## Internationales Kolloquium über Anwendungen der Informatik und Mathematik in Architektur und Bauwesen, IKM, Weimar, 16. 2003

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- Nichtlineare Mechanik (2) (remove)

The vibration control of complicated mechanical structures is impossible without proper mathematical models that allow to have a true apprehension of events occurring in structural member before the starting of the experiment and correct the diagnostic experiment in case of need. An approach that implies using of a discrete model reflecting all required features of a prototype system and permitting of an effective analytical and numerical investigation is proposed in the work. At first a discrete model of a bladed disk with flaw is considered. Taking into account the symmetry of the structure by utilization of mathematical tools of group presentation theory the number of degrees of freedom of the system is diminished. Small damage of the disk is regarded as perturbation of structure symmetry. The distinction of vibration characteristics such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of damaged and undamaged systems is determined theoretically with the help of perturbation theory and can be used as an effective diagnostic criterion of a small-scale damage of the structure. In the second part of the work a non-linear two-mass model of an acoustic emission in a damaged structure is proposed. On basis of the numerical integration of the nonlinear differential equations and expansion of the derived solution into a Fourier series free and forced vibrations of the model are investigated. It is shown that proposed model reflects all characteristic properties of vibrations of damaged structures: reduction of natural frequency, sub- and super-resonances, acoustic effects.

Iso-parametric finite elements with linear shape functions show in general a too stiff element behavior, called locking. By the investigation of structural parts under bending loading the so-called shear locking appears, because these elements can not reproduce pure bending modes. Many studies dealt with the locking problem and a number of methods to avoid the undesirable effects have been developed. Two well known methods are the >Assumed Natural Strain< (ANS) method and the >Enhanced Assumed Strain< (EAS) method. In this study the EAS method is applied to a four-node plane element with four EAS-parameters. The paper will describe the well-known linear formulation, its extension to nonlinear materials and the modeling of material uncertainties with random fields. For nonlinear material behavior the EAS parameters can not be determined directly. Here the problem is solved by using an internal iteration at the element level, which is much more efficient and stable than the determination via a global iteration. To verify the deterministic element behavior the results of common test examples are presented for linear and nonlinear materials. The modeling of material uncertainties is done by point-discretized random fields. To show the applicability of the element for stochastic finite element calculations Latin Hypercube Sampling was applied to investigate the stochastic hardening behavior of a cantilever beam with nonlinear material. The enhanced linear element can be applied as an alternative to higher-order finite elements where more nodes are necessary. The presented element formulation can be used in a similar manner to improve stochastic linear solid elements.