axi-symmetric and fully 3D problems. The boundary element method (BEM) is coupled with the isogeometric analysis (IGA) forming the so-called (IGABEM) which speeds up meshing and gives higher accuracy in comparison with standard BEM. BEM is superior for handling unbounded domains by modeling only the inner boundaries and avoiding the truncation error, present in the finite element method (FEM) since BEM solutions satisfy the Sommerfeld radiation condition automatically. Moreover, BEM reduces the space dimension by one from a volumetric three-dimensional problem to a surface two-dimensional problem, or from a surface two-dimensional problem to a perimeter one-dimensional problem. Non-uniform rational B-splines basis functions (NURBS) are used in an isogeometric setting to describe both the CAD geometries and the physical fields.
IGABEM is coupled with one of the gradient-free optimization methods, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for structural shape optimization problems. PSO is a straightforward method since it does not require any sensitivity analysis but it has some trade-offs with regard to the computational cost. Coupling IGA with optimization problems enables the NURBS basis functions to represent the three models: shape design, analysis and optimization models, by a definition of a set of control points to be the control variables and the optimization parameters as well which enables an easy transition between the three models.
Acoustic shape optimization for various frequencies in different mediums is performed with PSO and the results are compared with the benchmark solutions from the literature for different dimensional problems proving the efficiency of the proposed approach with the following remarks:
- In 2D problems, two BEM methods are used: the conventional isogeometric boundary element method (IGABEM) and the eXtended IGABEM (XIBEM) enriched with the partition-of-unity expansion using a set of plane waves, where the results are generally in good agreement with the linterature with some computation advantage to XIBEM which allows coarser meshes.
-In 3D axi-symmetric problems, the three-dimensional problem is simplified in BEM from a surface integral to a combination of two 1D integrals. The first is the line integral similar to a two-dimensional BEM problem. The second integral is performed over the angle of revolution. The discretization is applied only to the former integration. This leads to significant computational savings and, consequently, better treatment for higher frequencies over the full three-dimensional models.
- In fully 3D problems, a detailed comparison between two BEM methods: the conventional boundary integral equation (CBIE) and Burton-Miller (BM) is provided including the computational cost. The proposed models are enhanced with a modified collocation scheme with offsets to Greville abscissae to avoid placing collocation points at the corners. Placing collocation points on smooth surface enables accurate evaluation of normals for BM formulation in addition to straightforward prediction of jump-terms and avoids singularities in $\mathcal{O} (1/r)$ integrals eliminating the need for polar integration. Furthermore, no additional special treatment is required for the hyper-singular integral while collocating on highly distorted elements, such as those containing sphere poles. The obtained results indicate that, CBIE with PSO is a feasible alternative (except for a small number of fictitious frequencies) which is easier to implement. Furthermore, BM presents an outstanding treatment of the complicated geometry of mufflers with internal extended inlet/outlet tube as an interior 3D Helmholtz acoustic problem instead of using mixed or dual BEM.

Quantification of cracks in concrete thin sections considering current methods of image analysis
(2022)

Image analysis is used in this work to quantify cracks in concrete thin sections via modern image processing. Thin sections were impregnated with a yellow epoxy resin, to increase the contrast between voids and other phases of the concrete. By the means of different steps of pre-processing, machine learning and python scripts, cracks can be quantified in an area of up to 40 cm2. As a result, the crack area, lengths and widths were estimated automatically within a single workflow. Crack patterns caused by freeze-thaw damages were investigated. To compare the inner degradation of the investigated thin sections, the crack density was used. Cracks in the thin sections were measured manually in two different ways for validation of the automatic determined results. On the one hand, the presented work shows that the width of cracks can be determined pixelwise, thus providing the plot of a width distribution. On the other hand, the automatically measured crack length differs in comparison to the manually measured ones.

In this work, we present a deep collocation method (DCM) for three-dimensional potential problems in non-homogeneous media. This approach utilizes a physics-informed neural network with material transfer learning reducing the solution of the non-homogeneous partial differential equations to an optimization problem. We tested different configurations of the physics-informed neural network including smooth activation functions, sampling methods for collocation points generation and combined optimizers. A material transfer learning technique is utilized for non-homogeneous media with different material gradations and parameters, which enhance the generality and robustness of the proposed method. In order to identify the most influential parameters of the network configuration, we carried out a global sensitivity analysis. Finally, we provide a convergence proof of our DCM. The approach is validated through several benchmark problems, also testing different material variations.

