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- Computerunterstütztes Verfahren (36) (remove)

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The 19th International Conference on the Applications of Computer Science and Mathematics in Architecture and Civil Engineering will be held at the Bauhaus University Weimar from 4th till 6th July 2012. Architects, computer scientists, mathematicians, and engineers from all over the world will meet in Weimar for an interdisciplinary exchange of experiences, to report on their results in research, development and practice and to discuss. The conference covers a broad range of research areas: numerical analysis, function theoretic methods, partial differential equations, continuum mechanics, engineering applications, coupled problems, computer sciences, and related topics. Several plenary lectures in aforementioned areas will take place during the conference.
We invite architects, engineers, designers, computer scientists, mathematicians, planners, project managers, and software developers from business, science and research to participate in the conference!

In this paper, wavelet energy damage indicator is used in response surface methodology to identify the damage in simulated filler beam railway bridge. The approximate model is addressed to include the operational and surrounding condition in the assessment. The procedure is split into two stages, the training and detecting phase. During training phase, a so-called response surface is built from training data using polynomial regression and radial basis function approximation approaches. The response surface is used to detect the damage in structure during detection phase. The results show that the response surface model is able to detect moderate damage in one of bridge supports while the temperatures and train velocities are varied.

Electromagnetic wave propagation is currently present in the vast majority of situations which occur in veryday life, whether in mobile communications, DTV, satellite tracking, broadcasting, etc. Because of this the study of increasingly complex means of propagation of lectromagnetic waves has become necessary in order to optimize resources and increase the capabilities of the devices as required by the growing demand for such services.
Within the electromagnetic wave propagation different parameters are considered that characterize it under various circumstances and of particular importance are the reflectance and transmittance. There are several methods or the analysis of the reflectance and transmittance such as the method of approximation by boundary condition, the plane wave expansion method (PWE), etc., but this work focuses on the WKB and SPPS methods.
The implementation of the WKB method is relatively simple but is found to be relatively efficient only when working at high frequencies. The SPPS method (Spectral Parameter Powers Series) based on the theory of pseudoanalytic functions, is used to solve this problem through a new representation for solutions of Sturm Liouville equations and has recently proven to be a powerful tool to solve different boundary value and eigenvalue problems. Moreover, it has a very suitable structure for numerical implementation, which in this case took place in the Matlab software for the valuation of both conventional and turning points profiles.
The comparison between the two methods allows us to obtain valuable information about their perfor mance which is useful for determining the validity and propriety of their application for solving problems where these parameters are calculated in real life applications.

The present research analyses the error on prediction obtained under different data availability scenarios to determine which measurements contribute to an improvement of model prognosis and which not. A fully coupled 2D hydromechanical model of a water retaining dam is taken as an example. Here, the mean effective stress in the porous skeleton is reduced due to an increase in pore water pressure under drawdown conditions. Relevant model parameters are ranked by scaled sensitivities, Particle Swarm Optimization is applied to determine the optimal parameter values and model validation is performed to determine the magnitude of error forecast. We compare the predictions of the optimized models with results from a forward run of the reference model to obtain actual prediction errors.
The analyses presented here were performed to 31 data sets of 100 observations of varying data types. Calibrating with multiple information types instead of only one sort, brings better calibration results and improvement in model prognosis. However, when using several types of information the number of observations have to be increased to be able to cover a representative part of the model domain; otherwise a compromise between data availability and domain
coverage prove best. Which type of information for calibration contributes to the best prognoses, could not be determined in advance. For the error in model prognosis does not depends on the error in calibration, but on the parameter error, which unfortunately can not be determined in reality since we do not know its real value. Excellent calibration fits with parameters’ values near the limits of reasonable physical values, provided the highest prognosis errors. While models which included excess pore pressure values for calibration provided the best prognosis, independent of the calibration fit.

