## Professur Modellierung und Simulation - Mechanik

### Refine

#### Keywords

- Gestaltoptimierung (2) (remove)

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is widely used in engineering for solving Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) over complex geometries. To this end, it is required to provide the FEM software with a geometric model that is typically constructed in a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software. However, FEM and CAD use different approaches for the mathematical description of the geometry. Thus, it is required to generate a mesh, which is suitable for FEM, based on the CAD model. Nonetheless, this procedure is not a trivial task and it can be time consuming. This issue becomes more significant for solving shape and topology optimization problems, which consist in evolving the geometry iteratively. Therefore, the computational cost associated to the mesh generation process is increased exponentially for this type of applications.
The main goal of this work is to investigate the integration of CAD and CAE in shape and topology optimization. To this end, numerical tools that close the gap between design and analysis are presented. The specific objectives of this work are listed below:
• Automatize the sensitivity analysis in an isogeometric framework for applications in shape optimization. Applications for linear elasticity are considered.
• A methodology is developed for providing a direct link between the CAD model and the analysis mesh. In consequence, the sensitivity analysis can be performed in terms of the design variables located in the design model.
• The last objective is to develop an isogeometric method for shape and topological optimization. This method should take advantage of using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) with higher continuity as basis functions.
Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) is a framework designed to integrate the design and analysis in engineering problems. The fundamental idea of IGA is to use the same basis functions for modeling the geometry, usually NURBS, for the approximation of the solution fields. The advantage of integrating design and analysis is two-fold. First, the analysis stage is more accurate since the system of PDEs is not solved using an approximated geometry, but the exact CAD model. Moreover, providing a direct link between the design and analysis discretizations makes possible the implementation of efficient sensitivity analysis methods. Second, the computational time is significantly reduced because the mesh generation process can be avoided.
Sensitivity analysis is essential for solving optimization problems when gradient-based optimization algorithms are employed. Automatic differentiation can compute exact gradients, automatically by tracking the algebraic operations performed on the design variables. For the automation of the sensitivity analysis, an isogeometric framework is used. Here, the analysis mesh is obtained after carrying out successive refinements, while retaining the coarse geometry for the domain design. An automatic differentiation (AD) toolbox is used to perform the sensitivity analysis. The AD toolbox takes the code for computing the objective and constraint functions as input. Then, using a source code transformation approach, it outputs a code for computing the objective and constraint functions, and their sensitivities as well. The sensitivities obtained from the sensitivity propagation method are compared with analytical sensitivities, which are computed using a full isogeometric approach.
The computational efficiency of AD is comparable to that of analytical sensitivities. However, the memory requirements are larger for AD. Therefore, AD is preferable if the memory requirements are satisfied. Automatic sensitivity analysis demonstrates its practicality since it simplifies the work of engineers and designers.
Complex geometries with sharp edges and/or holes cannot easily be described with NURBS. One solution is the use of unstructured meshes. Simplex-elements (triangles and tetrahedra for two and three dimensions respectively) are particularly useful since they can automatically parameterize a wide variety of domains. In this regard, unstructured Bézier elements, commonly used in CAD, can be employed for the exact modelling of CAD boundary representations. In two dimensions, the domain enclosed by NURBS curves is parameterized with Bézier triangles. To describe exactly the boundary of a two-dimensional CAD model, the continuity of a NURBS boundary representation is reduced to C^0. Then, the control points are used to generate a triangulation such that the boundary of the domain is identical to the initial CAD boundary representation. Thus, a direct link between the design and analysis discretizations is provided and the sensitivities can be propagated to the design domain.
In three dimensions, the initial CAD boundary representation is given as a collection of NURBS surfaces that enclose a volume. Using a mesh generator (Gmsh), a tetrahedral mesh is obtained. The original surface is reconstructed by modifying the location of the control points of the tetrahedral mesh using Bézier tetrahedral elements and a point inversion algorithm. This method offers the possibility of computing the sensitivity analysis using the analysis mesh. Then, the sensitivities can be propagated into the design discretization. To reuse the mesh originally generated, a moving Bézier tetrahedral mesh approach was implemented.
A gradient-based optimization algorithm is employed together with a sensitivity propagation procedure for the shape optimization cases. The proposed shape optimization approaches are used to solve some standard benchmark problems in structural mechanics. The results obtained show that the proposed approach can compute accurate gradients and evolve the geometry towards optimal solutions. In three dimensions, the moving mesh approach results in faster convergence in terms of computational time and avoids remeshing at each optimization step.
For considering topological changes in a CAD-based framework, an isogeometric phase-field based shape and topology optimization is developed. In this case, the diffuse interface of a phase-field variable over a design domain implicitly describes the boundaries of the geometry. The design variables are the local values of the phase-field variable. The descent direction to minimize the objective function is found by using the sensitivities of the objective function with respect to the design variables. The evolution of the phase-field is determined by solving the time dependent Allen-Cahn equation.
Especially for topology optimization problems that require C^1 continuity, such as for flexoelectric structures, the isogeometric phase field method is of great advantage. NURBS can achieve the desired continuity more efficiently than the traditional employed functions. The robustness of the method is demonstrated when applied to different geometries, boundary conditions, and material configurations. The applications illustrate that compared to piezoelectricity, the electrical performance of flexoelectric microbeams is larger under bending. In contrast, the electrical power for a structure under compression becomes larger with piezoelectricity.