In machine learning, if the training data is independently and identically distributed as the test data then a trained model can make an accurate predictions for new samples of data. Conventional machine learning has a strong dependence on massive amounts of training data which are domain specific to understand their latent patterns. In contrast, Domain adaptation and Transfer learning methods are sub-fields within machine learning that are concerned with solving the inescapable problem of insufficient training data by relaxing the domain dependence hypothesis. In this contribution, this issue has been addressed and by making a novel combination of both the methods we develop a computationally efficient and practical algorithm to solve boundary value problems based on nonlinear partial differential equations. We adopt a meshfree analysis framework to integrate the prevailing geometric modelling techniques based on NURBS and present an enhanced deep collocation approach that also plays an important role in the accuracy of solutions. We start with a brief introduction on how these methods expand upon this framework. We observe an excellent agreement between these methods and have shown that how fine-tuning a pre-trained network to a specialized domain may lead to an outstanding performance compare to the existing ones. As proof of concept, we illustrate the performance of our proposed model on several benchmark problems.

Im Heft zum zehnjährigen Jubiläum von sub\urban mit dem Themenschwerpunkt „sub\x: Verortungen, Entortungen" veröffentlichen wir eine Debatte, die von den bisherigen in unserer Zeitschrift in dieser Rubrik geführten textlichen Diskussionen abweicht. Im Vorfeld der Planungen für unsere Jubiläumsausgabe haben wir die aktuellen Mitglieder unseres wissenschaftlichen Beirats darum gebeten, zwei grundlegende Fragen von kritischer Stadtforschung in kurzen Beiträgen zu diskutieren: Was ist Stadt? Was ist Kritik?

Der Aufruf, die Begriffe Stadt und Kritik in das Zentrum einer Debatte zu stellen, bietet die große Chance, uns weit über begriffliche Klärungen unseres gemeinsamen Arbeitsgegenstands hinaus – die ja auch für sich selbst sehr fruchtbar sein können – über die Funktion zu verständigen, die wir in der Gesellschaft ausüben, wenn wir räumliche Planung praktizieren, erforschen und lehren. Da in der Bundesrepublik nicht nur ein großer Bedarf, sondern auch eine beträchtliche Nachfrage nach öffentlicher Planung besteht und die planungsbezogenen Wissenschaften sich eines insgesamt stabilen institutionellen Standes erfreuen, laufen wir Gefahr, die gesellschaftspolitische Legitimation von Berufsfeld und Wissenschaft zu vernachlässigen, sie als gegeben zu behandeln. Wir müssen uns ja kaum rechtfertigen.

This article focuses on further developments of the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique to visualize convective indoor air flow, which is usually defined by very small density gradients. Since the light rays deflect when passing through fluids with different densities, BOS can detect the resulting refractive index gradients as integration along a line of sight. In this paper, the BOS technique is used to yield a two-dimensional visualization of small density gradients. The novelty of the described method is the implementation of a highly sensitive BOS setup to visualize the ascending thermal plume from a heated thermal manikin with temperature differences of minimum 1 K. To guarantee steady boundary conditions, the thermal manikin was seated in a climate laboratory. For the experimental investigations, a high-resolution DLSR camera was used capturing a large field of view with sufficient detail accuracy. Several parameters such as various backgrounds, focal lengths, room air temperatures, and distances between the object of investigation, camera, and structured background were tested to find the most suitable parameters to visualize convective indoor air flow. Besides these measurements, this paper presents the analyzing method using cross-correlation algorithms and finally the results of visualizing the convective indoor air flow with BOS. The highly sensitive BOS setup presented in this article complements the commonly used invasive methods that highly influence weak air flows.