Non-destructive techniques for damage detection became the focus of engineering interests in the last few years. However, applying these techniques to large complex structures like civil engineering buildings still has some limitations since these types of structures are
unique and the methodologies often need a large number of specimens for reliable results. For this reason, cost and time can greatly influence the final results.
Model Assisted Probability Of Detection (MAPOD) has taken its place among the ranks of damage identification techniques, especially with advances in computer capacity and modeling tools. Nevertheless, the essential condition for a successful MAPOD is having a reliable model in advance. This condition is opening the door for model assessment and model quality problems. In this work, an approach is proposed that uses Partial Models (PM) to compute the Probability Of damage Detection (POD). A simply supported beam, that can be structurally modified and
tested under laboratory conditions, is taken as an example. The study includes both experimental and numerical investigations, the application of vibration-based damage detection approaches and a comparison of the results obtained based on tests and simulations.
Eventually, a proposal for a methodology to assess the reliability and the robustness of the models is given.

We study the Weinstein equation u on the upper half space R3+. The Weinstein equation is connected to the axially symmetric potentials. We compute solutions of the Weinstein equation depending on the hyperbolic distance and x2. These results imply the explicit mean value properties. We also compute the fundamental solution. The main tools are the hyperbolic metric and its invariance properties.

Safety operation of important civil structures such as bridges can be estimated by using fracture analysis. Since the analytical methods are not capable of solving many complicated engineering problems, numerical methods have been increasingly adopted. In this paper, a part of isotropic material which contains a crack is considered as a partial model and the proposed model quality is evaluated. EXtended IsoGeometric Analysis (XIGA) is a new developed numerical approach [1, 2] which benefits from advantages of its origins: eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA). It is capable of simulating crack propagation problems with no remeshing necessity and capturing singular field at the crack tip by using the crack tip enrichment functions. Also, exact representation of geometry is possible using only few elements. XIGA has also been successfully applied for fracture analysis of cracked orthotropic bodies [3] and for simulation of curved cracks [4]. XIGA applies NURBS functions for both geometry description and solution field approximation. The drawback of NURBS functions is that local refinement cannot be defined regarding that it is based on tensorproduct constructs unless multiple patches are used which has also some limitations. In this contribution, the XIGA is further developed to make the local refinement feasible by using Tspline basis functions. Adopting a recovery based error estimator in the proposed approach for evaluation of the model quality and performing the adaptive processes is in progress. Finally, some numerical examples with available analytical solutions are investigated by the developed scheme.

New foundations for geometric algebra are proposed based upon the existing isomorphisms between geometric and matrix algebras. Each geometric algebra always has a faithful real matrix representation with a periodicity of 8. On the other hand, each matrix algebra is always embedded in a geometric algebra of a convenient dimension. The geometric product is also isomorphic to the matrix product, and many vector transformations such as rotations, axial symmetries and Lorentz transformations can be written in a form isomorphic to a similarity transformation of matrices. We collect the idea that Dirac applied to develop the relativistic electron equation when he took a basis of matrices for the geometric algebra instead of a basis of geometric vectors. Of course, this way of understanding the geometric algebra requires new definitions: the geometric vector space is defined as the algebraic subspace that generates the rest of the matrix algebra by addition and multiplication; isometries are simply defined as the similarity transformations of matrices as shown above, and finally the norm of any element of the geometric algebra is defined as the nth root of the determinant of its representative matrix of order n×n. The main idea of this proposal is an arithmetic point of view consisting of reversing the roles of matrix and geometric algebras in the sense that geometric algebra is a way of accessing, working and understanding the most fundamental conception of matrix algebra as the algebra of transformations of multilinear quantities.

We briefly review and use the recent comprehensive research on the manifolds of square roots of −1 in real Clifford geometric algebras Cl(p,q) in order to construct the Clifford Fourier transform. Basically in the kernel of the complex Fourier transform the complex imaginary unit j is replaced by a square root of −1 in Cl(p,q). The Clifford Fourier transform (CFT) thus obtained generalizes previously known and applied CFTs, which replaced the complex imaginary unit j only by blades (usually pseudoscalars) squaring to −1. A major advantage of real Clifford algebra CFTs is their completely real geometric interpretation. We study (left and right) linearity of the CFT for constant multivector coefficients in Cl(p,q), translation (x-shift) and modulation (w -shift) properties, and signal dilations. We show an inversion theorem. We establish the CFT of vector differentials, partial derivatives, vector derivatives and spatial moments of the signal. We also derive Plancherel and Parseval identities as well as a general convolution theorem.

