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In this paper, wavelet energy damage indicator is used in response surface methodology to identify the damage in simulated filler beam railway bridge. The approximate model is addressed to include the operational and surrounding condition in the assessment. The procedure is split into two stages, the training and detecting phase. During training phase, a so-called response surface is built from training data using polynomial regression and radial basis function approximation approaches. The response surface is used to detect the damage in structure during detection phase. The results show that the response surface model is able to detect moderate damage in one of bridge supports while the temperatures and train velocities are varied.

The numerical simulation of microstructure models in 3D requires, due to enormous d.o.f., significant resources of memory as well as parallel computational power. Compared to homogeneous materials, the material hetrogeneity on microscale induced by different material phases demand for adequate computational methods for discretization and solution process of the resulting highly nonlinear problem. To enable an efficient/scalable solution process of the linearized equation systems the heterogeneous FE problem will be described by a FETI-DP (Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting - Dual Primal) discretization. The fundamental FETI-DP equation can be solved by a number of different approaches. In our approach the FETI-DP problem will be reformulated as Saddle Point system, by eliminating the primal and Lagrangian variables. For the reduced Saddle Point system, only defined by interior and dual variables, special Uzawa algorithms can be adapted for iteratively solving the FETI-DP saddle-point equation system (FETI-DP SPE). A conjugate gradient version of the Uzawa algorithm will be shown as well as some numerical tests regarding to FETI-DP discretization of small examples using the presented solution technique. Furthermore the inversion of the interior-dual Schur complement operator can be approximated using different techniques building an adequate preconditioning matrix and therewith leading to substantial gains in computing time efficiency.

The vibration control of the tall building during earthquake excitations is a challenging task due to their complex seismic behavior. This paper investigates the optimum placement and properties of the Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) in tall buildings, which are employed to control the vibrations during earthquakes. An algorithm was developed to spend a limited mass either in a single TMD or in multiple TMDs and distribute them optimally over the height of the building. The Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA – II) method was improved by adding multi-variant genetic operators and utilized to simultaneously study the optimum design parameters of the TMDs and the optimum placement. The results showed that under earthquake excitations with noticeable amplitude in higher modes, distributing TMDs over the height of the building is more effective in mitigating the vibrations compared to the use of a single TMD system. From the optimization, it was observed that the locations of the TMDs were related to the stories corresponding to the maximum modal displacements in the lower modes and the stories corresponding to the maximum modal displacements in the modes which were highly activated by the earthquake excitations. It was also noted that the frequency content of the earthquake has significant influence on the optimum location of the TMDs.

PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION OF MESOSCALE MODELS FROM MACROSCOPIC TESTS USING BAYESIAN NEURAL NETWORKS
(2010)

In this paper, a parameter identification procedure using Bayesian neural networks is proposed. Based on a training set of numerical simulations, where the material parameters are simulated in a predefined range using Latin Hypercube sampling, a Bayesian neural network, which has been extended to describe the noise of multiple outputs using a full covariance matrix, is trained to approximate the inverse relation from the experiment (displacements, forces etc.) to the material parameters. The method offers not only the possibility to determine the parameters itself, but also the accuracy of the estimate and the correlation between these parameters. As a result, a set of experiments can be designed to calibrate a numerical model.

Advanced finite elements are proposed for the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials. The approximation quality of these finite elements can be controlled by a variable order of B-spline shape functions. An element-based formulation is developed such that the finite element problem can iteratively be solved without storing a global stiffness matrix. This memory saving allows for an essential increase of problem size. The heterogeneous material is modelled by projection onto a uniform, orthogonal grid of elements. Conventional, strictly grid-based finite element models show severe oscillating defects in the stress solutions at material interfaces. This problem is cured by the extension to multiphase finite elements. This concept enables to define a heterogeneous material distribution within the finite element. This is possible by a variable number of integration points to each of which individual material properties can be assigned. Based on an interpolation of material properties at nodes and further smooth interpolation within the finite elements, a continuous material function is established. With both, continuous B-spline shape function and continuous material function, also the stress solution will be continuous in the domain. The inaccuracy implied by the continuous material field is by far less defective than the prior oscillating behaviour of stresses. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples are presented.

