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Due to the importance of identifying crop cultivars, the advancement of accurate assessment of cultivars is considered essential. The existing methods for identifying rice cultivars are mainly time-consuming, costly, and destructive. Therefore, the development of novel methods is highly beneficial. The aim of the present research is to classify common rice cultivars in Iran based on color, morphologic, and texture properties using artificial intelligence (AI) methods. In doing so, digital images of 13 rice cultivars in Iran in three forms of paddy, brown, and white are analyzed through pre-processing and segmentation of using MATLAB. Ninety-two specificities, including 60 color, 14 morphologic, and 18 texture properties, were identified for each rice cultivar. In the next step, the normal distribution of data was evaluated, and the possibility of observing a significant difference between all specificities of cultivars was studied using variance analysis. In addition, the least significant difference (LSD) test was performed to obtain a more accurate comparison between cultivars. To reduce data dimensions and focus on the most effective components, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed. Accordingly, the accuracy of rice cultivar separations was calculated for paddy, brown rice, and white rice using discriminant analysis (DA), which was 89.2%, 87.7%, and 83.1%, respectively. To identify and classify the desired cultivars, a multilayered perceptron neural network was implemented based on the most effective components. The results showed 100% accuracy of the network in identifying and classifying all mentioned rice cultivars. Hence, it is concluded that the integrated method of image processing and pattern recognition methods, such as statistical classification and artificial neural networks, can be used for identifying and classification of rice cultivars.

Recently, the demand for residence and usage of urban infrastructure has been increased, thereby resulting in the elevation of risk levels of human lives over natural calamities. The occupancy demand has rapidly increased the construction rate, whereas the inadequate design of structures prone to more vulnerability. Buildings constructed before the development of seismic codes have an additional susceptibility to earthquake vibrations. The structural collapse causes an economic loss as well as setbacks for human lives. An application of different theoretical methods to analyze the structural behavior is expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, introducing a rapid vulnerability assessment method to check structural performances is necessary for future developments. The process, as mentioned earlier, is known as Rapid Visual Screening (RVS). This technique has been generated to identify, inventory, and screen structures that are potentially hazardous. Sometimes, poor construction quality does not provide some of the required parameters; in this case, the RVS process turns into a tedious scenario. Hence, to tackle such a situation, multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods for the seismic vulnerability assessment opens a new gateway. The different parameters required by RVS can be taken in MCDM. MCDM evaluates multiple conflicting criteria in decision making in several fields. This paper has aimed to bridge the gap between RVS and MCDM. Furthermore, to define the correlation between these techniques, implementation of the methodologies from Indian, Turkish, and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) codes has been done. The effects of seismic vulnerability of structures have been observed and compared.

Complex vortex flow patterns around bridge piers, especially during floods, cause scour process that can result in the failure of foundations. Abutment scour is a complex three-dimensional phenomenon that is difficult to predict especially with traditional formulas obtained using empirical approaches such as regressions. This paper presents a test of a standalone Kstar model with five novel hybrid algorithm of bagging (BA-Kstar), dagging (DA-Kstar), random committee (RC-Kstar), random subspace (RS-Kstar), and weighted instance handler wrapper (WIHWKstar) to predict scour depth (ds) for clear water condition. The dataset consists of 99 scour depth data from flume experiments (Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005) using abutment shapes such as vertical, semicircular and 45◦ wing. Four dimensionless parameter of relative flow depth (h/l), excess abutment Froude number (Fe), relative sediment size (d50/l) and relative submergence (d50/h) were considered for the prediction of relative scour depth (ds/l). A portion of the dataset was used for the calibration (70%), and the remaining used for model validation. Pearson correlation coefficients helped deciding relevance of the input parameters combination and finally four different combinations of input parameters were used. The performance of the models was assessed visually and with quantitative metrics. Overall, the best input combination for vertical abutment shape is the combination of Fe, d50/l and h/l, while for semicircular and 45◦ wing the combination of the Fe and d50/l is the most effective input parameter combination. Our results show that incorporating Fe, d50/l and h/l lead to higher performance while involving d50/h reduced the models prediction power for vertical abutment shape and for semicircular and 45◦ wing involving h/l and d50/h lead to more error. The WIHW-Kstar provided the highest performance in scour depth prediction around vertical abutment shape while RC-Kstar model outperform of other models for scour depth prediction around semicircular and 45◦ wing.

A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model of jointed hard rock for compressed air energy storage
(2014)

Renewable energy resources such as wind and solar are intermittent, which causes instability when being connected to utility grid of electricity. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) provides an economic and technical viable solution to this problem by utilizing subsurface rock cavern to store the electricity generated by renewable energy in the form of compressed air. Though CAES has been used for over three decades, it is only restricted to salt rock or aquifers for air tightness reason. In this paper, the technical feasibility of utilizing hard rock for CAES is investigated by using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) modelling of nonisothermal gas flow. Governing equations are derived from the rules of energy balance, mass balance, and static equilibrium. Cyclic volumetric mass source and heat source models are applied to simulate the gas injection and production. Evaluation is carried out for intact rock and rock with discrete crack, respectively. In both cases, the heat and pressure losses using air mass control and supplementary air injection are compared.

A Machine Learning Framework for Assessing Seismic Hazard Safety of Reinforced Concrete Buildings
(2020)

Although averting a seismic disturbance and its physical, social, and economic disruption is practically impossible, using the advancements in computational science and numerical modeling shall equip humanity to predict its severity, understand the outcomes, and equip for post-disaster management. Many buildings exist amidst the developed metropolitan areas, which are senile and still in service. These buildings were also designed before establishing national seismic codes or without the introduction of construction regulations. In that case, risk reduction is significant for developing alternatives and designing suitable models to enhance the existing structure’s performance. Such models will be able to classify risks and casualties related to possible earthquakes through emergency preparation. Thus, it is crucial to recognize structures that are susceptible to earthquake vibrations and need to be prioritized for retrofitting. However, each building’s behavior under seismic actions cannot be studied through performing structural analysis, as it might be unrealistic because of the rigorous computations, long period, and substantial expenditure. Therefore, it calls for a simple, reliable, and accurate process known as Rapid Visual Screening (RVS), which serves as a primary screening platform, including an optimum number of seismic parameters and predetermined performance damage conditions for structures. In this study, the damage classification technique was studied, and the efficacy of the Machine Learning (ML) method in damage prediction via a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model was explored. The ML model is trained and tested separately on damage data from four different earthquakes, namely Ecuador, Haiti, Nepal, and South Korea. Each dataset consists of varying numbers of input data and eight performance modifiers. Based on the study and the results, the ML model using SVM classifies the given input data into the belonging classes and accomplishes the performance on hazard safety evaluation of buildings.

Tall buildings have become an integral part of cities despite all their pros and cons. Some current tall buildings have several problems because of their unsuitable location; the problems include increasing density, imposing traffic on urban thoroughfares, blocking view corridors, etc. Some of these buildings have destroyed desirable views of the city. In this research, different criteria have been chosen, such as environment, access, social-economic, land-use, and physical context. These criteria and sub-criteria are prioritized and weighted by the analytic network process (ANP) based on experts’ opinions, using Super Decisions V2.8 software. On the other hand, layers corresponding to sub-criteria were made in ArcGIS 10.3 simultaneously, then via a weighted overlay (map algebra), a locating plan was created. In the next step seven hypothetical tall buildings (20 stories), in the best part of the locating plan, were considered to evaluate how much of theses hypothetical buildings would be visible (fuzzy visibility) from the street and open spaces throughout the city. These processes have been modeled by MATLAB software, and the final fuzzy visibility plan was created by ArcGIS. Fuzzy visibility results can help city managers and planners to choose which location is suitable for a tall building and how much visibility may be appropriate. The proposed model can locate tall buildings based on technical and visual criteria in the future development of the city and it can be widely used in any city as long as the criteria and weights are localized.

The Element-free Galerkin Method has become a very popular tool for the simulation of mechanical problems with moving boundaries. The internally applied Moving Least Squares approximation uses in general Gaussian or cubic weighting functions and has compact support. Due to the approximative character of this method the obtained shape functions do not fulfill the interpolation condition, which causes additional numerical effort for the imposition of the essential boundary conditions. The application of a singular weighting function, which leads to singular coefficient matrices at the nodes, can solve this problem, but requires a very careful placement of the integration points. Special procedures for the handling of such singular matrices were proposed in literature, which require additional numerical effort. In this paper a non-singular weighting function is presented, which leads to an exact fulfillment of the interpolation condition. This weighting function leads to regular values of the weights and the coefficient matrices in the whole interpolation domain even at the nodes. Furthermore this function gives much more stable results for varying size of the influence radius and for strongly distorted nodal arrangements than classical weighting function types. Nevertheless, for practical applications the results are similar as these obtained with the regularized weighting type presented by the authors in previous publications. Finally a new concept will be presented, which enables an efficient analysis of systems with strongly varying node density. In this concept the nodal influence domains are adapted depending on the nodal configuration by interpolating the influence radius for each direction from the distances to the natural neighbor nodes. This approach requires a Voronoi diagram of the domain, which is available in this study since Delaunay triangles are used as integration background cells. In the numerical examples it will be shown, that this method leads to a more uniform and reduced number of influencing nodes for systems with varying node density than the classical circular influence domains, which means that the small additional numerical effort for interpolating the influence radius leads to remarkable reduction of the total numerical cost in a linear analysis while obtaining similar results. For nonlinear calculations this advantage would be even more significant.