Numerical simulations in the general field of civil engineering are common for the design process of structures and/or the assessment of existing buildings. The behaviour of these structures is analytically unknown and is approximated with numerical simulation methods like the Finite Element Method (FEM). Therefore the real structure is transferred into a global model (GM, e.g. concrete bridge) with a wide range of sub models (partial models PM, e.g. material modelling, creep). These partial models are coupled together to predict the behaviour of the observed structure (GM) under different conditions. The engineer needs to decide which models are suitable for computing realistically and efficiently the physical processes determining the structural behaviour. Theoretical knowledge along with the experience from prior design processes will influence this model selection decision. It is thus often a qualitative selection of different models. The goal of this paper is to present a quantitative evaluation of the global model quality according to the simulation of a bridge subject to direct loading (dead load, traffic) and indirect loading (temperature), which induce restraint effects. The model quality can be separately investigated for each partial model and also for the coupled partial models in a global structural model. Probabilistic simulations are necessary for the evaluation of these model qualities by using Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis. The method is applied to the simulation of a semi-integral concrete bridge with a monolithic connection between the superstructure and the piers, and elastomeric bearings at the abutments. The results show that the evaluation of global model quality is strongly dependent on the sensitivity of the considered partial models and their related quantitative prediction quality. This method is not only a relative comparison between different models, but also a quantitative representation of model quality using probabilistic simulation methods, which can support the process of model selection for numerical simulations in research and practice.

Bridge vibration due to traffic loading has been subject of extensive research in the last decades. Such studies are concerned with deriving solutions for the bridge-vehicle interaction (BVI) and analyzing the dynamic responses considering randomness of the coupled model’s (BVI) input parameters and randomness of road unevenness. This study goes further to examine the effects of such randomness of input parameters and processes on the variance of dynamic responses in quantitative measures. The input parameters examined in the sensitivity analysis are, stiffness and damping of vehicle’s suspension system, axle spacing, and stiffness and damping of bridge. This study also examines the effects of the initial excitation of a vehicle on the influences of the considered input parameters. Variance based sensitivity analysis is often applied to deterministic models. However, the models for the dynamic problem is a stochastic one due to the simulations of the random processes. Thus, a setting using a joint meta-model; one for the mean response and other for the dispersion of the response is developed. The joint model is developed within the framework of Generalized Linear Models (GLM). An enhancement of the GLM procedure is suggested and tested; this enhancement incorporates Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation algorithms in the fitting of the mean component of the joint model. The sensitivity analysis is then performed on the joint-model developed for the dynamic responses caused by BVI.

In this paper we review two distint complete orthogonal systems of monogenic polynomials over 3D prolate spheroids. The underlying functions take on either values in the reduced and full quaternions (identified, respectively, with R3 and R4), and are generally assumed to be nullsolutions of the well known Riesz and Moisil Théodoresco systems in R3. This will be done in the spaces of square integrable functions over R and H. The representations of these polynomials are explicitly given. Additionally, we show that these polynomial functions play an important role in defining the Szegö kernel function over the surface of 3D spheroids. As a concrete application, we prove the explicit expression of the monogenic Szegö kernel function over 3D prolate spheroids.

