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Information technology plays a key role in the everyday operation of buildings and campuses. Many proprietary technologies and methodologies can assist in effective Building Performance Monitoring (BPM) and efficient managing of building resources. The integration of related tools like energy simulator packages, facility, energy and building management systems, and enterprise resource planning systems is of benefit to BPM. However, the complexity to integrating such domain specific systems prevents their common usage. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) has been deployed successfully in many large multinational companies to create integrated and flexible software systems, but so far this methodology has not been applied broadly to the field of BPM. This paper envisions that SOA provides an effective integration framework for BPM. Service oriented architecture for the ITOBO framework for sustainable and optimised building operation is proposed and an implementation for a building performance monitoring system is introduced.

A four-node quadrilateral shell element with smoothed membrane-bending based on Mindlin-Reissner theory is proposed. The element is a combination of a plate bending and membrane element. It is based on mixed interpolation where the bending and membrane stiffness matrices are calculated on the boundaries of the smoothing cells while the shear terms are approximated by independent interpolation functions in natural coordinates. The proposed element is robust, computationally inexpensive and free of locking. Since the integration is done on the element boundaries for the bending and membrane terms, the element is more accurate than the MITC4 element for distorted meshes. This will be demonstrated for several numerical examples.

A UNIFIED APPROACH FOR THE TREATMENT OF SOME HIGHER DIMENSIONAL DIRAC TYPE EQUATIONS ON SPHERES
(2010)

Using Clifford analysis methods, we provide a unified approach to obtain explicit solutions of some partial differential equations combining the n-dimensional Dirac and Euler operators, including generalizations of the classical time-harmonic Maxwell equations. The obtained regular solutions show strong connections between hypergeometric functions and homogeneous polynomials in the kernel of the Dirac operator.

The uncertainty existing in the construction industry is bigger than in other industries. Consequently, most construction projects do not go totally as planned. The project management plan needs therefore to be adapted repeatedly within the project lifecycle to suit the actual project conditions. Generally, the risks of change in the project management plan are difficult to be identified in advance, especially if these risks are caused by unexpected events such as human errors or changes in the client preferences. The knowledge acquired from different resources is essential to identify the probable deviations as well as to find proper solutions to the faced change risks. Hence, it is necessary to have a knowledge base that contains known solutions for the common exceptional cases that may cause changes in each construction domain. The ongoing research work presented in this paper uses the process modeling technique of Event-driven Process Chains to describe different patterns of structure changes in the schedule networks. This results in several so called “change templates”. Under each template different types of change risk/ response pairs can be categorized and stored in a knowledge base. This knowledge base is described as an ontology model populated with reference construction process data. The implementation of the developed approach can be seen as an iterative scheduling cycle that will be repeated within the project lifecycle as new change risks surface. This can help to check the availability of ready solutions in the knowledge base for the situation at hand. Moreover, if the solution is adopted, CPSP, “Change Project Schedule Plan „a prototype developed for the purpose of this research work, will be used to make the needed structure changes of the schedule network automatically based on the change template. What-If scenarios can be implemented using the CPSP prototype in the planning phase to study the effect of specific situations without endangering the success of the project objectives. Hence, better designed and more maintainable project schedules can be achieved.

We present recent developments of adaptive wavelet solvers for elliptic eigenvalue problems. We describe the underlying abstract iteration scheme of the preconditioned perturbed iteration. We apply the iteration to a simple model problem in order to identify the main ideas which a numerical realization of the abstract scheme is based upon. This indicates how these concepts carry over to wavelet discretizations. Finally we present numerical results for the Poisson eigenvalue problem on an L-shaped domain.

The application of a recent method using formal power series is proposed. It is based on a new representation for solutions of Sturm-Liouville equations. This method is used to calculate the transmittance and reflectance coefficients of finite inhomogeneous layers with high accuracy and efficiency. Tailoring the refraction index profile defining the inhomogeneous media it is possible to develop very important applications such as optical filters. A number of profiles were evaluated and then some of them selected in order to perform an improvement of their characteristics via the modification of their profiles.

In the context of finite element model updating using vibration test data, natural frequencies and mode shapes are used as validation criteria. Consequently, the order of natural frequencies and mode shapes is important. As only limited spatial information is available and noise is present in the measurements, the automatic selection of the most likely numerical mode shape corresponding to a measured mode shape is a difficult task. The most common criterion to indicate corresponding mode shapes is the modal assurance criterion. Unfortunately, this criterion fails in certain cases. In this paper, the pure mathematical modal assurance criterion will be enhanced by additional physical information of the numerical model in terms of modal strain energies. A numerical example and a benchmark study with real measured data are presented to show the advantages of the enhanced energy based criterion in comparison to the traditional modal assurance criterion.