The K-nearest neighbors (KNN) machine learning algorithm is a well-known non-parametric classification method. However, like other traditional data mining methods, applying it on big data comes with computational challenges. Indeed, KNN determines the class of a new sample based on the class of its nearest neighbors; however, identifying the neighbors in a large amount of data imposes a large computational cost so that it is no longer applicable by a single computing machine. One of the proposed techniques to make classification methods applicable on large datasets is pruning. LC-KNN is an improved KNN method which first clusters the data into some smaller partitions using the K-means clustering method; and then applies the KNN for each new sample on the partition which its center is the nearest one. However, because the clusters have different shapes and densities, selection of the appropriate cluster is a challenge. In this paper, an approach has been proposed to improve the pruning phase of the LC-KNN method by taking into account these factors. The proposed approach helps to choose a more appropriate cluster of data for looking for the neighbors, thus, increasing the classification accuracy. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated on different real datasets. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and its higher classification accuracy and lower time cost in comparison to other recent relevant methods.

This paper presents a novel numerical procedure based on the combination of an edge-based smoothed finite element (ES-FEM) with a phantom-node method for 2D linear elastic fracture mechanics. In the standard phantom-node method, the cracks are formulated by adding phantom nodes, and the cracked element is replaced by two new superimposed elements. This approach is quite simple to implement into existing explicit finite element programs. The shape functions associated with discontinuous elements are similar to those of the standard finite elements, which leads to certain simplification with implementing in the existing codes. The phantom-node method allows modeling discontinuities at an arbitrary location in the mesh. The ES-FEM model owns a close-to-exact stiffness that is much softer than lower-order finite element methods (FEM). Taking advantage of both the ES-FEM and the phantom-node method, we introduce an edge-based strain smoothing technique for the phantom-node method. Numerical results show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy compared with the extended finite element method (XFEM) and other reference solutions.

A simple multiscale analysis framework for heterogeneous solids based on a computational homogenization technique is presented. The macroscopic strain is linked kinematically to the boundary displacement of a circular or spherical representative volume which contains the microscopic information of the material. The macroscopic stress is obtained from the energy principle between the macroscopic scale and the microscopic scale. This new method is applied to several standard examples to show its accuracy and consistency of the method proposed.

A four-node quadrilateral shell element with smoothed membrane-bending based on Mindlin-Reissner theory is proposed. The element is a combination of a plate bending and membrane element. It is based on mixed interpolation where the bending and membrane stiffness matrices are calculated on the boundaries of the smoothing cells while the shear terms are approximated by independent interpolation functions in natural coordinates. The proposed element is robust, computationally inexpensive and free of locking. Since the integration is done on the element boundaries for the bending and membrane terms, the element is more accurate than the MITC4 element for distorted meshes. This will be demonstrated for several numerical examples.

In recent decades, a multitude of concepts and models were developed to understand, assess and predict muscular mechanics in the context of physiological and pathological events.
Most of these models are highly specialized and designed to selectively address fields in, e.g., medicine, sports science, forensics, product design or CGI; their data are often not transferable to other ranges of application. A single universal model, which covers the details of biochemical and neural processes, as well as the development of internal and external force and motion patterns and appearance could not be practical with regard to the diversity of the questions to be investigated and the task to find answers efficiently. With reasonable limitations though, a generalized approach is feasible.
The objective of the work at hand was to develop a model for muscle simulation which covers the phenomenological aspects, and thus is universally applicable in domains where up until now specialized models were utilized. This includes investigations on active and passive motion, structural interaction of muscles within the body and with external elements, for example in crash scenarios, but also research topics like the verification of in vivo experiments and parameter identification. For this purpose, elements for the simulation of incompressible deformations were studied, adapted and implemented into the finite element code SLang. Various anisotropic, visco-elastic muscle models were developed or enhanced. The applicability was demonstrated on the base of several examples, and a general base for the implementation of further material models was developed and elaborated.

The numerical simulation of damage using phenomenological models on the macroscale was state of the art for many decades. However, such models are not able to capture the complex nature of damage, which simultaneously proceeds on multiple length scales. Furthermore, these phenomenological models usually contain damage parameters, which are physically not interpretable. Consequently, a reasonable experimental determination of these parameters is often impossible. In the last twenty years, the ongoing advance in computational capacities provided new opportunities for more and more detailed studies of the microstructural damage behavior. Today, multiphase models with several million degrees of freedom enable for the numerical simulation of micro-damage phenomena in naturally heterogeneous materials. Therewith, the application of multiscale concepts for the numerical investigation of the complex nature of damage can be realized. The presented thesis contributes to a hierarchical multiscale strategy for the simulation of brittle intergranular damage in polycrystalline materials, for example aluminum. The numerical investigation of physical damage phenomena on an atomistic microscale and the integration of these physically based information into damage models on the continuum meso- and macroscale is intended. Therefore, numerical methods for the damage analysis on the micro- and mesoscale including the scale transfer are presented and the transition to the macroscale is discussed. The investigation of brittle intergranular damage on the microscale is realized by the application of the nonlocal Quasicontinuum method, which fully describes the material behavior by atomistic potential functions, but reduces the number of atomic degrees of freedom by introducing kinematic couplings. Since this promising method is applied only by a limited group of researchers for special problems, necessary improvements have been realized in an own parallelized implementation of the 3D nonlocal Quasicontinuum method. The aim of this implementation was to develop and combine robust and efficient algorithms for a general use of the Quasicontinuum method, and therewith to allow for the atomistic damage analysis in arbitrary grain boundary configurations. The implementation is applied in analyses of brittle intergranular damage in ideal and nonideal grain boundary models of FCC aluminum, considering arbitrary misorientations. From the microscale simulations traction separation laws are derived, which describe grain boundary decohesion on the mesoscale. Traction separation laws are part of cohesive zone models to simulate the brittle interface decohesion in heterogeneous polycrystal structures. 2D and 3D mesoscale models are presented, which are able to reproduce crack initiation and propagation along cohesive interfaces in polycrystals. An improved Voronoi algorithm is developed in 2D to generate polycrystal material structures based on arbitrary distribution functions of grain size. The new model is more flexible in representing realistic grain size distributions. Further improvements of the 2D model are realized by the implementation and application of an orthotropic material model with Hill plasticity criterion to grains. The 2D and 3D polycrystal models are applied to analyze crack initiation and propagation in statically loaded samples of aluminum on the mesoscale without the necessity of initial damage definition.

Major problems of applying selective sensitivity to system identification are requirement of precise knowledge about the system parameters and realization of the required system of forces. This work presents a procedure which is able to deriving selectively sensitive excitation by iterative experiments. The first step is to determine the selectively sensitive displacement and selectively sensitive force patterns. These values are obtained by introducing the prior information of system parameters into an optimization which minimizes the sensitivities of the structure response with respect to the unselected parameters while keeping the sensitivities with respect to the selected parameters as a constant. In a second step the force pattern is used to derive dynamic loads on the tested structure and measurements are carried out. An automatic control ensures the required excitation forces. In a third step, measured outputs are employed to update the prior information. The strategy is to minimize the difference between a predicted displacement response, formulated as function of the unknown parameters and the measured displacements, and the selectively sensitive displacement calculated in the first step. With the updated values of the parameters a re-analysis of selective sensitivity is performed and the experiment is repeated until the displacement response of the model and the actual structure are conformed. As an illustration a simply supported beam made of steel, vibrated by harmonic excitation is investigated, thereby demonstrating that the adaptive excitation can be obtained efficiently.