This paper presents a methodology for uncertainty quantification in cyclic creep analysis. Several models- , namely BP model, Whaley and Neville model, modified MC90 for cyclic loading and modified Hyperbolic function for cyclic loading are used for uncertainty quantification. Three types of uncertainty are included in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ): (i) natural variability in loading and materials properties; (ii) data uncertainty due to measurement errors; and (iii) modelling uncertainty and errors during cyclic creep analysis. Due to the consideration of all type of uncertainties, a measure for the total variation of the model response is achieved. The study finds that the BP, modified Hyperbolic and modified MC90 are best performing models for cyclic creep prediction in that order. Further, global Sensitivity Analysis (SA) considering the uncorrelated and correlated parameters is used to quantify the contribution of each source of uncertainty to the overall prediction uncertainty and to identifying the important parameters. The error in determining the input quantities and model itself can produce significant changes in creep prediction values. The variability influence of input random quantities on the cyclic creep was studied by means of the stochastic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis namely the Gartner et al. method and Saltelli et al. method. All input imperfections were considered to be random quantities. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) numerical simulation method (Monte Carlo type method) was used. It has been found by the stochastic sensitivity analysis that the cyclic creep deformation variability is most sensitive to the Elastic modulus of concrete, compressive strength, mean stress, cyclic stress amplitude, number of cycle, in that order.

In this paper experimental studies and numerical analysis carried out on reinforced concrete beam are partially reported. They aimed to apply the rigid finite element method to calculations for reinforced concrete beams using discrete crack model. Hence rotational ductility resulting from crack occurrence had to be determined. A relationship for calculating it in static equilibrium was proposed. Laboratory experiments proved that dynamic ductility is considerably smaller. Therefore scaling of the empirical parameter was carried out. Consequently a formula for its value depending on reinforcement ratio was obtained.

A numerical analysis of the mode of deformation of the main load-bearing components of a typical frame sloping shaft headgear was performed. The analysis was done by a design model consisting of plane and solid finite elements, which were modeled in the program «LIRA». Due to the numerical results, the regularities of local stress distribution under a guide pulley bearing were revealed and parameters of a plane stress under both emergency and normal working loads were determined. In the numerical simulation, the guidelines to improve the construction of the joints of guide pulleys resting on sub-pulley frame-type structures were established. Overall, the results obtained are the basis for improving the engineering procedures of designing steel structures of shaft sloping headgear.

Monogenic functions play a role in quaternion analysis similarly to that of holomorphic functions in complex analysis. A holomorphic function with nonvanishing complex derivative is a conformal mapping. It is well-known that in Rn+1, n ≥ 2 the set of conformal mappings is restricted to the set of Möbius transformations only and that the Möbius transformations are not monogenic. The paper deals with a locally geometric mapping property of a subset of monogenic functions with nonvanishing hypercomplex derivatives (named M-conformal mappings). It is proved that M-conformal mappings orthogonal to all monogenic constants admit a certain change of solid angles and vice versa, that change can characterize such mappings. In addition, we determine planes in which those mappings behave like conformal mappings in the complex plane.

The topic of structural robustness is covered extensively in current literature in structural engineering. A few evaluation methods already exist. Since these methods are based on different evaluation approaches, the comparison is difficult. But all the approaches have one in common, they need a structural model which represents the structure to be evaluated. As the structural model is the basis of the robustness evaluation, there is the question if the quality of the chosen structural model is influencing the estimation of the structural robustness index. This paper shows what robustness in structural engineering means and gives an overview of existing assessment methods. One is the reliability based robustness index, which uses the reliability indices of a intact and a damaged structure. The second one is the risk based robustness index, which estimates the structural robustness by the usage of direct and indirect risk. The paper describes how these approaches for the evaluation of structural robustness works and which parameters will be used. Since both approaches needs a structural model for the estimation of the structural behavior and the probability of failure, it is necessary to think about the quality of the chosen structural model. Nevertheless, the chosen model has to represent the structure, the input factors and reflect the damages which occur. On the example of two different model qualities, it will be shown, that the model choice is really influencing the quality of the robustness index.