Das Fahrrad ist ein Medium sozialer Veränderung. Seine vielfältigen utopischen Potenziale ergeben sich nicht zuletzt aus seinen ebenso vielfältigen und häufig übersehenen medialen Qualitäten: Es vermittelt, es verbindet, es übersetzt; es modifiziert Wahrnehmung und Organisation von Raum und Zeit, von Körpern und von Sozialität. Umgekehrt kann auch das medienwissenschaftliche Denken fahrradmedial verändert werden. Das Fahrrad ist nicht nur Medium des sozialen und ökologischen Wandels: Radfahren eröffnet Perspektiven, verändert Räume, lässt neue Relationen entstehen und teilt Handlungsmacht neu auf.
Fahrradutopien denkt vom Fahrrad aus und ergänzt dabei bestehende Ansätze zur Mobilitätsforschung um medienkulturwissenschaftliche Perspektiven. Die Beiträge verbinden Medienwissenschaften und Forschungen zu Fahrradaktivismus mit der Liebe zum Radfahren. Fokussiert werden Fahrradfilme und -vlogs, Verkehr und Infrastrukturen, Virtuelle Realität und Fahrrad, Fahrradkollektive und Fahrradfeminismus.

The thesis addresses journalistic, administrative and judicial historical documentation to analyze the links between aridity and geographical imaginaries in the province of Catamarca (Argentina), from a historical point of view. The research aims to contribute to the understanding of the "non-hegemonic" versions of Modernity, its territoriality and the productions of geographic imaginaries that they involve. To provide a broad purpose, it raises as an object of study the ways in which "modern" practices, actors, links, discourses and expectations about the territory are mobilized when they are located in a space in "other" water conditions. those that are intended to "civilize" it.
The general objective of the research is to analyze time-space controversies around water in the city and valley of Catamarca towards 19th and 20th centuries. The specific objectives derived are a) analyzing how various actors are related to waters behavior - in other words, the local water regime – in Catamarca and the meanings built around it. b) to analyze the controversies about the place of Catamarca and its water regime in the local and national geographic imaginary. c) analyze controversies in which the relationships between actors and materialities involved in modernization projects are put into discussion.
These concerns by the experience of the actors and by the historical-spatial imagination of the territory, combined, led to the construction of an interdisciplinary methodology based on tools from anthropology, sociology, geography and history.

El paisaje de la Cuenca Lechera Central Argentina: la huella de la producción sobre el territorio
(2022)

In recent times, the study of landscape heritage acquires value by virtue of becoming an alternative to rethink regional development, especially from the point of view of territorial planning. In this sense, the Central Argentine Dairy Basin (CADB) is presented as a space where the traces of different human projects have accumulated over centuries of occupation, which can be read as heritage. The impact of dairy farming and other productive activities has shaped the configuration of its landscape. The main hypothesis assumed that a cultural landscape would have been formed in the CADB, whose configuration would have depended to a great extent on the history of productive activities and their deployment over the territory, and this same history would hide the keys to its alternative.
The thesis approached the object of study from descriptive and cartographic methods that placed the narration of the history of territory and the resources of the landscape as a discursive axis. A series of intentional readings of the territory and its constituent parts pondered the layers of data that have accumulated on it in the form of landscape traces, with the help of an approach from complementary dimensions (natural, sociocultural, productive, planning). Furthermore, the intersection of historical sources was used in order to allow the construction of the territorial story and the detection of the origin of the landscape components. A meticulous cartographic work also helped to spatialise the set of phenomena and elements studied, and was reflected in a multiscalar scanning.

Revisiting vernacular technique: Engineering a low environmental impact earth stabilisation method
(2022)

The major drawbacks of earth as a construction material — such as its low water stability and moderate strength — have led mankind to stabilize earth. Different civilizations developed vernacular techniques mainly focussing on lime, pozzolan or gypsum stabilization. Recently, cement has become the most commonly used additive in earth stabilization as it improves the strength and durability of plain earth. Also, it is a familiar and globally available construction material. However, using cement as an additive reduces the environmental advantages of earth and run counter to global targets regarding the reduction of CO2 emissions. Alternatives to cement stabilization are currently neither efficient enough to reduce its environmental impact nor allow the possibility of obtaining better results than those of cement. As such, this thesis deals with the rediscovery of a reverse engineering approach for a low environmental impact earth stabilization technique, aiming to replace cement in earth stabilization.
The first step in the method consists in a comprehensive review of earth stabilization with regards to earthen building standards and soil classification, which allows us to identify the research gap. The review showed that there is great potential in using other additives which result in similar improvements as those achieved by cement. However, the studies that have been conducted so far either use expansive soils, which are not suitable for earth constructions or artificial pozzolans that indirectly contribute to CO2 emissions. This is the main research gap.
The key concept for the development in the second step of the method is to combine vernacular additives to both improve the strength and durability of plain earth and to reduce the CO2 emissions. Various earth-mixtures were prepared and both development and performance tests were done to investigate the performance of this technique. The laboratory analyses on mix-design have proven a high durability and the results show a remarkable increase in strength performance. Furthermore, a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in comparison to cement stabilization could be shown.
The third step of the method discusses the results drawn from the experimental programme. In addition, the potential of the new earth mixture with regards to its usability in the field of building construction and architectural design is further elaborated on.
The method used in this study is the first of its kind that allows investors to avoid the very time-consuming processes such as finding a suitable source for soil excavation and soil classification. The developed mixture has significant workability and suitability for production of stabilized earthen panels — the very first of its kind. Such a panel is practically feasible, reasonable, and could be integrated into earthen building standards in general and in particular to DIN 18948, which is related to earthen boards and published in 2018.