Geotechnical constructions are sophisticated structures due to the non-linear soil behaviour and the complex soil-structure interaction, which entails great exigencies on the liable engineer during the design process. The process can be schematised as a difficult and, depending on the opportunities and skills of the processor more or less innovative, creative and heuristic search for one or a multiple of defined objectives under given boundary conditions. Wholistic approaches including numerical optimisation which support the constructing engineer in this task do not currently exist. Abstract problem formulation is not state of the art; commonly parameter studies are bounded by computational effort. Thereby potential regarding cost effectiveness, construction time, load capacity and/or serviceability are often used insufficiently. This paper describes systematic approaches for comprehensive optimisation of selected geotechnical constructions like combined pile raft foundations and quay wall structures. Several optimisation paradigms like the mono- and the multi-objective optimisation are demonstrated and their use for a more efficient design concerning various intentions is shown in example. The optimisation is implemented by using Evolutionary Algorithms. The applicability to geotechnical real world problems including nonlinearities, discontinuities and multi-modalities is shown. The routines are adapted to common problems and coupled with conventional analysis procedures as well as with numerical calculation software based on the finite element method. Numerical optimisation of geotechnical design using efficient algorithms is able to deliver highly effective solutions after investing more effort into the parameterization of the problem. Obtained results can be used for realizing different constructions near the stability limit, visualizing the sensitivity regarding the construction parameters or simply procuring more effective solutions.

Models in the context of engineering can be classified in process based and data based models. Whereas the process based model describes the problem by an explicit formulation, the data based model is often used, where no such mapping can be found due to the high complexity of the problem. Artificial Neuronal Networks (ANN) is a data based model, which is able to “learn“ a mapping from a set of training patterns. This paper deals with the application of ANN in time dependent bathymetric models. A bathymetric model is a geometric representation of the sea bed. Typically, a bathymetry is been measured and afterwards described by a finite set of measured data. Measuring at different time steps leads to a time dependent bathymetric model. To obtain a continuous surface, the measured data has to be interpolated by some interpolation method. Unlike the explicitly given interpolation methods, the presented time dependent bathymetric model using an ANN trains the approximated surface in space and time in an implicit way. The ANN is trained by topographic measured data, which consists of the location (x,y) and time t. In other words the ANN is trained to reproduce the mapping h = f(x,y,t) and afterwards it is able to approximate the topographic height for a given location and date. In a further step, this model is extended to take meteorological parameters into account. This leads to a model of more predictive character.

The changed global security situation in the last eight years has shown the importance of emergency management plans in public buildings. Therefore, the use of computer simulators for surveying fire safety design and evacuation process is increasing. The aim of these simulators is to have more realistic evacuation simulations. The challenge is, firstly, to realize the virtual simulation environment based on geometrical and material boundary conditions, secondly, to considerate the mutual interaction effects between different parameters and, finally, to have a realistic visualization of the simulated results. In order to carry out this task, an especial new software method on a BIM-platform has to be developed which can integrate all required simulations and will be able to have an immersive output BIM ISEE (Immersive Safety Engineering Environment). The new BIM-ISEE will integrate the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for fire and evacuation simulation in the Autodesk Revit which is a BIM-platform and will represent the simulation results in the immersive virtual environment at the institute (CES-Lab). With BIM-ISEE the fire safety engineer will be able to obtain more realistic visualizations in the immersive environment, to modify his concept more effectively, to evaluate the simulation results more accurately and to visualize the various simulation results. It can also give the rescue staff the opportunity to perform and evaluate emergency evacuation trainings.

The main aim of the research project in progress is to develop virtual models as tools to support decision-making in the planning of construction maintenance. The virtual models gives the capacity to allow them to transmit, visually and interactively, information related to the physical behaviour of materials, components of given infrastructures, defined as a function of the time variable. The interactive application allows decisions to be made on conception options in the definition of plans for maintenance, conservation or rehabilitation. The first virtual prototype that is now in progress concerns just lamps. It allows the examination of the physical model, visualizing, for each element modelled in 3D and linked to a database, the corresponding technical information concerned with the wear and tear aspects of the material, calculated for that period of time. In addition, the analysis of solutions for repair work or substitution and inherent cost are predicted, the results being obtained interactively and visualized in the virtual environment itself. The aim is that the virtual model should be able to be applied directly over the 3D models of new constructions, in situations of rehabilitation. The practical usage of these models is directed, then, towards supporting decision-making in the conception phase and the planning of maintenance. In further work other components will be analysed and incorporated into the virtual system.