The nonlinear behavior of concrete can be attributed to the propagation of microcracks within the heterogeneous internal material structure. In this thesis, a mesoscale model is developed which allows for the explicit simulation of these microcracks. Consequently, the actual physical phenomena causing the complex nonlinear macroscopic behavior of concrete can be represented using rather simple material formulations. On the mesoscale, the numerical model explicitly resolves the components of the internal material structure. For concrete, a three-phase model consisting of aggregates, mortar matrix and interfacial transition zone is proposed. Based on prescribed grading curves, an efficient algorithm for the generation of three-dimensional aggregate distributions using ellipsoids is presented. In the numerical model, tensile failure of the mortar matrix is described using a continuum damage approach. In order to reduce spurious mesh sensitivities, introduced by the softening behavior of the matrix material, nonlocal integral-type material formulations are applied. The propagation of cracks at the interface between aggregates and mortar matrix is represented in a discrete way using a cohesive crack approach. The iterative solution procedure is stabilized using a new path following constraint within the framework of load-displacement-constraint methods which allows for an efficient representation of snap-back phenomena. In several examples, the influence of the randomly generated heterogeneous material structure on the stochastic scatter of the results is analyzed. Furthermore, the ability of mesoscale models to represent size effects is investigated. Mesoscale simulations require the discretization of the internal material structure. Compared to simulations on the macroscale, the numerical effort and the memory demand increases dramatically. Due to the complexity of the numerical model, mesoscale simulations are, in general, limited to small specimens. In this thesis, an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach is presented which allows for the incorporation of mesoscale models within nonlinear simulations of concrete structures. In heterogeneous multiscale models, only critical regions, i.e. regions in which damage develops, are resolved on the mesoscale, whereas undamaged or sparsely damage regions are modeled on the macroscale. A crucial point in simulations with heterogeneous multiscale models is the coupling of sub-domains discretized on different length scales. The sub-domains differ not only in the size of the finite elements but also in the constitutive description. In this thesis, different methods for the coupling of non-matching discretizations - constraint equations, the mortar method and the arlequin method - are investigated and the application to heterogeneous multiscale models is presented. Another important point is the detection of critical regions. An adaptive solution procedure allowing the transfer of macroscale sub-domains to the mesoscale is proposed. In this context, several indicators which trigger the model adaptation are introduced. Finally, the application of the proposed adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach in nonlinear simulations of concrete structures is presented.

One major research focus in the Material Science and Engineering Community in the past decade has been to obtain a more fundamental understanding on the phenomenon 'material failure'. Such an understanding is critical for engineers and scientists developing new materials with higher strength and toughness, developing robust designs against failure, or for those concerned with an accurate estimate of a component's design life. Defects like cracks and dislocations evolve at
nano scales and influence the macroscopic properties such as strength, toughness and ductility of a material. In engineering applications, the global response of the system is often governed by the behaviour at the smaller length scales. Hence, the sub-scale behaviour must be computed accurately for good predictions of the full scale behaviour.
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations promise to reveal the fundamental mechanics of material failure by modeling the atom to atom interactions. Since the atomistic dimensions are of the order of Angstroms ( A), approximately 85 billion atoms are required to model a 1 micro- m^3 volume of Copper. Therefore, pure atomistic models are prohibitively expensive with everyday engineering computations involving macroscopic cracks and shear bands, which are much larger than the atomistic length and time scales. To reduce the computational effort, multiscale methods are required, which are able to couple a continuum description of the structure with an atomistic description. In such paradigms, cracks and dislocations are explicitly modeled at the atomistic scale, whilst a self-consistent continuum model elsewhere.
Many multiscale methods for fracture are developed for "fictitious" materials based on "simple" potentials such as the Lennard-Jones potential. Moreover, multiscale methods for evolving cracks are rare. Efficient methods to coarse grain the fine scale defects are missing. However, the existing multiscale methods for fracture do not adaptively adjust the fine scale domain as the crack propagates. Most methods, therefore only "enlarge" the fine scale domain and therefore drastically increase computational cost. Adaptive adjustment requires the fine scale domain to be refined and coarsened. One of the major difficulties in multiscale methods for fracture is to up-scale fracture related material information from the fine scale to the coarse scale, in particular for complex crack problems. Most of the existing approaches therefore were applied to examples with comparatively few macroscopic cracks.
Key contributions
The bridging scale method is enhanced using the phantom node method so that cracks can be modeled at the coarse scale. To ensure self-consistency in the bulk, a virtual atom cluster is devised providing the response of the intact material at the coarse scale. A molecular statics model is employed in the fine scale where crack propagation is modeled by naturally breaking the bonds. The fine scale and coarse scale models are coupled by enforcing the displacement boundary conditions on the ghost atoms. An energy criterion is used to detect the crack tip location. Adaptive refinement and coarsening schemes are developed and implemented during the crack propagation. The results were observed to be in excellent agreement with the pure atomistic simulations. The developed multiscale method is one of the first adaptive multiscale method for fracture.
A robust and simple three dimensional coarse graining technique to convert a given atomistic region into an equivalent coarse region, in the context of multiscale fracture has been developed. The developed method is the first of its kind. The developed coarse graining technique can be applied to identify and upscale the defects like: cracks, dislocations and shear bands. The current method has been applied to estimate the equivalent coarse scale models of several complex fracture patterns arrived from the pure atomistic simulations. The upscaled fracture pattern agree well with the actual fracture pattern. The error in the potential energy of the pure atomistic and the coarse grained model was observed to be acceptable.
A first novel meshless adaptive multiscale method for fracture has been developed. The phantom node method is replaced by a meshless differential reproducing kernel particle method. The differential reproducing kernel particle method is comparatively more expensive but allows for a more "natural" coupling between the two scales due to the meshless interpolation functions. The higher order continuity is also beneficial. The centro symmetry parameter is used to detect the crack tip location. The developed multiscale method is employed to study the complex crack propagation. Results based on the meshless adaptive multiscale method were observed to be in excellent agreement with the pure atomistic simulations.
The developed multiscale methods are applied to study the fracture in practical materials like Graphene and Graphene on Silicon surface. The bond stretching and the bond reorientation were observed to be the net mechanisms of the crack growth in Graphene. The influence of time step on the crack propagation was studied using two different time steps. Pure atomistic simulations of fracture in Graphene on Silicon surface are presented. Details of the three dimensional multiscale method to study the fracture in Graphene on Silicon surface are discussed.

In engineering science the modeling and numerical analysis of complex systems and relations plays an important role. In order to realize such an investigation, for example a stochastic analysis, in a reasonable computational time, approximation procedure have been developed. A very famous approach is the response surface method, where the relation between input and output quantities is represented for example by global polynomials or local interpolation schemes as Moving Least Squares (MLS). In recent years artificial neural networks (ANN) have been applied as well for such purposes. Recently an adaptive response surface approach for reliability analyses was proposed, which is very efficient concerning the number of expensive limit state function evaluations. Due to the applied simplex interpolation the procedure is limited to small dimensions. In this paper this approach is extended for larger dimensions using combined ANN and MLS response surfaces for evaluating the adaptation criterion with only one set of joined limit state points. As adaptation criterion a combination by using the maximum difference in the conditional probabilities of failure and the maximum difference in the approximated radii is applied. Compared to response surfaces on directional samples or to plain directional sampling the failure probability can be estimated with a much smaller number of limit state points.

In this paper an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale model, which couples two substructures with different length scales into one numerical model is introduced for the simulation of damage in concrete. In the presented approach the initiation, propagation and coalescence of microcracks is simulated using a mesoscale model, which explicitly represents the heterogeneous material structure of concrete. The mesoscale model is restricted to the damaged parts of the structure, whereas the undamaged regions are simulated on the macroscale. As a result an adaptive enlargement of the mesoscale model during the simulation is necessary. In the first part of the paper the generation of the heterogeneous mesoscopic structure of concrete, the finite element discretization of the mesoscale model, the applied isotropic damage model and the cohesive zone model are briefly introduced. Furthermore the mesoscale simulation of a uniaxial tension test of a concrete prism is presented and own obtained numerical results are compared to experimental results. The second part is focused on the adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach. Indicators for the model adaptation and for the coupling between the different numerical models will be introduced. The transfer from the macroscale to the mesoscale and the adaptive enlargement of the mesoscale substructure will be presented in detail. A nonlinear simulation of a realistic structure using an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale model is presented at the end of the paper to show the applicability of the proposed approach to large-scale structures.

In the context of finite element model updating using vibration test data, natural frequencies and mode shapes are used as validation criteria. Consequently, the order of natural frequencies and mode shapes is important. As only limited spatial information is available and noise is present in the measurements, the automatic selection of the most likely numerical mode shape corresponding to a measured mode shape is a difficult task. The most common criterion to indicate corresponding mode shapes is the modal assurance criterion. Unfortunately, this criterion fails in certain cases. In this paper, the pure mathematical modal assurance criterion will be enhanced by additional physical information of the numerical model in terms of modal strain energies. A numerical example and a benchmark study with real measured data are presented to show the advantages of the enhanced energy based criterion in comparison to the traditional modal assurance criterion.

The classical Internet of things routing and wireless sensor networks can provide more precise monitoring of the covered area due to the higher number of utilized nodes. Because of the limitations in shared transfer media, many nodes in the network are prone to the collision in simultaneous transmissions. Medium access control protocols are usually more practical in networks with low traffic, which are not subjected to external noise from adjacent frequencies. There are preventive, detection and control solutions to congestion management in the network which are all the focus of this study. In the congestion prevention phase, the proposed method chooses the next step of the path using the Fuzzy decision-making system to distribute network traffic via optimal paths. In the congestion detection phase, a dynamic approach to queue management was designed to detect congestion in the least amount of time and prevent the collision. In the congestion control phase, the back-pressure method was used based on the quality of the queue to decrease the probability of linking in the pathway from the pre-congested node. The main goals of this study are to balance energy consumption in network nodes, reducing the rate of lost packets and increasing quality of service in routing. Simulation results proved the proposed Congestion Control Fuzzy Decision Making (CCFDM) method was more capable in improving routing parameters as compared to recent algorithms.