BAUHAUS ISOMETRY AND FIELDS
(2012)

While integration increases by networking, segregation strides ahead too. Most of us fixate our mind on special topics. Yet we are relying on our intuition too. We are sometimes waiting for the inflow of new ideas or valuable information that we hold in high esteem, although we are not entirely conscious of its origin. We may even say the most precious intuitions are rooting in deep subconscious, collective layers of the mind. Take as a simple example the emergence of orientation in paleolithic events and its relation to the dihedral symmetry of the compass. Consider also the extension of this algebraic matter into the operational structures of the mind on the one hand and into the algebra of geometry, Clifford algebra as we use to call it today, on the other. Culture and mind, and even the individual act of creation may be connected with transient events that are subconscious and inaccessible to cognition in principle. Other events causative for our work may be merely invisible too us, though in principle they should turn out attainable. In this case we are just ignorant of the whole creative process. Sometimes we begin to use unusual tools or turn into handicraft enthusiasts. Then our small institutes turn into workshops and factories. All this is indeed joining with the Bauhaus and its spirit. We shall go together into this, and we shall present a record of this session.

The Bernstein polynomials are used for important applications in many branches of Mathematics and the other sciences, for instance, approximation theory, probability theory, statistic theory, num- ber theory, the solution of the di¤erential equations, numerical analysis, constructing Bezier curves, q-calculus, operator theory and applications in computer graphics. The Bernstein polynomials are used to construct Bezier curves. Bezier was an engineer with the Renault car company and set out in the early 1960’s to develop a curve formulation which would lend itself to shape design. Engineers may …nd it most understandable to think of Bezier curves in terms of the center of mass of a set of point masses. Therefore, in this paper, we study on generating functions and functional equations for these polynomials. By applying these functions, we investigate interpolation function and many properties of these polynomials.

The aim of this study is to show an application of model robustness measures for soilstructure interaction (henceforth written as SSI) models. Model robustness defines a measure for the ability of a model to provide useful model answers for input parameters which typically have a wide range in geotechnical engineering. The calculation of SSI is a major problem in geotechnical engineering. Several different models exist for the estimation of SSI. These can be separated into analytical, semi-analytical and numerical methods. This paper focuses on the numerical models of SSI specific macro-element type models and more advanced finite element method models using contact description as continuum or interface elements. A brief description of the models used is given in the paper. Following this description, the applied SSI problem is introduced. The observed event is a static loaded shallow foundation with an inclined load. The different partial models to consider the SSI effects are assessed using different robustness measures during numerical application. The paper shows the investigation of the capability to use these measures for the assessment of the model quality of SSI partial models. A variance based robustness and a mathematical robustness approaches are applied. These different robustness measures are used in a framework which allows also the investigation of computational time consuming models. Finally the result shows that the concept of using robustness approaches combined with other model–quality indicators (e.g. model sensitivity or model reliability) can lead to unique model–quality assessment for SSI models.

The process of analysis and design in structural engineering requires the consideration of different partial models, for example loading, structural materials, structural elements, and analysis types. The various partial models are combined by coupling several of their components. Due to the large number of available partial models describing similar phenomena, many different model combinations are possible to simulate the same aspects of a structure. The challenging task of an engineer is to select a model combination that ensures a sufficient, reliable prognosis. In order to achieve this reliable prognosis of the overall structural behavior, a high individual quality of the partial models and an adequate coupling of the partial models is required. Several methodologies have been proposed to evaluate the quality of partial models for their intended application, but a detailed study of the coupling quality is still lacking. This paper proposes a new approach to assess the coupling quality of partial models in a quantitative manner. The approach is based on the consistency of the coupled data and applies for uni- and bidirectional coupled partial models. Furthermore, the influence of the coupling quality on the output quantities of the partial models is considered. The functionality of the algorithm and the effect of the coupling quality are demonstrated using an example of coupled partial models in structural engineering.