Tests on Polymer Modified Cement Concrete (PCC) have shown significant large creep deformation. The reasons for that as well as additional material phenomena are explained in the following paper. Existing creep models developed for standard concrete are studied to determine the time-dependent deformations of PCC. These models are: model B3 by Bažant and Bajewa, the models according to Model Code 90 and ACI 209 as well as model GL2000 by Gardner and Lockman. The calculated creep strains are compared to existing experimental data of PCC and the differences are pointed out. Furthermore, an optimization of the model parameters is performed to fit the models to the experimental data to achieve a better model prognosis.

In order to model and simulate collapses of large scale complex structures, a user-friendly and high performance software system is essential. Because a large number of simulation experiments have to be performed, therefore, next to an appropriate simulation model and high performance computing, efficient interactive control and visualization capabilities of model parameters and simulation results are crucial. To this respect, this contribution is concerned with advancements of the software system CADCE (Computer Aided Demolition using Controlled Explosives) that is extended under particular consideration of computational steering concepts. Thereby, focus is placed on problems and solutions for the collapse simulation of real world large scale complex structures. The simulation model applied is based on a multilevel approach embedding finite element models on a local as well as a near field length scale, and multibody models on a global scale. Within the global level simulation, relevant effects of the local and the near field scale, such as fracture and failure processes of the reinforced concrete parts, are approximated by means of tailor-made multibody subsystems. These subsystems employ force elements representing nonlinear material characteristics in terms of force/displacement relationships that, in advance, are determined by finite element analysis. In particular, enhancements concerning the efficiency of the multibody model and improvements of the user interaction are presented that are crucial for the capability of the computational steering. Some scenarios of collapse simulations of real world large scale structures demonstrate the implementation of the above mentioned approaches within the computational steering.

CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR SUBSOIL IN THE CONTEXT OF STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING
(2010)

Parameters of constitutive models are obtained generally comparing the results of forward numerical simulations to measurement data. Mostly the parameter values are varied by trial-and-error in order to reach an improved fit and obtain plausible results. However, the description of complex soil behavior requires advanced constitutive models where the rising complexity of these models mainly increases the number of unknown constitutive parameters. Thus an efficient identification "by hand" becomes quite difficult for most practical geotechnical problems. The main focus of this article is on finding a vector of parameters in a given search space which minimizes discrepancy between measurements and the associated numerical result. Classically, the parameter values are estimated from laboratory tests on small samples (triaxial tests or oedometer tests). For this purpose an automatic population-based approach is present to determine the material parameters for reconstituted and natural Bothkennar Clay. After the identification a statistical assessment is carried out of numerical results to evaluate different constitutive models. On the other side a geotechnical problem, stone columns under an embankment, is treated in a well instrumented field trial in Klagenfurt, Austria. For the identification purpose there are measurements from multilevel-piezometers, multilevel-extensometers and horizontal inclinometer. Based on the simulation of the stone columns in a FE-Model the identification of the constitutive parameters is similar to the experimental tests by minimizing the absolute error between measurement and numerical curves.

Buildings can be divided into various types and described by a huge number of parameters. Within the life cycle of a building, especially during the design and construction phases, a lot of engineers with different points of view, proprietary applications and data formats are involved. The collaboration of all participating engineers is characterised by a high amount of communication. Due to these aspects, a homogeneous building model for all engineers is not feasible. The status quo of civil engineering is the segmentation of the complete model into partial models. Currently, the interdependencies of these partial models are not in the focus of available engineering solutions. This paper addresses the problem of coupling partial models in civil engineering. According to the state-of-the-art, applications and partial models are formulated by the object-oriented method. Although this method solves basic communication problems like subclass coupling directly it was found that many relevant coupling problems remain to be solved. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse and classify the relevant coupling types in building modelling. Coupling in computer science refers to the relationship between modules and their mutual interaction and can be divided into different coupling types. The coupling types differ on the degree by which the coupled modules rely upon each other. This is exemplified by a general reference example from civil engineering. A uniform formulation of coupling patterns is described analogously to design patterns, which are a common methodology in software engineering. Design patterns are templates for describing a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem. A template is independent of the programming language and the operating system. These coupling patterns are selected according to the specific problems of building modelling. A specific meta-model for coupling problems in civil engineering is introduced. In our meta-model the coupling patterns are a semantic description of a specific coupling design.