Since the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s, the high emission of gaseous wastes into the atmosphere from the usage of fossil fuels has caused a general increase in temperatures globally. To combat the environmental imbalance, there is an increase in the demand for renewable energy sources. Dams play a major role in the generation of “green" energy. However, these structures require frequent and strict monitoring to ensure safe and efficient operation. To tackle the challenges faced in the application of convention dam monitoring techniques, this work proposes the inverse analysis of numerical models to identify damaged regions in the dam. Using a dynamic coupled hydro-mechanical Extended Finite Element Method (XFEM) model and a global optimization strategy, damage (crack) in the dam is identified. By employing seismic waves to probe the dam structure, a more detailed information on the distribution of heterogeneous materials and damaged regions are obtained by the application of the Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) method. The FWI is based on a local optimization strategy and thus it is highly dependent on the starting model. A variety of data acquisition setups are investigated, and an optimal setup is proposed. The effect of different starting models and noise in the measured data on the damage identification is considered. Combining the non-dependence of a starting model of the global optimization strategy based dynamic coupled hydro-mechanical XFEM method and the detailed output of the local optimization strategy based FWI method, an enhanced Full Waveform Inversion is proposed for the structural analysis of dams.

The modeling of crack propagation in plain and reinforced concrete structures is still a field for many researchers. If a macroscopic description of the cohesive cracking process of concrete is applied, generally the Fictitious Crack Model is utilized, where a force transmission over micro cracks is assumed. In the most applications of this concept the cohesive model represents the relation between the normal crack opening and the normal stress, which is mostly defined as an exponential softening function, independently from the shear stresses in tangential direction. The cohesive forces are then calculated only from the normal stresses. By Carol et al. 1997 an improved model was developed using a coupled relation between the normal and shear damage based on an elasto-plastic constitutive formulation. This model is based on a hyperbolic yield surface depending on the normal and the shear stresses and on the tensile and shear strength. This model also represents the effect of shear traction induced crack opening. Due to the elasto-plastic formulation, where the inelastic crack opening is represented by plastic strains, this model is limited for applications with monotonic loading. In order to enable the application for cases with un- and reloading the existing model is extended in this study using a combined plastic-damage formulation, which enables the modeling of crack opening and crack closure. Furthermore the corresponding algorithmic implementation using a return mapping approach is presented and the model is verified by means of several numerical examples. Finally an investigation concerning the identification of the model parameters by means of neural networks is presented. In this analysis an inverse approximation of the model parameters is performed by using a given set of points of the load displacement curves as input values and the model parameters as output terms. It will be shown, that the elasto-plastic model parameters could be identified well with this approach, but require a huge number of simulations.

Biodiesel, as the main alternative fuel to diesel fuel which is produced from renewable and available resources, improves the engine emissions during combustion in diesel engines. In this study, the biodiesel is produced initially from waste cooking oil (WCO). The fuel samples are applied in a diesel engine and the engine performance has been considered from the viewpoint of exergy and energy approaches. Engine tests are performed at a constant 1500 rpm speed with various loads and fuel samples. The obtained experimental data are also applied to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model. Response surface methodology (RSM) is employed to optimize the exergy and energy efficiencies. Based on the results of the energy analysis, optimal engine performance is obtained at 80% of full load in presence of B10 and B20 fuels. However, based on the exergy analysis results, optimal engine performance is obtained at 80% of full load in presence of B90 and B100 fuels. The optimum values of exergy and energy efficiencies are in the range of 25–30% of full load, which is the same as the calculated range obtained from mathematical modeling.

Self-healing materials have recently become more popular due to their capability to autonomously and autogenously repair the damage in cementitious materials. The concept of self-healing gives the damaged material the ability to recover its stiffness. This gives a difference in comparing with a material that is not subjected to healing. Once this material is damaged, it cannot sustain loading due to the stiffness degradation. Numerical modeling of self-healing materials is still in its infancy. Multiple experimental researches were conducted in literature to describe the behavior of self-healing of cementitious materials. However, few numerical investigations were undertaken.
The thesis presents an analytical framework of self-healing and super healing materials based on continuum damage-healing mechanics. Through this framework, we aim to describe the recovery and strengthening of material stiffness and strength. A simple damage healing law is proposed and applied on concrete material. The proposed damage-healing law is based on a new time-dependent healing variable. The damage-healing model is applied on isotropic concrete material at the macroscale under tensile load. Both autonomous and autogenous self-healing mechanisms are simulated under different loading conditions. These two mechanisms are denoted in the present work by coupled and uncoupled self-healing mechanisms, respectively. We assume in the coupled self-healing that the healing occurs at the same time with damage evolution, while we assume in the uncoupled self-healing that the healing occurs when the material is deformed and subjected to a rest period (damage is constant). In order to describe both coupled and uncoupled healing mechanisms, a one-dimensional element is subjected to different types of loading history.
In the same context, derivation of nonlinear self-healing theory is given, and comparison of linear and nonlinear damage-healing models is carried out using both coupled and uncoupled self-healing mechanisms. The nonlinear healing theory includes generalized nonlinear and quadratic healing models. The healing efficiency is studied by varying the values of the healing rest period and the parameter describing the material characteristics. In addition, theoretical formulation of different self-healing variables is presented for both isotropic and anisotropic maerials. The healing variables are defined based on the recovery in elastic modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, and bulk modulus. The evolution of the healing variable calculated based on cross-section as function of the healing variable calculated based on elastic stiffness is presented in both hypotheses of elastic strain equivalence and elastic energy equivalence. The components of the fourth-rank healing tensor are also obtained in the case of isotropic elasticity, plane stress and plane strain.
Recent research revealed that self-healing presents a crucial solution also for the strengthening of the materials. This new concept has been termed ``Super Healing``. Once the stiffness of the material is recovered, further healing can result as a strengthening material. In the present thesis, new theory of super healing materials is defined in isotropic and anisotropic cases using sound mathematical and mechanical principles which are applied in linear and nonlinear super healing theories. Additionally, the link of the proposed theory with the theory of undamageable materials is outlined. In order to describe the super healing efficiency in linear and nonlinear theories, the ratio of effective stress to nominal stress is calculated as function of the super healing variable. In addition, the hypotheses of elastic strain and elastic energy equivalence are applied. In the same context, new super healing matrix in plane strain is proposed based on continuum damage-healing mechanics.
In the present work, we also focus on numerical modeling of impact behavior of reinforced concrete slabs using the commercial finite element package Abaqus/Explicit. Plain and reinforced concrete slabs of unconfined compressive strength 41 MPa are simulated under impact of ogive-nosed hard projectile. The constitutive material modeling of the concrete and steel reinforcement bars is performed using the Johnson-Holmquist-2 damage and the Johnson-Cook plasticity material models, respectively. Damage diameters and residual velocities obtained by the numerical model are compared with the experimental results and effect of steel reinforcement and projectile diameter is studied.

In this work, molecular separation of aqueous-organic was simulated by using combined soft computing-mechanistic approaches. The considered separation system was a microporous membrane contactor for separation of benzoic acid from water by contacting with an organic phase containing extractor molecules. Indeed, extractive separation is carried out using membrane technology where complex of solute-organic is formed at the interface. The main focus was to develop a simulation methodology for prediction of concentration distribution of solute (benzoic acid) in the feed side of the membrane system, as the removal efficiency of the system is determined by concentration distribution of the solute in the feed channel. The pattern of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was optimized by finding the optimum membership function, learning percentage, and a number of rules. The ANFIS was trained using the extracted data from the CFD simulation of the membrane system. The comparisons between the predicted concentration distribution by ANFIS and CFD data revealed that the optimized ANFIS pattern can be used as a predictive tool for simulation of the process. The R2 of higher than 0.99 was obtained for the optimized ANFIS model. The main privilege of the developed methodology is its very low computational time for simulation of the system and can be used as a rigorous simulation tool for understanding and design of membrane-based systems.
Highlights are, Molecular separation using microporous membranes. Developing hybrid model based on ANFIS-CFD for the separation process, Optimization of ANFIS structure for prediction of separation process

The economic losses from earthquakes tend to hit the national economy considerably; therefore, models that are capable of estimating the vulnerability and losses of future earthquakes are highly consequential for emergency planners with the purpose of risk mitigation. This demands a mass prioritization filtering of structures to identify vulnerable buildings for retrofitting purposes. The application of advanced structural analysis on each building to study the earthquake response is impractical due to complex calculations, long computational time, and exorbitant cost. This exhibits the need for a fast, reliable, and rapid method, commonly known as Rapid Visual Screening (RVS). The method serves as a preliminary screening platform, using an optimum number of seismic parameters of the structure and predefined output damage states. In this study, the efficacy of the Machine Learning (ML) application in damage prediction through a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model as the damage classification technique has been investigated. The developed model was trained and examined based on damage data from the 1999 Düzce Earthquake in Turkey, where the building’s data consists of 22 performance modifiers that have been implemented with supervised machine learning.