The aim of this paper we discuss explicit series constructions for the fundamental solution of the Helmholtz operator on some important examples non-orientable conformally at manifolds. In the context of this paper we focus on higher dimensional generalizations of the Klein bottle which in turn generalize higher dimensional Möbius strips that we discussed in preceding works. We discuss some basic properties of pinor valued solutions to the Helmholtz equation on these manifolds.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE LOCAL CONCAVITY ON THE FUNCTIONING OF BEARING SHELL OF HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION
(2012)

Areas with various defects and damages, which reduce carrying capacity, were examined in a study of metal chimneys. In this work, the influence of the local dimples on the function of metal chimneys was considered. Modeling tasks were completed in the software packages LIRA and ANSYS. Parameters were identified, which characterize the local dimples, and a numerical study of the influence of local dimples on the stress-strain state of shells of metal chimneys was conducted. A distribution field of circular and meridional tension was analyzed in a researched area. Zones of influence of dimples on the bearing cover of metal chimneys were investigated. The bearing capacities of high-rise structures with various dimple geometries and various cover parameters were determined with respect to specified areas of the trunk. Dependent relationships are represented graphically for the decrease in bearing capacity of a cover with respect to dimples. Diameter and thickness of covers of metal chimneys were constructed according to the resulting data.

Many structures in different engineering applications suffer from cracking. In order to make reliable prognosis about the serviceability of those structures it is of utmost importance to identify cracks as precisely as possible by non-destructive testing. A novel approach (XIGA), which combines the Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) and the Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is used for the forward problem, namely the analysis of a cracked material, see [1]. Applying the NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline) based approach from IGA together with the XFEM allows to describe effectively arbitrarily shaped cracks and avoids the necessity of remeshing during the crack identification problem. We want to exploit these advantages for the inverse problem of detecting existing cracks by non-destructive testing, see e.g. [2]. The quality of the reconstructed cracks however depends on two major issues, namely the quality of the measured data (measurement error) and the discretization of the crack model. The first one will be taken into account by applying regularizing methods with a posteriori stopping criteria. The second one is critical in the sense that too few degrees of freedom, i.e. the number of control points of the NURBS, do not allow for a precise description of the crack. An increased number of control points, however, increases the number of unknowns in the inverse analysis and intensifies the ill-posedness. The trade-off between accuracy and stability is aimed to be found by applying an inverse multilevel algorithm [3, 4] where the identification is started with short knot vectors which successively will be enlarged during the identification process.

It is well known that complex quaternion analysis plays an important role in the study of higher order boundary value problems of mathematical physics. Following the ideas given for real quaternion analysis, the paper deals with certain orthogonal decompositions of the complex quaternion Hilbert space into its subspaces of null solutions of Dirac type operator with an arbitrary complex potential. We then apply them to consider related boundary value problems, and to prove the existence and uniqueness as well as the explicit representation formulae of the underlying solutions.

This paper is focused on the first numerical tests for coupling between analytical solution and finite element method on the example of one problem of fracture mechanics. The calculations were done according to ideas proposed in [1]. The analytical solutions are constructed by using an orthogonal basis of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic functions. For coupling with finite element method the special elements are constructed by using the trigonometric interpolation theorem.

This paper presents a robust model updating strategy for system identification of wind turbines. To control the updating parameters and to avoid ill-conditioning, the global sensitivity analysis using the elementary effects method is conducted. The formulation of the objective function is based on M¨uller-Slany’s strategy for multi-criteria functions. As a simulationbased optimization, a simulation adapter is developed to interface the simulation software ANSYS and the locally developed optimization software MOPACK. Model updating is firstly tested on the beam model of the rotor blade. The defect between the numerical model and the reference has been markedly reduced by the process of model updating. The effect of model updating becomes more pronounced in the comparison of the measured and the numerical properties of the wind turbine model. The deviations of the frequencies of the updated model are rather small. The complete comparison including the free vibration modes by the modal assurance criteria shows the excellent coincidence of the modal parameters of the updated model with the ones from the measurements. By successful implementation of the model validation via model updating, the applicability and effectiveness of the solution concept has been demonstrated.