A fast solver method called the multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method is proposed for the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous materials on the mesoscale. Even small samples of a heterogeneous material such as concrete show a complex geometry of different phases. These materials can be modelled by projection onto a uniform, orthogonal grid of elements. As one major problem the possible resolution of the concrete specimen is generally restricted due to (a) computation times and even more critical (b) memory demand. Iterative solvers can be based on a local element-based formulation while orthogonal grids consist of geometrical identical elements. The element-based formulation is short and transparent, and therefore efficient in implementation. A variation of the material properties in elements or integration points is possible. The multigrid method is a fast iterative solver method, where ideally the computational effort only increases linear with problem size. This is an optimal property which is almost reached in the implementation presented here. In fact no other method is known which scales better than linear. Therefore the multigrid method gains in importance the larger the problem becomes. But for heterogeneous models with very large ratios of Young's moduli the multigrid method considerably slows down by a constant factor. Such large ratios occur in certain heterogeneous solids, as well as in the damage analysis of solids. As solution to this problem the multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method is proposed. A benchmark highlights the multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradient method as the method of choice for very large ratio's of Young's modulus. A proposed modified multigrid cycle shows good results, in the application as stand-alone solver or as preconditioner.

The design and application of high performance materials demands extensive knowledge of the materials damage behavior, which significantly depends on the meso- and microstructural complexity. Numerical simulations of crack growth on multiple length scales are promising tools to understand the damage phenomena in complex materials. In polycrystalline materials it has been observed that the grain boundary decohesion is one important mechanism that leads to micro crack initiation. Following this observation the paper presents a polycrystal mesoscale model consisting of grains with orthotropic material behavior and cohesive interfaces along grain boundaries, which is able to reproduce the crack initiation and propagation along grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials. With respect to the importance of modeling the geometry of the grain structure an advanced Voronoi algorithm is proposed to generate realistic polycrystalline material structures based on measured grain size distribution. The polycrystal model is applied to investigate the crack initiation and propagation in statically loaded representative volume elements of aluminum on the mesoscale without the necessity of initial damage definition. Future research work is planned to include the mesoscale model into a multiscale model for the damage analysis in polycrystalline materials.

The present article proposes an alternative way to compute the torsional stiffness based on three-dimensional continuum mechanics instead of applying a specific theory of torsion. A thin, representative beam slice is discretized by solid finite elements. Adequate boundary conditions and coupling conditions are integrated into the numerical model to obtain a proper answer on the torsion behaviour, thus on shear center, shear stress and torsional stiffness. This finite element approach only includes general assumptions of beam torsion which are independent of cross-section geometry. These assumptions essentially are: no in-plane deformation, constant torsion and free warping. Thus it is possible to achieve numerical solutions of high accuracy for arbitrary cross-sections. Due to the direct link to three-dimensional continuum mechanics, it is possible to extend the range of torsion analysis to sections which are composed of different materials or even to heterogeneous beams on a high scale of resolution. A brief study follows to validate the implementation and results are compared to analytical solutions.

In nonlinear simulations the loading is, in general, applied in an incremental way. Path-following algorithms are used to trace the equilibrium path during the failure process. Standard displacement controlled solution strategies fail if snap-back phenomena occur. In this contribution, a path-following algorithm based on the dissipation of the inelastic energy is presented which allows for the simulation of snap-backs. Since the constraint is defined in terms of the internal energy, the algorithm is not restricted to continuum damage models. Furthermore, no a priori knowledge about the final damage distribution is required. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using nonlinear mesoscale simulations.

The extended finite element method (XFEM) offers an elegant tool to model material discontinuities and cracks within a regular mesh, so that the element edges do not necessarily coincide with the discontinuities. This allows the modeling of propagating cracks without the requirement to adapt the mesh incrementally. Using a regular mesh offers the advantage, that simple refinement strategies based on the quadtree data structure can be used to refine the mesh in regions, that require a high mesh density. An additional benefit of the XFEM is, that the transmission of cohesive forces through a crack can be modeled in a straightforward way without introducing additional interface elements. Finally different criteria for the determination of the crack propagation angle are investigated and applied to numerical tests of cracked concrete specimens, which are compared with experimental results.