Abstract In the first part of this research, the utilization of tuned mass dampers in the vibration control of tall buildings during earthquake excitations is studied. The main issues such as optimizing the parameters of the dampers and studying the effects of frequency content of the target earthquakes are addressed.
Abstract The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm method is improved by upgrading generic operators, and is utilized to develop a framework for determining the optimum placement and parameters of dampers in tall buildings. A case study is presented in which the optimal placement and properties of dampers are determined for a model of a tall building under different earthquake excitations through computer simulations.
Abstract In the second part, a novel framework for the brain learning-based intelligent seismic control of smart structures is developed. In this approach, a deep neural network learns how to improve structural responses during earthquake excitations using feedback control.
Abstract Reinforcement learning method is improved and utilized to develop a framework for training the deep neural network as an intelligent controller. The efficiency of the developed framework is examined through two case studies including a single-degree-of-freedom system and a high-rise building under different earthquake excitation records.
Abstract The results show that the controller gradually develops an optimum control policy to reduce the vibrations of a structure under an earthquake excitation through a cyclical process of actions and observations.
Abstract It is shown that the controller efficiently improves the structural responses under new earthquake excitations for which it was not trained. Moreover, it is shown that the controller has a stable performance under uncertainties.

One of the most important subjects of hydraulic engineering is the reliable estimation of the transverse distribution in the rectangular channel of bed and wall shear stresses. This study makes use of the Tsallis entropy, genetic programming (GP) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) methods to assess the shear stress distribution (SSD) in the rectangular channel.
To evaluate the results of the Tsallis entropy, GP and ANFIS models, laboratory observations were used in which shear stress was measured using an optimized Preston tube. This is then used to measure the SSD in various aspect ratios in the rectangular channel. To investigate the shear stress percentage, 10 data series with a total of 112 different data for were used. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the most influential parameter for the SSD in smooth rectangular channel is the dimensionless parameter B/H, Where the transverse coordinate is B, and the flow depth is H. With the parameters (b/B), (B/H) for the bed and (z/H), (B/H) for the wall as inputs, the modeling of the GP was better than the other one. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the use of GP and ANFIS algorithms is more effective in estimating shear stress in smooth rectangular channels than the Tsallis entropy-based equations.

The focus of the thesis is to process measurements acquired from a continuous
monitoring system at a railway bridge. Temperature, strain and ambient vibration
records are analysed and two main directions of investigation are pursued.
The first and the most demanding task is to develop processing routines able to extract modal parameters from ambient vibration measurements. For this purpose, reliable experimental models are achieved on the basis of a stochastic system identification(SSI) procedure. A fully automated algorithm based on a three-stage clustering is implemented to perform a modal parameter estimation for every single measurement. After selecting a baseline of modal parameters, the evolution of eigenfrequencies is
studied and correlated to environmental and operational factors.
The second aspect deals with the structural response to passing trains. Corresponding
triggered records of strain and temperature are processed and their assessment is
accomplished using the average strains induced by each train as the reference parameter.
Three influences due to speed, temperature and loads are distinguished and treated individually. An attempt to estimate the maximum response variation due to each factor is also carried out.

The phenomenon of aerodynamic instability caused by the wind is usually a major design criterion for long-span cable-supported bridges. If the wind speed exceeds the critical flutter speed of the bridge, this constitutes an Ultimate Limit State. The prediction of the flutter boundary, therefore, requires accurate and robust models. The complexity and uncertainty of models for such engineering problems demand strategies for model assessment. This study is an attempt to use the concepts of sensitivity and uncertainty analyses to assess the aeroelastic instability prediction models for long-span bridges. The state-of-the-art theory concerning the determination of the flutter stability limit is presented. Since flutter is a coupling of aerodynamic forcing with a structural dynamics problem, different types and classes of structural and aerodynamic models can be combined to study the interaction. Here, both numerical approaches and analytical models are utilised and coupled in different ways to assess the prediction quality of the coupled model.

The current study attempts to recognise an adequate classification for a semi-rigid beam-to-column connection by investigating strength, stiffness and ductility. For this purpose, an experimental test was carried out to investigate the moment-rotation (M-theta) features of flush end-plate (FEP) connections including variable parameters like size and number of bolts, thickness of end-plate, and finally, size of beams and columns. The initial elastic stiffness and ultimate moment capacity of connections were determined by an extensive analytical procedure from the proposed method prescribed by ANSI/AISC 360-10, and Eurocode 3 Part 1-8 specifications. The behaviour of beams with partially restrained or semi-rigid connections were also studied by incorporating classical analysis methods. The results confirmed that thickness of the column flange and end-plate substantially govern over the initial rotational stiffness of of flush end-plate connections. The results also clearly showed that EC3 provided a more reliable classification index for flush end-plate (FEP) connections. The findings from this study make significant contributions to the current literature as the actual response characteristics of such connections are non-linear. Therefore, such semirigid behaviour should be used to for an analysis and design method.

Prediction of the groundwater nitrate concentration is of utmost importance for pollution control and water resource management. This research aims to model the spatial groundwater nitrate concentration in the Marvdasht watershed, Iran, based on several artificial intelligence methods of support vector machine (SVM), Cubist, random forest (RF), and Bayesian artificial neural network (Baysia-ANN) machine learning models. For this purpose, 11 independent variables affecting groundwater nitrate changes include elevation, slope, plan curvature, profile curvature, rainfall, piezometric depth, distance from the river, distance from residential, Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and topographic wetness index (TWI) in the study area were prepared. Nitrate levels were also measured in 67 wells and used as a dependent variable for modeling. Data were divided into two categories of training (70%) and testing (30%) for modeling. The evaluation criteria coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) were used to evaluate the performance of the models used. The results of modeling the susceptibility of groundwater nitrate concentration showed that the RF (R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 4.24, NSE = 0.87) model is better than the other Cubist (R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 5.18, NSE = 0.81), SVM (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 6.07, NSE = 0.74), Bayesian-ANN (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 5.91, NSE = 0.75) models. The results of groundwater nitrate concentration zoning in the study area showed that the northern parts of the case study have the highest amount of nitrate, which is higher in these agricultural areas than in other areas. The most important cause of nitrate pollution in these areas is agriculture activities and the use of groundwater to irrigate these crops and the wells close to agricultural areas, which has led to the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers by irrigation or rainwater of these fertilizers is washed and penetrates groundwater and pollutes the aquifer.

This research aims to model soil temperature (ST) using machine learning models of multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm and support vector machine (SVM) in hybrid form with the Firefly optimization algorithm, i.e. MLP-FFA and SVM-FFA. In the current study, measured ST and meteorological parameters of Tabriz and Ahar weather stations in a period of 2013–2015 are used for training and testing of the studied models with one and two days as a delay. To ascertain conclusive results for validation of the proposed hybrid models, the error metrics are benchmarked in an independent testing period. Moreover, Taylor diagrams utilized for that purpose. Obtained results showed that, in a case of one day delay, except in predicting ST at 5 cm below the soil surface (ST5cm) at Tabriz station, MLP-FFA produced superior results compared with MLP, SVM, and SVM-FFA models. However, for two days delay, MLP-FFA indicated increased accuracy in predicting ST5cm and ST 20cm of Tabriz station and ST10cm of Ahar station in comparison with SVM-FFA. Additionally, for all of the prescribed models, the performance of the MLP-FFA and SVM-FFA hybrid models in the testing phase was found to be meaningfully superior to the classical MLP and SVM models.