In ten chapters, this thesis presents information retrieval technology which is tailored to the research activities that arise in the context of corpus-based digital humanities projects.
The presentation is structured by a conceptual research process that is introduced in Chapter 1. The process distinguishes a set of five research activities: research question generation, corpus acquisition, research question modeling, corpus annotation, and result dissemination. Each of these research activities elicits different information retrieval tasks with special challenges, for which algorithmic approaches are presented after an introduction of the core information retrieval concepts in Chapter 2.
A vital concept in many of the presented approaches is the keyquery paradigm introduced in Chapter 3, which represents an operation that returns relevant search queries in response to a given set of input documents. Keyqueries are proposed in Chapter 4 for the recommendation of related work, and in Chapter 5 for improving access to aspects hidden in the long tail of search result lists.
With pseudo-descriptions, a document expansion approach is presented in Chapter 6. The approach improves the retrieval performance for corpora where only bibliographic meta-data is originally available. In Chapter 7, the keyquery paradigm is employed to generate dynamic taxonomies for corpora in an unsupervised fashion.
Chapter 8 turns to the exploration of annotated corpora, and presents scoped facets as a conceptual extension to faceted search systems, which is particularly useful in exploratory search settings. For the purpose of highlighting the major topical differences in a sequence of sub-corpora, an algorithm called topical sequence profiling is presented in Chapter 9.
The thesis concludes with two pilot studies regarding the visualization of (re)search results for the means of successful result dissemination: a metaphoric interpretation of the information nutrition label, as well as the philosophical bodies, which are 3D-printed search results.

The fracture of microcapsules is an important issue to release the healing agent for healing the cracks in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete. The capsular clustering generated from the concrete mixing process is considered one of the critical factors in the fracture mechanism. Since there is a lack of studies in the literature regarding this issue, the design of self-healing concrete cannot be made without an appropriate modelling strategy. In this paper, the effects of microcapsule size and clustering on the fractured microcapsules are studied computationally. A simple 2D computational modelling approach is developed based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and cohesive surface technique. The proposed model shows that the microcapsule size and clustering have significant roles in governing the load-carrying capacity and the crack propagation pattern and determines whether the microcapsule will be fractured or debonded from the concrete matrix. The higher the microcapsule circumferential contact length, the higher the load-carrying capacity. When it is lower than 25% of the microcapsule circumference, it will result in a greater possibility for the debonding of the microcapsule from the concrete. The greater the core/shell ratio (smaller shell thickness), the greater the likelihood of microcapsules being fractured.

Operator Calculus Approach to Comparison of Elasticity Models for Modelling of Masonry Structures
(2022)

The solution of any engineering problem starts with a modelling process aimed at formulating a mathematical model, which must describe the problem under consideration with sufficient precision. Because of heterogeneity of modern engineering applications, mathematical modelling scatters nowadays from incredibly precise micro- and even nano-modelling of materials to macro-modelling, which is more appropriate for practical engineering computations. In the field of masonry structures, a macro-model of the material can be constructed based on various elasticity theories, such as classical elasticity, micropolar elasticity and Cosserat elasticity. Evidently, a different macro-behaviour is expected depending on the specific theory used in the background. Although there have been several theoretical studies of different elasticity theories in recent years, there is still a lack of understanding of how modelling assumptions of different elasticity theories influence the modelling results of masonry structures. Therefore, a rigorous approach to comparison of different three-dimensional elasticity models based on quaternionic operator calculus is proposed in this paper. In this way, three elasticity models are described and spatial boundary value problems for these models are discussed. In particular, explicit representation formulae for their solutions are constructed. After that, by using these representation formulae, explicit estimates for the solutions obtained by different elasticity theories are obtained. Finally, several numerical examples are presented, which indicate a practical difference in the solutions.