CRITICAL STRESS ASSESSMENT IN ANGLE TO GUSSET PLATE BOLTED CONNECTION BY SIMPLIFIED FEM MODELLING
(2010)

Simplified modelling of friction grip bolted connections of steel member – to – gusset plate is often applied in engineering practise. The paper deals with the simplification of pre-tensioned bolt model and simplification of load transfer within connection. Influence on normal strain (and thus stress) distribution at critical cross-section is investigated. Laboratory testing of single-angle or double-angle members – to – gusset plates bolted connections were taken as basis for numerical analysis. FE models were created using 1D and 2D elements. Angles and gusset plates were modelled with shell elements. Two methods of modelling of friction grip bolting were considered: bolt-regarding approach with 1D element systems modelling bolts and two variants of bolt-disregarding approach with special constraints over some part of member and gusset plate surfaces in contact: a) constraints over whole area of contact, b) constraints over the area around each bolt shank (“partially tied”). Modelling of friction grip bolted connections using simplified bolt modelling may be effective, especially in the case of analysis concerning elastic range only. In such a case disregarding bolts and replacing them with “partially tied” modelling seems to be more attractive. It is less time-consuming and provides results of similar accuracy in comparison to analysis utilizing simplified bolt modelling.

In nonlinear simulations the loading is, in general, applied in an incremental way. Path-following algorithms are used to trace the equilibrium path during the failure process. Standard displacement controlled solution strategies fail if snap-back phenomena occur. In this contribution, a path-following algorithm based on the dissipation of the inelastic energy is presented which allows for the simulation of snap-backs. Since the constraint is defined in terms of the internal energy, the algorithm is not restricted to continuum damage models. Furthermore, no a priori knowledge about the final damage distribution is required. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated using nonlinear mesoscale simulations.

ESTIMATING UNCERTAINTIES FROM INACCURATE MEASUREMENT DATA USING MAXIMUM ENTROPY DISTRIBUTIONS
(2010)

Modern engineering design often considers uncertainties in geometrical and material parameters and in the loading conditions. Based on initial assumptions on the stochastic properties as mean values, standard deviations and the distribution functions of these uncertain parameters a probabilistic analysis is carried out. In many application fields probabilities of the exceedance of failure criteria are computed. The out-coming failure probability is strongly dependent on the initial assumptions on the random variable properties. Measurements are always more or less inaccurate data due to varying environmental conditions during the measurement procedure. Furthermore the estimation of stochastic properties from a limited number of realisation also causes uncertainties in these quantities. Thus the assumption of exactly known stochastic properties by neglecting these uncertainties may not lead to very useful probabilistic measures in a design process. In this paper we assume the stochastic properties of a random variable as uncertain quantities caused by so-called epistemic uncertainties. Instead of predefined distribution types we use the maximum entropy distribution which enables the description of a wide range of distribution functions based on the first four stochastic moments. These moments are taken again as random variables to model the epistemic scatter in the stochastic assumptions. The main point of this paper is the discussion on the estimation of these uncertain stochastic properties based on inaccurate measurements. We investigate the bootstrap algorithm for its applicability to quantify the uncertainties in the stochastic properties considering imprecise measurement data. Based on the obtained estimates we apply standard stochastic analysis on a simple example to demonstrate the difference and the necessity of the proposed approach.

By the use of numerical methods and the rapid development of computer technology in the recent years, a large variety, complexity, refinement and capability of partial models have been achieved. This can be noticed in the evaluation of the reliability of structures, e.g. the increased use of spatial structural systems. For the different fields of civil engineering, well developed partial models already exist. Because these partial models are most often used separately, the general view is not entirely illustrated. Until now, there has been no common methodology for evaluating the efficiency of models; the trust in the prediction of a special engineering model has generally relied on the engineer’s experience. In this paper the basics of evaluation of simple models and coupled partial models of frame structures will be discussed using sustainable numerical methods. Furthermore, quality classes (levels) of design tasks will be defined based on their practical relevance. In addition, analysis methods will be systemized. After analysis of different published assessment methods, it may be noted, that the Efficiency Indicator Method (EWM) is most suitable for the observed evaluation problem. Therefore, the EWM was modified to the Model Efficiency Analysis (MEA) for the purpose of a holistic evaluation. The criteria are characterized by two groups, benefit and expenditure, and it is possible by calculating the quotient (benefit/expenditure) to make a statement about the efficiency of the observed models. Presently, the expenditure value is not a subject of investigation, and so the model efficiency is calculated only by the benefit value. This paper also contains the associated criteria catalog, different normalization methods, as well as weighting possibilities.

The present article proposes an alternative way to compute the torsional stiffness based on three-dimensional continuum mechanics instead of applying a specific theory of torsion. A thin, representative beam slice is discretized by solid finite elements. Adequate boundary conditions and coupling conditions are integrated into the numerical model to obtain a proper answer on the torsion behaviour, thus on shear center, shear stress and torsional stiffness. This finite element approach only includes general assumptions of beam torsion which are independent of cross-section geometry. These assumptions essentially are: no in-plane deformation, constant torsion and free warping. Thus it is possible to achieve numerical solutions of high accuracy for arbitrary cross-sections. Due to the direct link to three-dimensional continuum mechanics, it is possible to extend the range of torsion analysis to sections which are composed of different materials or even to heterogeneous beams on a high scale of resolution. A brief study follows to validate the implementation and results are compared to analytical solutions.