This study permits a reliability analysis to solve the mechanical behaviour issues existing in the current structural design of fabric structures. Purely predictive material models are highly desirable to facilitate an optimized design scheme and to significantly reduce time and cost at the design stage, such as experimental characterization.
The present study examined the role of three major tasks; a) single-objective optimization, b) sensitivity analyses and c) multi-objective optimization on proposed weave structures for woven fabric composites. For single-objective optimization task, the first goal is to optimize the elastic properties of proposed complex weave structure under unit cells basis based on periodic boundary conditions.
We predict the geometric characteristics towards skewness of woven fabric composites via Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and a parametric study. We also demonstrate the effect of complex weave structures on the fray tendency in woven fabric composites via tightness evaluation. We utilize a procedure which does not require a numerical averaging process for evaluating the elastic properties of woven fabric composites. The fray tendency and skewness of woven fabrics depends upon the behaviour of the floats which is related to the factor of weave. Results of this study may suggest a broader view for further research into the effects of complex weave structures or may provide an alternative to the fray and skewness problems of current weave structure in woven fabric composites.
A comprehensive study is developed on the complex weave structure model which adopts the dry woven fabric of the most potential pattern in singleobjective optimization incorporating the uncertainties parameters of woven fabric composites. The comprehensive study covers the regression-based and variance-based sensitivity analyses. The second task goal is to introduce the fabric uncertainties parameters and elaborate how they can be incorporated into finite element models on macroscopic material parameters such as elastic modulus and shear modulus of dry woven fabric subjected to uni-axial and biaxial deformations. Significant correlations in the study, would indicate the need for a thorough investigation of woven fabric composites under uncertainties parameters. The study describes here could serve as an alternative to identify effective material properties without prolonged time consumption and expensive experimental tests.
The last part focuses on a hierarchical stochastic multi-scale optimization approach (fine-scale and coarse-scale optimizations) under geometrical uncertainties parameters for hybrid composites considering complex weave structure. The fine-scale optimization is to determine the best lamina pattern that maximizes its macroscopic elastic properties, conducted by EA under the following uncertain mesoscopic parameters: yarn spacing, yarn height, yarn width and misalignment of yarn angle. The coarse-scale optimization has been carried out to optimize the stacking sequences of symmetric hybrid laminated composite plate with uncertain mesoscopic parameters by employing the Ant Colony Algorithm (ACO). The objective functions of the coarse-scale optimization are to minimize the cost (C) and weight (W) of the hybrid laminated composite plate considering the fundamental frequency and the buckling load factor as the design constraints.
Based on the uncertainty criteria of the design parameters, the appropriate variation required for the structural design standards can be evaluated using the reliability tool, and then an optimized design decision in consideration of cost can be subsequently determined.

The effect of urban form on energy consumption has been the subject of various studies around the world. Having examined the effect of buildings on energy consumption, these studies indicate that the physical form of a city has a notable impact on the amount of energy consumed in its spaces. The present study identified the variables that affected energy consumption in residential buildings and analyzed their effects on energy consumption in four neighborhoods in Tehran: Apadana, Bimeh, Ekbatan-phase I, and Ekbatan-phase II. After extracting the variables, their effects are estimated with statistical methods, and the results are compared with the land surface temperature (LST) remote sensing data derived from Landsat 8 satellite images taken in the winter of 2019. The results showed that physical variables, such as the size of buildings, population density, vegetation cover, texture concentration, and surface color, have the greatest impacts on energy usage. For the Apadana neighborhood, the factors with the most potent effect on energy consumption were found to be the size of buildings and the population density. However, for other neighborhoods, in addition to these two factors, a third factor was also recognized to have a significant effect on energy consumption. This third factor for the Bimeh, Ekbatan-I, and Ekbatan-II neighborhoods was the type of buildings, texture concentration, and orientation of buildings, respectively.

The key objective of this research is to study fracture with a meshfree method, local maximum entropy approximations, and model fracture in thin shell structures with complex geometry and topology. This topic is of high relevance for real-world applications, for example in the automotive industry and in aerospace engineering. The shell structure can be described efficiently by meshless methods which are capable of describing complex shapes as a collection of points instead of a structured mesh. In order to find the appropriate numerical method to achieve this goal, the first part of the work was development of a method based on local maximum entropy (LME)
shape functions together with enrichment functions used in partition of unity methods to discretize problems in linear elastic fracture mechanics. We obtain improved accuracy relative to the standard extended finite element method (XFEM) at a comparable computational cost. In addition, we keep the advantages of the LME shape functions,such as smoothness and non-negativity. We show numerically that optimal convergence (same as in FEM) for energy norm and stress intensity factors can be obtained through the use of geometric (fixed area) enrichment with no special treatment of the nodes
near the crack such as blending or shifting.
As extension of this method to three dimensional problems and complex thin shell structures with arbitrary crack growth is cumbersome, we developed a phase field model for fracture using LME. Phase field models provide a powerful tool to tackle moving interface problems, and have been extensively used in physics and materials science. Phase methods are gaining popularity in a wide set of applications in applied science and engineering, recently a second order phase field approximation for brittle fracture has gathered significant interest in computational fracture such that sharp cracks discontinuities are modeled by a diffusive crack. By minimizing the system energy with respect to the mechanical displacements and the phase-field, subject to an irreversibility condition to avoid crack healing, this model can describe crack nucleation, propagation, branching and merging. One of the main advantages of the phase field modeling of fractures is the unified treatment of the interfacial tracking and mechanics, which potentially leads to simple, robust, scalable computer codes applicable to complex systems. In other words, this approximation reduces considerably the implementation complexity because the numerical tracking of the fracture is not needed, at the expense of a high computational cost. We present a fourth-order phase field model for fracture based on local maximum entropy (LME) approximations. The higher order continuity of the meshfree LME approximation allows to directly solve the fourth-order phase field equations without splitting the fourth-order differential equation into two second order differential equations. Notably, in contrast to previous discretizations that use at least a quadratic basis, only linear completeness is needed in the LME approximation. We show that the crack surface can be captured more accurately in the fourth-order model than the second-order model. Furthermore, less nodes are needed for the fourth-order model to resolve the crack path. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed meshfree fourth order phase-field formulation for 5 representative numerical examples. Computational results will be compared to analytical solutions within linear elastic fracture mechanics and experimental data for three-dimensional crack propagation.
In the last part of this research, we present a phase-field model for fracture in Kirchoff-Love thin shells using the local maximum-entropy (LME) meshfree method. Since the crack is a natural outcome of the analysis it does not require an explicit representation and tracking, which is advantageous over techniques as the extended finite element method that requires tracking of the crack paths. The geometric description of the shell is based on statistical learning techniques that allow dealing with general point set surfaces avoiding a global parametrization, which can be applied to tackle surfaces of complex geometry and topology. We show the flexibility and robustness of the present methodology for two examples: plate in tension and a set of open connected
pipes.

Cooling Performance of a Novel Circulatory Flow Concentric Multi-Channel Heat Sink with Nanofluids
(2020)

Heat rejection from electronic devices such as processors necessitates a high heat removal rate. The present study focuses on liquid-cooled novel heat sink geometry made from four channels (width 4 mm and depth 3.5 mm) configured in a concentric shape with alternate flow passages (slot of 3 mm gap). In this study, the cooling performance of the heat sink was tested under simulated controlled conditions.The lower bottom surface of the heat sink was heated at a constant heat flux condition based on dissipated power of 50 W and 70 W. The computations were carried out for different volume fractions of nanoparticles, namely 0.5% to 5%, and water as base fluid at a flow rate of 30 to 180 mL/min. The results showed a higher rate of heat rejection from the nanofluid cooled heat sink compared with water. The enhancement in performance was analyzed with the help of a temperature difference of nanofluid outlet temperature and water outlet temperature under similar operating conditions. The enhancement was ~2% for 0.5% volume fraction nanofluids and ~17% for a 5% volume fraction.

Coronary Artery Disease Diagnosis: Ranking the Significant Features Using a Random Trees Model
(2020)

Heart disease is one of the most common diseases in middle-aged citizens. Among the vast number of heart diseases, coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered as a common cardiovascular disease with a high death rate. The most popular tool for diagnosing CAD is the use of medical imaging, e.g., angiography. However, angiography is known for being costly and also associated with a number of side effects. Hence, the purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy of coronary heart disease diagnosis through selecting significant predictive features in order of their ranking. In this study, we propose an integrated method using machine learning. The machine learning methods of random trees (RTs), decision tree of C5.0, support vector machine (SVM), and decision tree of Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) are used in this study. The proposed method shows promising results and the study confirms that the RTs model outperforms other models.

In recent years increasingly consideration has been given to the lifetime extension of existing structures. This is based on the fact that a growing percentage of civil infrastructure as well as buildings is threatened by obsolescence and that due to simple monetary reasons this can no longer be countered by simply re-building everything anew. Hence maintenance interventions are required which allow partial or complete structural rehabilitation. However, maintenance interventions have to be economically reasonable, that is, maintenance expenditures have to be outweighed by expected future benefits. Is this not the case, then indeed the structure is obsolete - at least in its current functional, economic, technical, or social configuration - and innovative alternatives have to be evaluated. An optimization formulation for planning maintenance interventions based on cost-benefit criteria is proposed herein. The underlying formulation is as follows: (a) between maintenance interventions structural deterioration is described as a random process; (b) maintenance interventions can take place anytime throughout lifetime and comprise the rehabilitation of all deterioration states above a certain minimum level; and (c) maintenance interventions are optimized by taking into account all expected life-cycle costs (construction, failure, inspection and state-dependent repair costs) as well as state- or time-dependent benefit rates. The optimization is performed by an evolutionary algorithm. The proposed approach also allows to determine optimal lifetimes and acceptable failure rates. Numerical examples demonstrate the importance of defining benefit rates explicitly. It is shown, that the optimal solution to maintenance interventions requires to take action before reaching the acceptable failure rate or the zero expected net benefit rate level. Deferring decisions with respect to maintenance not only results, in general, in higher losses, but also results in overly hazardous structures.