Warum werden in aktuellen Diskussionen Wohnungsgenossenschaften immer wieder als zentrale Akteure einer gemeinwohlorientierten Wohnraumversorgung benannt – obwohl sie kaum zur Schaffung neuen bezahlbaren Wohnraums beitragen? Warum wehrt sich die Mehrzahl der Wohnungsgenossenschaften mit Händen und Füßen gegen die Wiedereinführung eines Gesetzes zur Wohnungsgemeinnützigkeit, obwohl es doch gerade dieses Gesetz war, dass sie im 20. Jahrhundert zu im internationalen Vergleich großen Unternehmen wachsen ließ? Sind Wohnungsgenossenschaften nun klientilistische, wenig demokratische und nur halb dekommodifizierte Marktteilnehmer oder wichtiger Teil der Wohnungsversorgung der unteren Mittelschicht? Wer Antworten auf diese und andere Fragen sucht und Differenziertheit in ihrer Beantwortung aushält, lese Joscha Metzers Dissertation „Genossenschaften und die Wohnungsfrage.

Die Auswirkungen einer Fassadenbegrünung auf den Wärmeinseleffekt in Stuttgart wurde für eine Hitzeperiode numerisch simuliert und bewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigten positive Auswirkungen innerhalb des Simulationsgebiets sowie eine geringe Fernwirkung auf benachbarte Stadtquartiere. Diese Änderungen können zur Verbesserung des thermischen Komforts im Außenraum beitragen. Eine reduzierte Temperatur der Außenoberfläche führt darüber hinaus auch zu einer geringeren Oberflächentemperatur der Wandinnenseite, welche die Innenraumtemperatur beeinflusst. Folglich kann die thermische Behaglichkeit auch im Innenraum erhöht werden.

Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is an established methodology to support the decision-making of multi-objective problems. For conducting an MCDA, in most cases, a set of objectives (SOO) is required, which consists of a hierarchical structure comprised of objectives, criteria, and indicators. The development of an SOO is usually based on moderated development processes requiring high organizational and cognitive effort from all stakeholders involved. This article proposes elementary interactions as a key paradigm of an algorithm-driven development process for an SOO that requires little moderation efforts. Elementary interactions are self-contained information requests that may be answered with little cognitive effort. The pairwise comparison of elements in the well-known analytical hierarchical process (AHP) is an example of an elementary interaction. Each elementary interaction in the development process presented contributes to the stepwise development of an SOO. Based on the hypothesis that an SOO may be developed exclusively using elementary interactions (EIs), a concept for a multi-user platform is proposed. Essential components of the platform are a Model Aggregator, an Elementary Interaction Stream Generator, a Participant Manager, and a Discussion Forum. While the latter component serves the professional exchange of the participants, the first three components are intended to be automatable by algorithms. The platform concept proposed has been evaluated partly in an explorative validation study demonstrating the general functionality of the algorithms outlined. In summary, the platform concept suggested demonstrates the potential to ease SOO development processes as the platform concept does not restrict the application domain; it is intended to work with little administration moderation efforts, and it supports the further development of an existing SOO in the event of changes in external conditions. The algorithm-driven development of SOOs proposed in this article may ease the development of MCDA applications and, thus, may have a positive effect on the spread of MCDA applications.