FREE VIBRATION FREQUENCIES OF THE CRACKED REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS - METHODS OF CALCULATIONS
(2010)

The paper presents method of calculation of natural frequencies of the cracked reinforced concrete beams including discreet model of crack. The described method is based on the stiff finite elements method. It was modified in such a way as to take into account local discontinuities (ie. cracks). In addition, some theoretical studies as well as experimental tests of concrete mechanics based on discrete crack model were taken into consideration. The calculations were performed using the author’s own numerical algorithm. Moreover, other calculation methods of dynamic reinforced concrete beams presented in standards and guidelines are discussed. Calculations performed by using different methods are compared with the results obtained in experimental tests.

We give a sufficient and a necessary condition for an analytic function "f" on the unit disk "D" with Hadamard gap to belong to a class of weighted logarithmic Bloch space as well as to the corresponding little weighted logarithmic Bloch space under some conditions posed on the defined weight function. Also, we study the relations between the class of weighted logarithmic Bloch functions and some other classes of analytic functions by the help of analytic functions in the Hadamard gap class.

In this paper we present an inverse method which is capable of identifying system components in a hydro-mechanically coupled system, i.e. for fluid flow in porous media. As an example we regard water dams that were constructed more than hundred years ago but which are still in use. Over the time ageing processes have changed the condition of these dams. Within the dams fissures might have grown. The proposed method is designed to locate these fissures out of combined mechanical and hydraulic measurements. In a numerical example the fissures or damaged zones are described by a smeared crack model. The task is now to identify simultaneously the spatial distribution of Young’s modulus and the hydraulic permeability due to the fact, that in regions where damages are present, the mechanical stiffness of the system is reduced and the permeability increased. The inversion is shown to be an ill-posed problem. As a consequence regularizing methods have to be applied, where the nonlinear Landweber method (a gradient type method combined with a discrepancy principle) has proven to be an efficient choice.

Reducing energy consumption is one of the major challenges for present day and will continue for future generations. The emerging EU directives relating to energy (EU EPBD and the EU Directive on Emissions Trading) now place demands on building owners to rate the energy performance of their buildings for efficient energy management. Moreover European Legislation (Directive 2006/32/EC) requires Facility Managers to reduce building energy consumption and operational costs. Currently sophisticated building services systems are available integrating off-the-shelf building management components. However this ad-hoc combination presents many difficulties to building owners in the management and upgrade of these systems. This paper addresses the need for integration concepts, holistic monitoring and analysis methodologies, life-cycle oriented decision support and sophisticated control strategies through the seamless integration of people, ICT-devices and computational resources via introducing the newly developed integrated system architecture. The first concept was applied to a residential building and the results were elaborated to improve current building conditions.

Nonlinear analyses are characterised by approximations of the fundamental equations in different quality. Starting with a general description of nonlinear finite element formulation the fundamental equations are derived for plane truss elements. Special emphasis is placed on the determination of internal and external system energy as well as influence of different quality approaches for the displacement-strain relationship on solution quality. To simplify the solution procedure the nonlinear function describing the kinematics is expanded into a Taylor series and truncated after the n-th series term. The different kinematics influence speed of convergence as well as exactness of solution. On a simple truss structure this influence is shown. To assess the quality of different formulations concerning the nonlinear kinematic equation three approaches are discussed. First the overall internal and external energy is compared for different kinematical models. In a second step the energy content related to single terms describing displacement-strain relationship is investigated and used for quality control following two different paths. Based on single ε-terms an adaptive scheme is used to change the kinematical model depending on increasing nonlinearity of the structure. The solution quality has turned out satisfactory compared to the exact result. More detailed investigations are necessary to find criteria for the threshold values for the iterative process as well as for decision on number and step size of incremental load steps.