Identification of flaws in structures is a critical element in the management of maintenance and quality assurance processes in engineering. Nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques based on a wide range of physical principles have been developed and are used in common practice for structural health monitoring. However, basic NDT techniques are usually limited in their ability to provide the accurate information on locations, dimensions and shapes of flaws. One alternative to extract additional information from the results of NDT is to append it with a computational model that provides detailed analysis of the physical process involved and enables the accurate identification of the flaw parameters. The aim here is to develop the strategies to uniquely identify cracks in two-dimensional 2D) structures under dynamic loadings.
A local NDT technique combined eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) with dynamic loading in order to identify the cracks in the structures quickly and accurately is developed in this dissertation. The Newmark-b time integration method with Rayleigh damping is used for the time integration. We apply Nelder-Mead (NM)and Quasi-Newton (QN) methods for identifying the crack tip in plate. The inverse problem is solved iteratively, in which XFEM is used for solving the forward problem in each iteration. For a timeharmonic excitation with a single frequency and a short-duration signal measured along part of the external boundary, the crack is detected through the solution of an inverse time-dependent problem. Compared to the static load, we show that the dynamic loads are more effective for crack detection problems. Moreover, we tested different dynamic loads and find that NM method works more efficient under the harmonic load than the pounding load while the QN method achieves almost the same results for both load types.
A global strategy, Multilevel Coordinate Search (MCS) with XFEM (XFEM-MCS) methodology under the dynamic electric load, to detect multiple cracks in 2D piezoelectric plates is proposed in this dissertation. The Newmark-b method is employed for the time integration and in each iteration the forward problem is solved by XFEM for various cracks. The objective functional is minimized by using a global search algorithm MCS. The test problems show that the XFEM-MCS algorithm under the dynamic electric load can be effectively employed for multiple cracks detection in piezoelectric materials, and it proves to be robust in identifying defects in piezoelectric structures. Fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs) are extensively applied in practical engineering since they have high stiffness and strength. Experiments reveal a so-called interphase zone, i.e. the space between the outside interface of the fiber and the inside interface of the matrix. The interphase strength between the fiber and the matrix strongly affects the mechanical properties as a result of the large ratio of interface/volume. For the purpose of understanding the mechanical properties of FRCs with functionally graded interphase (FGI), a closed-form expression of the interface strength between a fiber and a matrix is obtained in this dissertation using a continuum modeling approach according to the ver derWaals (vdW) forces. Based on the interatomic potential, we develop a new modified nonlinear cohesive law, which is applied to study the interface delamination of FRCs with FGI under different loadings. The analytical solutions show that the delamination behavior strongly depends on the interphase thickness, the fiber radius, the Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the fiber and the matrix. Thermal conductivity is the property of a material to conduct heat. With the development and deep research of 2D materials, especially graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), the thermal conductivity of 2D materials attracts wide attentions. The thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is found to appear a tendency of decreasing under tensile strain by classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Hence, the strain effects of graphene can play a key role in the continuous tunability and applicability of its thermal conductivity property at nanoscale, and the dissipation of thermal conductivity is an obstacle for the applications of thermal management. Up to now, the thermal conductivity of graphene under shear deformation has not been investigated yet. From a practical point of view, good thermal managements of GNRs have significantly potential applications of future GNR-based thermal nanodevices, which can greatly improve performances of the nanosized devices due to heat dissipations. Meanwhile, graphene is a thin membrane structure, it is also important to understand the wrinkling behavior under shear deformation. MoS2 exists in the stable semiconducting 1H phase (1H-MoS2) while the metallic 1T phase (1T-MoS2) is unstable at ambient conditions. As it’s well known that much attention has been focused on studying the nonlinear optical properties of the 1H-MoS2. In a very recent research, the 1T-type monolayer crystals of TMDCs, MX2 (MoS2, WS2 ...) was reported having an intrinsic in-plane negative Poisson’s ratio. Luckily, nearly at the same time, unprecedented long-term (>3months) air stability of the 1T-MoS2 can be achieved by using the donor lithium hydride (LiH). Therefore, it’s very important to study the thermal conductivity of 1T-MoS2.
The thermal conductivity of graphene under shear strain is systematically studied in this dissertation by MD simulations. The results show that, in contrast to the dramatic decrease of thermal conductivity of graphene under uniaxial tensile, the thermal conductivity of graphene is not sensitive to the shear strain, and the thermal conductivity decreases only 12-16%. The wrinkle evolves when the shear strain is around 5%-10%, but the thermal conductivity barely changes.
The thermal conductivities of single-layer 1H-MoS2(1H-SLMoS2) and single-layer 1T-MoS2 (1T-SLMoS2) with different sample sizes, temperatures and strain rates have been studied systematically in this dissertation. We find that the thermal conductivities of 1H-SLMoS2 and 1T-SLMoS2 in both the armchair and the zigzag directions increase with the increasing of the sample length, while the increase of the width of the sample has minor effect on the thermal conductions of these two structures. The thermal conductivity of 1HSLMoS2 is smaller than that of 1T-SLMoS2 under size effect. Furthermore, the temperature effect results show that the thermal conductivities of both 1H-SLMoS2 and 1T-SLMoS2 decrease with the increasing of the temperature. The thermal conductivities of 1HSLMoS2 and 1T-SLMoS2 are nearly the same (difference <6%) in both of the chiral orientations under corresponding temperatures, especially in the armchair direction (difference <2.8%). Moreover, we find that the strain effects on the thermal conductivity of 1HSLMoS2 and 1T-SLMoS2 are different. More specifically, the thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing tensile strain rate for
1T-SLMoS2, while fluctuates with the growth of the strain for 1HSLMoS2. Finally, we find that the thermal conductivity of same sized 1H-SLMoS2 is similar with that of the strained 1H-SLMoS2 structure.

This dissertation is devoted to the theoretical development and experimental laboratory verification of a new damage localization method: The state projection estimation error (SP2E). This method is based on the subspace identification of mechanical structures, Krein space based H-infinity estimation and oblique projections. To explain method SP2E, several theories are discussed and laboratory experiments have been conducted and analysed.
A fundamental approach of structural dynamics is outlined first by explaining mechanical systems based on first principles. Following that, a fundamentally different approach, subspace identification, is comprehensively explained. While both theories, first principle and subspace identification based mechanical systems, may be seen as widespread methods, barely known and new techniques follow up. Therefore, the indefinite quadratic estimation theory is explained. Based on a Popov function approach, this leads to the Krein space based H-infinity theory. Subsequently, a new method for damage identification, namely SP2E, is proposed. Here, the introduction of a difference process, the analysis by its average process power and the application of oblique projections is discussed in depth.
Finally, the new method is verified in laboratory experiments. Therefore, the identification of a laboratory structure at Leipzig University of Applied Sciences is elaborated. Then structural alterations are experimentally applied, which were localized by SP2E afterwards. In the end four experimental sensitivity studies are shown and discussed. For each measurement series the structural alteration was increased, which was successfully tracked by SP2E. The experimental results are plausible and in accordance with the developed theories. By repeating these experiments, the applicability of SP2E for damage localization is experimentally proven.

The present paper is part of a comprehensive approach of grid-based modelling. This approach includes geometrical modelling by pixel or voxel models, advanced multiphase B-spline finite elements of variable order and fast iterative solver methods based on the multigrid method. So far, we have only presented these grid-based methods in connection with linear elastic analysis of heterogeneous materials. Damage simulation demands further considerations. The direct stress solution of standard bilinear finite elements is severly defective, especially along material interfaces. Besides achieving objective constitutive modelling, various nonlocal formulations are applied to improve the stress solution. Such a corrective data processing can either refer to input data in terms of Young's modulus or to the attained finite element stress solution, as well as to a combination of both. A damage-controlled sequentially linear analysis is applied in connection with an isotropic damage law. Essentially by a high resolution of the heterogeneous solid, local isotropic damage on the material subscale allows to simulate complex damage topologies such as cracks. Therefore anisotropic degradation of a material sample can be simulated. Based on an effectively secantial global stiffness the analysis is numerically stable. The iteration step size is controlled for an adequate simulation of the damage path. This requires many steps, but in the iterative solution process each new step starts with the solution of the prior step. Therefore this method is quite effective. The present paper provides an introduction of the proposed concept for a stable simulation of damage in heterogeneous solids.