Compactly, this thesis encompasses two major parts to examine mechanical responses of polymer compounds and two dimensional materials:
1- Molecular dynamics approach is investigated to study transverse impact behavior of polymers, polymer compounds and two dimensional materials.
2- Large deflection of circular and rectangular membranes is examined by employing continuum mechanics approach.
Two dimensional materials (2D), including, Graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), exhibited new and promising physical and chemical properties, opening new opportunities to be utilized alone or to enhance the performance of conventional materials. These 2D materials have attracted tremendous attention owing to their outstanding physical properties, especially concerning transverse impact loading.
Polymers, with the backbone of carbon (organic polymers) or do not include carbon atoms in the backbone (inorganic polymers) like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), have extraordinary characteristics particularly their flexibility leads to various easy ways of forming and casting. These simple shape processing label polymers as an excellent material often used as a matrix in composites (polymer compounds).
In this PhD work, Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) is implemented to calculate transverse impact loading of 2D materials as well as polymer compounds reinforced with graphene sheets. In particular, MD was adopted to investigate perforation of the target and impact resistance force . By employing MD approach, the minimum velocity of the projectile that could create perforation and passes through the target is obtained. The largest investigation was focused on how graphene could enhance the impact properties of the compound. Also the purpose of this work was to discover the effect of the atomic arrangement of 2D materials on the impact problem. To this aim, the impact properties of two different 2D materials, graphene and MoS2, are studied. The simulation of chemical functionalization was carried out systematically, either with covalently bonded molecules or with non-bonded ones, focusing the following efforts on the covalently bounded species, revealed as the most efficient linkers.
To study transverse impact behavior by using classical MD approach , Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) software, that is well-known among most researchers, is employed. The simulation is done through predefined commands in LAMMPS. Generally these commands (atom style, pair style, angle style, dihedral style, improper style, kspace style, read data, fix, run, compute and so on) are used to simulate and run the model for the desired outputs. Depends on the particles and model types, suitable inter-atomic potentials (force fields) are considered. The ensembles, constraints and boundary conditions are applied depends upon the problem definition. To do so, atomic creation is needed. Python codes are developed to generate particles which explain atomic arrangement of each model. Each atomic arrangement introduced separately to LAMMPS for simulation. After applying constraints and boundary conditions, LAMMPS also include integrators like velocity-Verlet integrator or Brownian dynamics or other types of integrator to run the simulation and finally the outputs are emerged. The outputs are inspected carefully to appreciate the natural behavior of the problem. Appreciation of natural properties of the materials assist us to design new applicable materials.
In investigation on the large deflection of circular and rectangular membranes, which is related to the second part of this thesis, continuum mechanics approach is implemented. Nonlinear Föppl membrane theory, which carefully release nonlinear governing equations of motion, is considered to establish the non-linear partial differential equilibrium equations of the membranes under distributed and centric point loads. The Galerkin and energy methods are utilized to solve non-linear partial differential equilibrium equations of circular and rectangular plates respectively. Maximum deflection as well as stress through the film region, which are kinds of issue in many industrial applications, are obtained.

BIM-basierte Digitalisierung von Bestandsgebäuden aus Sicht des FM am Beispiel von Heizungsanlagen
(2022)

Das Ziel der Arbeit ist, für das Facility Management relevante Informationen für die mit Building Information Modeling basierende Erstellung von Bestandsgebäuden am Beispiel einer Hei- zungsanlage zu definieren. Darauf basierend sind die notwendigen Arbeitsschritte der Objek- taufnahme abgeleitet. Für die Definition der Arbeitsschritte wurden das grundlegende Vorge- hen bei einer Objektaufnahme sowie die gesetzlichen Gegebenheiten für den Betrieb einer Heizungsanlage dargelegt. Darüber hinaus sind in der vorliegenden Ausarbeitung die Vorteile und Herausforderungen hinsichtlich des Zusammenspiels von Building Information Modeling und Facility Management analysiert. Die definierten Arbeitsschritte sind anhand eines Beispiel- projektes angewendet worden. Im Rahmen des Beispielprojekts sind die entscheidenden Be- triebsdaten je Anlagenteil in Form von Informationsanforderungen nach DIN 17412 definiert. Das Gebäudemodell ist durch Parameter mit den für das Facility Management relevanten In- formationen ergänzt. Die Resultate des Beispielprojektes sind mit aussagekräftigen Schnitten, Plänen sowie 3-D-Visualisierungen dargestellt. Abschließend sind die Ergebnisse in Bezug auf das FM validiert. Aus den Arbeitsschritten und Ergebnissen ist eine Leitlinie erstellt worden für den Digitalisierungsprozess von Bestandsgebäuden für das Facility Management.