Euclidean Clifford analysis is a higher dimensional function theory offering a refinement of classical harmonic analysis. The theory is centered around the concept of monogenic functions, i.e. null solutions of a first order vector valued rotation invariant differential operator called the Dirac operator, which factorizes the Laplacian. More recently, Hermitean Clifford analysis has emerged as a new and successful branch of Clifford analysis, offering yet a refinement of the Euclidean case; it focusses on the simultaneous null solutions, called Hermitean (or h-) monogenic functions, of two Hermitean Dirac operators which are invariant under the action of the unitary group. In Euclidean Clifford analysis, the Clifford-Cauchy integral formula has proven to be a corner stone of the function theory, as is the case for the traditional Cauchy formula for holomorphic functions in the complex plane. Previously, a Hermitean Clifford-Cauchy integral formula has been established by means of a matrix approach. This formula reduces to the traditional Martinelli-Bochner formula for holomorphic functions of several complex variables when taking functions with values in an appropriate part of complex spinor space. This means that the theory of Hermitean monogenic functions should encompass also other results of several variable complex analysis as special cases. At present we will elaborate further on the obtained results and refine them, considering fundamental solutions, Borel-Pompeiu representations and the Teoderescu inversion, each of them being developed at different levels, including the global level, handling vector variables, vector differential operators and the Clifford geometric product as well as the blade level were variables and differential operators act by means of the dot and wedge products. A rich world of results reveals itself, indeed including well-known formulae from the theory of several complex variables.

An introduction is given to Clifford Analysis over pseudo-Euclidean space of arbitrary signature, called for short Ultrahyperbolic Clifford Analysis (UCA). UCA is regarded as a function theory of Clifford-valued functions, satisfying a first order partial differential equation involving a vector-valued differential operator, called a Dirac operator. The formulation of UCA presented here pays special attention to its geometrical setting. This permits to identify tensors which qualify as geometrically invariant Dirac operators and to take a position on the naturalness of contravariant and covariant versions of such a theory. In addition, a formal method is described to construct the general solution to the aforementioned equation in the context of covariant UCA.

In this paper the influence of changes in the mean wind velocity, the wind profile power-law coefficient, the drag coefficient of the terrain and the structural stiffness are investigated on different complex structural models. This paper gives a short introduction to wind profile models and to the approach by Davenport A. G. to compute the structural reaction of wind induced vibrations. Firstly with help of a simple example (a skyscraper) this approach is shown. Using this simple example gives the reader the possibility to study the variance differences when changing one of the above mentioned parameters on this very easy example and see the influence of different complex structural models on the result. Furthermore an approach for estimation of the needed discretization level is given. With the help of this knowledge the structural model design methodology can be base on deeper understanding of the different behavior of the single models.

MICROPLANE MODEL WITH INITIAL AND DAMAGE-INDUCED ANISOTROPY APPLIED TO TEXTILE-REINFORCED CONCRETE
(2010)

The presented material model reproduces the anisotropic characteristics of textile reinforced concrete in a smeared manner. This includes both the initial anisotropy introduced by the textile reinforcement, as well as the anisotropic damage evolution reflecting fine patterns of crack bridges. The model is based on the microplane approach. The direction-dependent representation of the material structure into oriented microplanes provides a flexible way to introduce the initial anisotropy. The microplanes oriented in a yarn direction are associated with modified damage laws that reflect the tension-stiffening effect due to the multiple cracking of the matrix along the yarn.

The evident advances of the computational power of the digital computers enable the modeling of the total system of structures. Such modeling demands compatible representations of the couplings of different structural subsystems. Therefore, models of dynamic interaction between the vehicle and the bridge and models of a bridge bearing, a coupling element between the bridge's superstructure and substructure, are of interest and discussed within this paper. The vehicle-bridge interaction may be described as a function connecting two sets of behavior. In this case, the coupling is embodied by mutual parameters that affect both systems, such as the frequency content of the bridge and the vehicle. Whereas the bridge bearings are elements used specifically to couple, in such elements the deformation and the transferred loads are used in characterizing the coupling The nature of these couplings and their influence on the bridge response is different. However, the need to assess the amount of dynamic response transferred by or within these couplings is a common argument.

There are many different approaches to simulate the mechanical behavior of RC−Frames with masonry infills. In this paper, selected modeling techniques for masonry infills and reinforced concrete frame members will be discussed − stressing the attention on the damaging effects of the individual members and the entire system under quasi−static horizontal loading. The effect of the infill walls on the surrounding frame members is studied using equivalent strut elements. The implemented model consider in−plane failure modes for the infills, such as bed joint sliding and corner crushing. These frame member models differ with respect to their stress state. Finally, examples are provided and compared with experimental data from a real size test executed on a three story RC−Frame with and without infills. The quality of the model is evaluated on the basis of load−displacement relationships as well as damage progression.