Damping in Bolted Joints
(2013)

With the help of modern CAE-based simulation processes, it is possible to predict the dynamic behavior of fatigue strength problems in order to improve products of many industries, e.g. the building, the machine construction or the automotive industry. Amongst others, it can be used to improve the acoustic design of automobiles in an early development stage.
Nowadays, the acoustics of automobiles plays a crucial role in the process of vehicle development. Because of the advanced demand of comfort and due to statutory rules the manufacturers are faced with the challenge of optimizing their car’s sound emissions. The optimization includes not only the reduction of noises. Lately with the trend to hybrid and electric cars, it has been shown that vehicles can become too quiet. Thus, the prediction of structural and acoustic properties based on FE-simulations is becoming increasingly important before any experimental prototype is examined. With the state of the art, qualitative comparisons between different implementations are possible. However, an accurate and reliable quantitative prediction is still a challenge.
One aspect in the context of increasing the prediction quality of acoustic (or general oscillating) problems - especially in power-trains of automobiles - is the more accurate implementation of damping in joint structures. While material damping occurs globally and homogenous in a structural system, the damping due to joints is a very local problem, since energy is especially dissipated in the vicinity of joints.
This paper focusses on experimental and numerical studies performed on a single (extracted) screw connection. Starting with experimental studies that are used to identify the underlying physical model of the energy loss, the locally influencing parameters (e.g. the damping factor) should be identified. In contrast to similar research projects, the approach tends to a more local consideration within the joint interface. Tangential stiffness and energy loss within the interface are spatially distributed and interactions between the influencing parameters are regarded. As a result, the damping matrix is no longer proportional to mass or stiffness matrix, since it is composed of the global material damping and the local joint damping. With this new approach, the prediction quality can be increased, since the local distribution of the physical parameters within the joint interface corresponds much closer to the reality.

In this research, an attempt was made to reduce the dimension of wavelet-ANFIS/ANN (artificial neural network/adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) models toward reliable forecasts as well as to decrease computational cost. In this regard, the principal component analysis was performed on the input time series decomposed by a discrete wavelet transform to feed the ANN/ANFIS models. The models were applied for dissolved oxygen (DO) forecasting in rivers which is an important variable affecting aquatic life and water quality. The current values of DO, water surface temperature, salinity, and turbidity have been considered as the input variable to forecast DO in a three-time step further. The results of the study revealed that PCA can be employed as a powerful tool for dimension reduction of input variables and also to detect inter-correlation of input variables. Results of the PCA-wavelet-ANN models are compared with those obtained from wavelet-ANN models while the earlier one has the advantage of less computational time than the later models. Dealing with ANFIS models, PCA is more beneficial to avoid wavelet-ANFIS models creating too many rules which deteriorate the efficiency of the ANFIS models. Moreover, manipulating the wavelet-ANFIS models utilizing PCA leads to a significant decreasing in computational time. Finally, it was found that the PCA-wavelet-ANN/ANFIS models can provide reliable forecasts of dissolved oxygen as an important water quality indicator in rivers.

The extended finite element method (XFEM) offers an elegant tool to model material discontinuities and cracks within a regular mesh, so that the element edges do not necessarily coincide with the discontinuities. This allows the modeling of propagating cracks without the requirement to adapt the mesh incrementally. Using a regular mesh offers the advantage, that simple refinement strategies based on the quadtree data structure can be used to refine the mesh in regions, that require a high mesh density. An additional benefit of the XFEM is, that the transmission of cohesive forces through a crack can be modeled in a straightforward way without introducing additional interface elements. Finally different criteria for the determination of the crack propagation angle are investigated and applied to numerical tests of cracked concrete specimens, which are compared with experimental results.

The concept of information entropy together with the principle of maximum entropy to open channel flow is essentially based on some physical consideration of the problem under consideration. This paper is a discussion on Yeganeh and Heidari (2020)’s paper, who proposed a new approach for measuring vertical distribution of streamwise velocity in open channels. The discussers argue that their approach is conceptually incorrect and thus leads to a physically unrealistic situation. In addition, the discussers found some wrong mathematical expressions (which are assumed to be typos) written in the paper, and also point out that the authors did not cite some of the original papers on the topic.

In the last two decades, Peridynamics (PD) attracts much attention in the field of fracture mechanics. One key feature of PD is the nonlocality, which is quite different from the ideas in conventional methods such as FEM and meshless method. However, conventional PD suffers from problems such as constant horizon, explicit algorithm, hourglass mode. In this thesis, by examining the nonlocality with scrutiny, we proposed several new concepts such as dual-horizon (DH) in PD, dual-support (DS) in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), nonlocal operators and operator energy functional. The conventional PD (SPH) is incorporated in the DH-PD (DS-SPH), which can adopt an inhomogeneous discretization and inhomogeneous support domains. The DH-PD (DS-SPH) can be viewed as some fundamental improvement on the conventional PD (SPH). Dual formulation of PD and SPH allows h-adaptivity while satisfying the conservations of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy. By developing the concept of nonlocality further, we introduced the nonlocal operator method as a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with energy functional of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on dual-support concept are derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulation of the nonlocal theory. At last, we developed the higher order nonlocal operator method which is capable of solving higher order partial differential equations on arbitrary domain in higher dimensional space. Since the concepts are developed gradually, we described our findings chronologically.
In chapter 2, we developed a DH-PD formulation that includes varying horizon sizes and solves the "ghost force" issue. The concept of dual-horizon considers the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation fulfills both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum exactly with arbitrary particle discretization. All three peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based peridynamics can be implemented within the DH-PD framework. A simple adaptive refinement procedure (h-adaptivity) is proposed reducing the computational cost. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthoff-Winkler experiment and plate with branching cracks are tested to demonstrate the capability of the method.
In chapter 3, a nonlocal operator method (NOM) based on the variational principle is proposed for the solution of waveguide problem in computational electromagnetic field. Common differential operators as well as the variational forms are defined within the context of nonlocal operators. The present nonlocal formulation allows the assembling of the tangent stiffness matrix with ease, which is necessary for the eigenvalue analysis of the waveguide problem. The present formulation is applied to solve 1D Schrodinger equation, 2D electrostatic problem and the differential electromagnetic vector wave equations based on electric fields.
In chapter 4, a general nonlocal operator method is proposed which is applicable for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) of mechanical problems. The nonlocal operator can be regarded as the integral form, ``equivalent'' to the differential form in the sense of a nonlocal interaction model. The variation of a nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role as the derivatives of the shape functions in the meshless methods or those of the finite element method. Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease. The nonlocal operator method is enhanced here also with an operator energy functional to satisfy the linear consistency of the field. A highlight of the present method is the functional derived based on the nonlocal operator can convert the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplications using the predefined nonlocal operators. The nonlocal strong forms of different functionals can be obtained easily via the concept of support and dual-support. Several numerical examples of different types of PDEs are presented.
In chapter 5, we extended the NOM to higher order scheme by using a higher order Taylor series expansion of the unknown field. Such a higher order scheme improves the original NOM in chapter 3 and chapter 4, which can only achieve one-order convergence. The higher order NOM obtains all partial derivatives with specified maximal order simultaneously without resorting to shape functions. The functional based on the nonlocal operators converts the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplication on the nonlocal operator matrix. Several numerical examples solved by strong form or weak form are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
In chapter 6, the NOM proposed as a particle-based method in chapter 3,4,5, has difficulty in imposing accurately the boundary conditions of various orders. In this paper, we converted the particle-based NOM into a scheme with interpolation property. The new scheme describes partial derivatives of various orders at a point by the nodes in the support and takes advantage of the background mesh for numerical integration. The boundary conditions are enforced via the modified variational principle. The particle-based NOM can be viewed a special case of NOM with interpolation property when nodal integration is used. The scheme based on numerical integration greatly improves the stability of the method, as a consequence, the operator energy functional in particle-based NOM is not required. We demonstrated the capabilities of current method by solving the gradient solid problems and comparing the numerical results with the available exact solutions.
In chapter 7, we derived the DS-SPH in solid within the framework of variational principle. The tangent stiffness matrix of SPH can be obtained with ease, and can be served as the basis for the present implicit SPH. We proposed an hourglass energy functional, which allows the direct derivation of hourglass force and hourglass tangent stiffness matrix. The dual-support is {involved} in all derivations based on variational principles and is automatically satisfied in the assembling of stiffness matrix. The implementation of stiffness matrix comprises with two steps, the nodal assembly based on deformation gradient and global assembly on all nodes. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the method.

The latest earthquakes have proven that several existing buildings, particularly in developing countries, are not secured from damages of earthquake. A variety of statistical and machine-learning approaches have been proposed to identify vulnerable buildings for the prioritization of retrofitting. The present work aims to investigate earthquake susceptibility through the combination of six building performance variables that can be used to obtain an optimal prediction of the damage state of reinforced concrete buildings using artificial neural network (ANN). In this regard, a multi-layer perceptron network is trained and optimized using a database of 484 damaged buildings from the Düzce earthquake in Turkey. The results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the selected ANN approach to classify concrete structural damage that can be used as a preliminary assessment technique to identify vulnerable buildings in disaster risk-management programs.