Reconstruction of the indoor air temperature distribution using acoustic travel-time tomography
(2021)

Acoustic travel-time tomography (ATOM) is being increasingly considered recently as a remote sensing methodology to determine the indoor air temperatures distribution. It employs the relationship between the sound velocities along sound-paths and their related travel-times through measured room-impulse-response (RIR). Thus, the precise travel-time estimation is of critical importance which can be performed by applying an analysis time-window method. In this study, multiple analysis time-windows with different lengths are proposed to overcome the challenge of accurate detection of the travel-times at RIR. Hence, the ATOM-temperatures distribution has been measured at the climate chamber lab of the Bauhaus-University Weimar. As a benchmark, the temperatures of NTC thermistors are compared to the reconstructed temperatures derived from the ATOM technique illustrating this technique can be a reliable substitute for traditional thermal sensors. The numerical results indicate that the selection of an appropriate analysis time-window significantly enhances the accuracy of the reconstructed temperatures distribution.

The technique of Acoustic travel-time TOMography (ATOM) allows for measuring the distribution of air temperatures throughout the entire room based on the determined sound-travel-times of early reflections, currently up to second order reflections. The number of detected early reflections in the room impulse response (RIR) which stands for the desired sound paths inside the room, has a significant impact on the resolution of reconstructed temperatures. This study investigates the possibility of utilizing an array of directional sound sources for ATOM measurements instead of a single omnidirectional loudspeaker used in the previous studies [1–3]. The developed measurement setup consists of two directional sound sources placed near the edge of the floor in the climate chamber of the Bauhaus-University Weimar and one omnidirectional receiver at center of the room near the ceiling. In order to compensate for the reduced number of sound paths when using directional sound sources, it is proposed to take high-energy early reflections up to third order into account. For this purpose, the simulated travel times up to third-order image sources were implemented in the image source model (ISM) algorithm, by which these early reflections can be detected effectively for air temperature reconstructions. To minimize the uncertainties of travel-times estimation due to the positioning of the sound transducers inside the room, measurements were conducted to determine the exact emitting point of the utilized sound source i.e. its acoustic center (AC). For these measurements, three types of excitation signals (MLS, linear and logarithmic chirp signals) with various frequency ranges were used considering that the acoustic center of a sound source is a frequency dependent parameter [4]. Furthermore, measurements were conducted to determine an optimum excitation signal based on the given condition of the ATOM measurement set-up which defines an optimum method for the RIR estimation correspondingly. Finally, the uncertainty of the measuring system utilizing an array of directional sound sources was analyzed.

With the growing importance of the World Wide Web, the major challenges our society faces are also increasingly affecting the digital areas of our lives. Some of the associated problems can be addressed by computer science, and some of these specifically by data-driven research. To do so, however, requires to solve open issues related to archive quality and the large volume and variety of the data contained.
This dissertation contributes data, algorithms, and concepts towards leveraging the big data and temporal provenance capabilities of web archives to tackle societal challenges. We selected three such challenges that highlight the central issues of archive quality, data volume, and data variety, respectively:
(1) For the preservation of digital culture, this thesis investigates and improves the automatic quality assurance of the web page archiving process, as well as the further processing of the resulting archive data for automatic analysis.
(2) For the critical assessment of information, this thesis examines large datasets of Wikipedia and news articles and presents new methods for automatically determining quality and bias.
(3) For digital security and privacy, this thesis exploits the variety of content on the web to quantify the security of mnemonic passwords and analyzes the privacy-aware re-finding of the various seen content through private web archives.

This study investigates the flow supplied by personalized ventilation (PV) by means of anemometer measurements and schlieren visualization. The study was conducted using a thermal manikin to simulate a seated occupant facing a PV outlet. Air velocity was measured at multiple points in the flow field; the collected velocity values were used to calculate the turbulence intensity. Results indicated that PV was supplying air with low turbulence intensity that was able to penetrate the convective boundary layer of the manikin to supply clean air for inhalation. The convective boundary layer, however, obstructed the supplied flow and reduced its velocity by a total of 0.26 m/s. The PV flow preserved its value until about 10 cm from the face where velocity started to drop. Further investigations were conducted to test a PV diffuser with a relatively large outlet diameter (18 cm). This diffuser was developed using 3d-modelling and 3d-printing. The diffuser successfully distributed the flow over the larger outlet area. However, the supplied velocity and turbulence fields were not uniform across the section.