The application of partly decoupled approach by means of continuum mechanics facilitates the calculation of structural responses due to welding. The numerical results demonstrate the ability of a qualitative prediction of welded connections. As it is intended to integrate the local effects of a joint in structural analysis of steel constructions, it is necessary to meet higher approaches towards quality. The wide array of material parameters are presented, which are affecting the thermal, metallurgical and mechanical behavior, and which have to be identified. For that purpose further investigations are necessary to analyze the sensitivity of the models towards different material properties. The experimental determination of every material parameter is not possible due to the extraordinary laborious efforts needed. Besides that, experimentally identified parameters can be applied only for the tested steel quality for measured temperature-time regimes. For that reason alternative approaches for identification of material parameters, such as optimization strategies, have to be applied. After a definition of material parameters a quantitative prediction of welded connections will also be possible. Numerical results show the effect of phase transformation, activated by welding process, on residual stress state. As these phenomena occur in local areas in the range of crystal and grain sizes, the description of microscopic phenomena and their propagation on a macroscopic level due to approaches of homogenization might be expedient. Nevertheless, one should bear in mind, the increasing number of material parameters as well as the complexity of their experimental determination. Thus the microscopic approach should always be investigated under the scope of ability and efficiency of a required prediction. Under certain circumstances a step backwards, adopting a phenomenological approach, also can be beneficial.

Several results concerning the distribution of the headway of busses in the flow behind a traffic signal are presented. In the main focus of interest is the description of analytical models, which are verified by the results of Monte-Carlo-Methods. The advantage of analytical models (verified, but not derived by simulation methods) is their flexibility with respect to possible generalizations. For instance, several random distributions of the flow incoming to the traffic signal can be compared. The attention will be directed at the question, how the primary headway H (analyzed in front of the traffic signal) is mapped to the headway H’ analyzed behind of the traffic signal and how the random distribution of H is mapped to that of H’. For the traffic flow in front of the traffic signal several models will be discussed. The first case considers the situation, that busses operate on a common lane with the individual motor car traffic and the traffic flow is saturated. In the second situation, busses operate on a separated bus lane. Moreover, a mixed situation is discussed to model as close to reality as possible.

Planning and construction processes are characterized by the peculiarity that they need to be designed individually for each project. It is necessary to set up an individual schedule for each project. As a basis for a new project, schedules from already finished projects are used, but adaptions are always necessary. In practice, scheduling tools only document a process. Schedules cover a set of activities, their duration and a set of interdependencies between activities. The design of a process is up to the user. It is not necessary to specify each interdependency, and completeness and correctness need to be checked manually. No methodologies are available to guarantee properties such as correctness or completeness. The considerations presented in the paper are based on an approach where a planning and a construction process including the interdependencies between planning and construction activities are regarded as a result. Selected information need to be specified by a user, and a proposal for an order of planning and construction activities is computed. As a consequence, process properties such as correctness and completeness can be guaranteed with respect to user input. Especially in Germany, clients are allowed to modify their requirements at any time. This leads to modifications in the planning and construction processes. This paper covers a mathematical formulation for this problem based on set theory. A complex structure is set up covering objects and relations; and operations are defined that guarantee consistency in the underlying and versioned process description. The presented considerations are based on previous work. This paper can be regarded as the next step in a series of previous work describing how a suitable concept for handling, planning and construction processes in civil engineering can be formed.

MULTI-SITE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT SCHEDULING CONSIDERING RESOURCE MOVING TIME IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
(2010)

Under the booming construction demands in developing countries, particularly in Vietnam situation, construction contractors often perform multiple concurrent projects in different places. In construction project scheduling processes, the existing scheduling methods often assume the resource moving time between activities/projects to be negligible. When multiple projects are deployed in different places and far from each other, this assumption has many shortcomings for properly modelling the real-world constraints. Especially, with respect to developing countries such as the Vietnam which contains transportation systems that are still in backward and low technical standards. This paper proposes a new algorithm named Multi-Site Construction Project Scheduling - MCOPS. The objective of this algorithm is to solve the problem of minimising multi-site construction project duration under limited available conditions of renewable resources (labour, machines and equipment) combining with the moving time of required resource among activities/projects. Additionally, in order to mitigate the impact of resource moving time into the multi-site project duration, this paper proposed a new priority rule: Minimum Resource Moving Time (MinRMT). The MinRMT is applied to rank the finished activities according to a priority order, to support the released resources to the scheduling activities. In order to investigate the impact of the resource moving time among activities during the scheduling process, computational experimentation was implemented. The results of the MCOPS-based computational experiments showed that, the resource moving time among projects has significantly impacted the multi-site project durations and this amount of time can not be ignored in the multi-site project scheduling process. Besides, the efficient application of the MinRMT is also demonstrated through the achieved results of the computational experiment in this paper. Though the efforts in this paper are based on the Vietnamese construction conditions, the proposed method can be usefully applied in other developing countries which have similar construction conditions.