In this thesis, a new approach is developed for applications of shape optimization on the time harmonic wave propagation (Helmholtz equation) for acoustic problems. This approach is introduced for different dimensional problems: 2D, 3D axi-symmetric and fully 3D problems. The boundary element method (BEM) is coupled with the isogeometric analysis (IGA) forming the so-called (IGABEM) which speeds up meshing and gives higher accuracy in comparison with standard BEM. BEM is superior for handling unbounded domains by modeling only the inner boundaries and avoiding the truncation error, present in the finite element method (FEM) since BEM solutions satisfy the Sommerfeld radiation condition automatically. Moreover, BEM reduces the space dimension by one from a volumetric three-dimensional problem to a surface two-dimensional problem, or from a surface two-dimensional problem to a perimeter one-dimensional problem. Non-uniform rational B-splines basis functions (NURBS) are used in an isogeometric setting to describe both the CAD geometries and the physical fields.
IGABEM is coupled with one of the gradient-free optimization methods, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for structural shape optimization problems. PSO is a straightforward method since it does not require any sensitivity analysis but it has some trade-offs with regard to the computational cost. Coupling IGA with optimization problems enables the NURBS basis functions to represent the three models: shape design, analysis and optimization models, by a definition of a set of control points to be the control variables and the optimization parameters as well which enables an easy transition between the three models.
Acoustic shape optimization for various frequencies in different mediums is performed with PSO and the results are compared with the benchmark solutions from the literature for different dimensional problems proving the efficiency of the proposed approach with the following remarks:
- In 2D problems, two BEM methods are used: the conventional isogeometric boundary element method (IGABEM) and the eXtended IGABEM (XIBEM) enriched with the partition-of-unity expansion using a set of plane waves, where the results are generally in good agreement with the linterature with some computation advantage to XIBEM which allows coarser meshes.
-In 3D axi-symmetric problems, the three-dimensional problem is simplified in BEM from a surface integral to a combination of two 1D integrals. The first is the line integral similar to a two-dimensional BEM problem. The second integral is performed over the angle of revolution. The discretization is applied only to the former integration. This leads to significant computational savings and, consequently, better treatment for higher frequencies over the full three-dimensional models.
- In fully 3D problems, a detailed comparison between two BEM methods: the conventional boundary integral equation (CBIE) and Burton-Miller (BM) is provided including the computational cost. The proposed models are enhanced with a modified collocation scheme with offsets to Greville abscissae to avoid placing collocation points at the corners. Placing collocation points on smooth surface enables accurate evaluation of normals for BM formulation in addition to straightforward prediction of jump-terms and avoids singularities in $\mathcal{O} (1/r)$ integrals eliminating the need for polar integration. Furthermore, no additional special treatment is required for the hyper-singular integral while collocating on highly distorted elements, such as those containing sphere poles. The obtained results indicate that, CBIE with PSO is a feasible alternative (except for a small number of fictitious frequencies) which is easier to implement. Furthermore, BM presents an outstanding treatment of the complicated geometry of mufflers with internal extended inlet/outlet tube as an interior 3D Helmholtz acoustic problem instead of using mixed or dual BEM.