The aim of our contribution is to clarify the relation between totally regular variables and Appell sequences of hypercomplex holomorphic polynomials (sometimes simply called monogenic power-like functions) in Hypercomplex Function Theory. After their introduction in 2006 by two of the authors of this note on the occasion of the 17th IKM, the latter have been subject of investigations by different authors with different methods and in various contexts. The former concept, introduced by R. Delanghe in 1970 and later also studied by K. Gürlebeck in 1982 for the case of quaternions, has some obvious relationship with the latter, since it describes a set of linear hypercomplex holomorphic functions all power of which are also hypercomplex holomorphic. Due to the non-commutative nature of the underlying Clifford algebra, being totally regular variables or Appell sequences are not trivial properties as it is for the integer powers of the complex variable z=x+ iy. Simple examples show also, that not every totally regular variable and its powers form an Appell sequence and vice versa. Under some very natural normalization condition the set of all para-vector valued totally regular variables which are also Appell sequences will completely be characterized. In some sense the result can also be considered as an answer to a remark of K. Habetha in chapter 16: Function theory in algebras of the collection Complex analysis. Methods, trends, and applications, Akademie-Verlag Berlin, (Eds. E. Lanckau and W. Tutschke) 225-237 (1983) on the use of exact copies of several complex variables for the power series representation of any hypercomplex holomorphic function.

Civil engineers take advantage of models to design reliable structures. In order to fulfill the design goal with a certain amount of confidence, the utilized models should be able to predict the probable structural behavior under the expected loading schemes. Therefore, a major challenge is to find models which provide less uncertain and more robust responses. The problem gets even twofold when the model to be studied is a global model comprised of different interacting partial models. This study aims at model quality evaluation of global models with a focus on frame-wall systems as the case study. The paper, presents the results of the first step taken toward accomplishing this goal. To start the model quality evaluation of the global frame-wall system, the main element (i.e. the wall) was studied through nonlinear static and dynamic analysis using two different modeling approaches. The two selected models included the fiber section model and the Multiple-Vertical-Line-Element-Model (MVLEM). The influence of the wall aspect ratio (H=L) and the axial load on the response of the models was studied. The results from nonlinear static and dynamic analysis of both models are presented and compared. The models resulted in quite different responses in the range of low aspect ratio walls under large axial loads due to different contribution of the shear deformations to the top displacement. In the studied cases, the results implied that careful attention should be paid to the model quality evaluation of the wall models specifically when they are supposed to be coupled to other partial models such as a moment frame or a soil-footing substructure which their response is sensitive to shear deformations. In this case, even a high quality wall model would not result in a high quality coupled system since it fails to interact properly with the rest of the system.

Due to the complex interactions between the ground, the driving machine, the lining tube and the built environment, the accurate assignment of in-situ system parameters for numerical simulation in mechanized tunneling is always subject to tremendous difficulties. However, the more accurate these parameters are, the more applicable the responses gained from computations will be. In particular, if the entire length of the tunnel lining is examined, then, the appropriate selection of various kinds of ground parameters is accountable for the success of a tunnel project and, more importantly, will prevent potential casualties. In this context, methods of system identification for the adaptation of numerical simulation of ground models are presented. Hereby, both deterministic and probabilistic approaches are considered for typical scenarios representing notable variations or changes in the ground model.

A concept of non-commutative Galois extension is introduced and binary and ternary extensions are chosen. Non-commutative Galois extensions of Nonion algebra and su(3) are constructed. Then ternary and binary Clifford analysis are introduced for non-commutative Galois extensions and the corresponding Dirac operators are associated.

MODEL DESCRIBING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DISPLACEMENTS OF SILOS WALL DURING THE FLOW OF LOOSE MATERIAL
(2012)

Correct evaluation of wall displacements is a key matter when designing silos. This issue is important from both the standpoint of design engineer (load-bearing capacity of structures) and end-consumer (durability of structures). Commonplace methods of silo design mainly focus on satisfying limit states of load-bearing capacity. Current standards fail to specify methods of dynamic displacements analysis. Measurements of stressacting on silo walls prove that the actual stress is sum of static and dynamic stresses. Janssen came up with differential equation describing state of static equilibrium in cross-section of a silo. By solving the equation static stress of granular solid on silo walls can be determined. Equations of motion were determined from equilibrium equations of feature objects. General solution, describing dynamic stresses was presented as parametric model. This paper presents particular integrals of differential equation, which enable analysing displacements and vibrations for different rigidities of silo walls, types of granular solid and its flow rate.