Kleine Kommunen im ländlichen Raum sind aufgrund ihrer oft eingeschränkten personellen und finanziellen Kapazitäten bisher eher sporadisch in den Themenfeldern Energieeffizienz und Erneuerbare Energien aktiv. Immer wieder stellt sich daher Frage, wie die Klimaschutzstrategien des Bundes und der Länder dort mit dem verfügbaren Personal kostengünstig realisierbar sind. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird ein Werkzeug entwickelt, mit dessen Hilfe der aktive Einstieg in diese Thematik mit geringen Aufwand und überwiegend barrierefrei möglich ist.
Der Aufbau eines prozessorientierten Entwicklungs- und Moderationsmodells zur Erprobung und Umsetzung bezahlbarer Handlungsoptionen für Energieeinsparungen und effizienten Energieeinsatz im überwiegend ländlichen geprägten Raum ist der Schwerpunkt der Softwarelösung.
Kommunen werden mit deren Hilfe in die Lage versetzt, in die notwendigen Prozesse der Energie- und Wärmewende einzusteigen. Dabei soll der modulare Aufbau die regulären Schritte notwendiger (integrierter) Planungsprozesse nicht vollständig ersetzen. Vielmehr können innerhalb der Online-Anwendung - überwiegend automatisiert - konkrete Maßnahmenvorschläge erstellt werden, die ein solides Fundament der künftigen energetischen Entwicklung der Kommunen darstellen.
Für eine gezielte Validierung der Ergebnisse und der Ableitung potentieller Maßnahmen werden für die Erprobung Modellkommunen in Thüringen, Bayern und Hessen als Reallabore einbezogen.
Das Tool steht bisher zunächst nur den beteiligten Modellkommunen zur Verfügung. Die entwickelte Softwarelösung soll künftig Schritt für Schritt allen interessierten Kommunen mit diversen Hilfsmitteln und einer Vielzahl anderer praktischer Bestandteile zur Verfügung gestellt werden.

Bei Analysen des Gebäudebestands im Quartierskontext werden zu Dokumentationszwecken viele Bilddaten erzeugt. Diese Daten sind im Nachhinein häufig keinen eindeutig genauen Standorten und Blickwinkeln auf das Bauwerk zuzuordnen. Insbesondere gilt dies für Ortsunkundige oder für Detailaufnahmen. Eine zusätzliche Herausforderung stellt die Aufnahme von Wärmebrücken- oder andersartigen Gebäudedetails durch Thermogramme dar. In der Praxis kommen hier oftmals analoge, fehleranfällige Lösungen zum Einsatz.
Durch die Nutzung von Georeferenzierung kann diese Lücke geschlossen und eine eindeutige Kommunikation und Auswertung gewährleistet werden. Im Gegensatz zu den üblichen Kameras sind Smartphones nach Stand der Technik ausreichend ausgestattet, um neben Daten zu Standort auch die Orientierungswinkel einer Bildaufnahme zu dokumentieren. Die georefenzierten Bilder können auf Grundlage der in den sogenannten Exif-Daten mitgeschriebenen Informationen händisch in ein bestehendes Quartiersmodell integriert werden.
Anhand eines universitären Musterquartiers wird die nutzerfreundliche Realisierung beispielhaft erprobt und auf ihre Potentiale zur Automatisierung in Python untersucht. Hierfür wurde ein bestehendes Quartiersmodell als geometrische Grundlage genutzt und um RGB-Bilder sowie Thermogramme erweitert. Das beschriebene Vorgehen wird im Rahmen der Anwendung auf seinen möglichen Einsatz im Rahmen einer energetischen Quartierserfassung sowie einer Bauschadensdokumentation untersucht.
Mit dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird dem Nutzenden ein Werkzeug bereitgestellt, das die hochwertige Dokumentation einer Bestandserfassung, auch im Quartierskontext, ermöglicht.

Acoustic travel-time TOMography (ATOM) allows the measurement and reconstruction of air temperature distributions. Due to limiting factors, such as the challenge of travel-time estimation of the early reflections in the room impulse response, which heavily depends on the position of transducers inside the measurement area, ATOM is applied mainly outdoors. To apply ATOM in buildings, this paper presents a numerical solution to optimize the positions of transducers. This optimization avoids reflection overlaps, leading to distinguishable travel-times in the impulse response reflectogram. To increase the accuracy of the measured temperature within tomographic voxels, an additional function is employed to the proposed numerical method to minimize the number of sound-path-free voxels, ensuring the best sound-ray coverage of the room. Subsequently, an experimental set-up has been performed to verify the proposed numerical method. The results indicate the positive impact of the optimal positions of transducers on the distribution of ATOM-temperatures.