DISCRETE CRACK MODEL OF BORCZ FOR CALCULATING THE DEFLECTIONS OF BENDING REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM
(2012)

In the design of the reinforced concrete beams loaded by the bending moment, it is assumed that the structure can be used at a level of load, that there are local discontinuities - cracks. Designing the element demands checking two limit states of construction, load capacity and usability. Limit states usability include also the deflection of the element. Deflections in the reinforced concrete beams with cracks are based on actual rigidity of the element. After cracking there is a local change in rigidity of the beam. The rigidity is variable in the element’s length and due to the heterogeneous structure of concrete, it is not possible to clearly describe those changes. Most standards of testing methods tend to simplify the calculations and take the average value of the beam’s rigidity on its entire length. The rigidity depends on the level of the maximal load of the beam. Experimental researches verify the value by inserting the coefficients into the formulas used in the theory of elasticity. The researches describe the changes in rigidity in the beam’s length more precisely. The authors take into consideration the change of rigidity, depending on the level of maximum load (continuum models), or localize the changes in rigidity in the area of the cracks (discrete models). This paper presents one of the discrete models. It is distinguished by the fact that the left side of the differential equation, that depends on the rigidity, is constant, and all effects associated with the scratches are taken as the external load and placed on the right side of the equation. This allows to generalize the description. The paper presents a particular integral of the differential equation, which allow analyzing the displacement and vibration for different rigidity of the silo’s walls, the flow rate and type of the flowing material.

The analysis of the response of complex structural systems requires the description of the material constitutive relations by means of an appropriate material model. The level of abstraction of such model may strongly affect the quality of the prognosis of the whole structure. In context to this fact, it is necessary to describe the material in a convenient sense as exact but as simple as possible. All material phenomena of crystalline materials e.g. steel, affecting the behavior of the structure, rely on physical effects which are interacting over spatial scales from subatomic to macroscopic range. Nevertheless, if the material is microscopically heterogenic, it might be appropriate to use phenomenological models for the purpose of civil engineering. Although constantly applied, these models are insufficient for steel materials with microscopic characteristics such as texture, typically occurring in hot rolled steel members or heat affected zones of welded joints. Hence, texture is manifested in crystalline materials as a regular crystallographic structure and crystallite orientation, influencing macroscopic material properties. The analysis of structural response of material with texture (e.g. rolled steel or heat affected zone of a welded joint) obliges the extension of the phenomenological material description of macroscopic scale by means of microscopic information. This paper introduces an enrichment approach for material models based on a hierarchical multiscale methodology. This has been done by describing the grain texture on a mesoscopic scale and coupling it with macroscopic constitutive relations by means of homogenization. Due to a variety of available homogenization methods, the question of an assessment of coupling quality arises. The applicability of the method and the effect of the coupling method on the reliability of the response are presented on an example.

Long-span cable supported bridges are prone to aerodynamic instabilities caused by wind and this phenomenon is usually a major design criterion. If the wind speed exceeds the critical flutter speed of the bridge, this constitutes an Ultimate Limit State. The prediction of the flutter boundary therefore requires accurate and robust models. This paper aims at studying various combinations of models to predict the flutter phenomenon.
Since flutter is a coupling of aerodynamic forcing with a structural dynamics problem, different types and classes of models can be combined to study the interaction. Here, both numerical approaches and analytical models are utilised and coupled in different ways to assess the prediction quality of the hybrid model. Models for aerodynamic forces employed are the analytical Theodorsen expressions for the motion-enduced aerodynamic forces of a flat plate and Scanlan derivatives as a Meta model. Further, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations using the Vortex Particle Method (VPM) were used to cover numerical models.
The structural representations were dimensionally reduced to two degree of freedom section models calibrated from global models as well as a fully three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model. A two degree of freedom system was analysed analytically as well as numerically.
Generally, all models were able to predict the flutter phenomenon and relatively close agreement was found for the particular bridge. In conclusion, the model choice for a given practical analysis scenario will be discussed in the context of the analysis findings.