For many applications, nonuniformly distributed functional data is given which lead to large–scale scattered data problems. We wish to represent the data in terms of a sparse representation with a minimal amount of degrees of freedom. For this, an adaptive scheme which operates in a coarse-to-fine fashion using a multiscale basis is proposed. Specifically, we investigate hierarchical bases using B-splines and spline-(pre)wavelets. At each stage a leastsquares approximation of the data is computed. We take into account different requests arising in large-scale scattered data fitting: we discuss the fast iterative solution of the least square systems, regularization of the data, and the treatment of outliers. A particular application concerns the approximate continuation of harmonic functions, an issue arising in geodesy.

A stress based remodeling approach is used to investigate the sensitivity of the collagen architecture in humane eye tissues on the biomechanical response of the lamina cribrosa with a particular focus on the stress environment of the nerve fibers. This approach is based on a multi-level biomechanical framework, where the biomechanical properties of eye tissues are derived from a single crimped fibril at the micro-scale via the collagen network of distributed fibrils at the meso-scale to the incompressible and anisotropic soft tissue at the macro-scale. Biomechanically induced remodeling of the collagen network is captured on the meso-scale by allowing for a continuous reorientation of collagen fibrils. To investigate the multi-scale phenomena related to glaucomatous neuropathy a generalized computational homogenization scheme is applied to a coupled two-scale analysis of the human eye considering a numerical macro- and meso-scale model of the lamina cribrosa.

Nodal integration of finite elements has been investigated recently. Compared with full integration it shows better convergence when applied to incompressible media, allows easier remeshing and highly reduces the number of material evaluation points thus improving efficiency. Furthermore, understanding it may help to create new integration schemes in meshless methods as well. The new integration technique requires a nodally averaged deformation gradient. For the tetrahedral element it is possible to formulate a nodal strain which passes the patch test. On the downside, it introduces non-physical low energy modes. Most of these "spurious modes" are local deformation maps of neighbouring elements. Present stabilization schemes rely on adding a stabilizing potential to the strain energy. The stabilization is discussed within this article. Its drawbacks are easily identified within numerical experiments: Nonlinear material laws are not well represented. Plastic strains may often be underestimated. Geometrically nonlinear stabilization greatly reduces computational efficiency. The article reinterpretes nodal integration in terms of imposing a nonconforming C0-continuous strain field on the structure. By doing so, the origins of the spurious modes are discussed and two methods are presented that solve this problem. First, a geometric constraint is formulated and solved using a mixed formulation of Hu-Washizu type. This assumption leads to a consistent representation of the strain energy while eliminating spurious modes. The solution is exact, but only of theoretical interest since it produces global support. Second, an integration scheme is presented that approximates the stabilization criterion. The latter leads to a highly efficient scheme. It can even be extended to other finite element types such as hexahedrals. Numerical efficiency, convergence behaviour and stability of the new method is validated using linear tetrahedral and hexahedral elements.

In the paper presented, reinforced concrete shells of revolution are analyzed in both meridional and circumferential directions. Taking into account the physical non-linearity of the material, the internal forces and the deflections of the shell as well as the strain distribution at the cross-sections are calculated. The behavior of concrete under compression is described by linear and non-linear stress-strain relations. The description of the behavior of concrete under tension must account for tension stiffening effects. A tri-linear function is used to formulate the material law of reinforcement. The problem cannot be solved analytically due to the physical non-linearity. Thus a numerical solution is formulated by means of the LAGRANGE Principle of the minimum of the total potential energy. The kinematically admissible field of deformation is defined by the displacements u in the meridional and w in the radial direction. These displacements must satisfy the equations of compatibility and the kinematical boundary conditions of the shell. The strains are linearly distributed across the wall thickness. The strain energy depends on the specific of the material behavior. Using integral formulations of the material law [1], the strain energy of each part of the cross-section is defined as a function of the strains at the boundaries of the cross-sections. The shell is discretised in the meridional direction. Various methods of numerical differentiation and numerical integration are applied in order to determine the deformations and the strain energy. The unknown displacements u and w are calculated by a non-restricted extremum problem based on the minimum of the total potential energy. From mathematical point of view, the objective function is a convex function, thus the minimum can be determined without difficulty. The advantage of this formulation is that unlike non-linear methods with path-following algorithms the calculation does not have to account for changing stiffness and load increments. All iterations necessary to find the solution are integrated into the “Solver”. The model presented provides many ways of investigating the influence of various material parameters on the stresses and deformations of the entire shell structure.

An energy method based on the LAGRANGE Principle of the minimum of total potential en-ergy is presented to calculate the stresses and strains of composite cross-sections. The stress-strain relation of each partition of the cross-section can be an arbitrary piecewise continuous function. The strain energy is transformed into a line integral by GAUSS’s integral theorem. The total strain of each partition of the cross-section is split into load-dependent strain and pre-strain. Pre-strains have to be taken into account when the cross-section is pre-stressed, retrofit-ted or influenced by shrinkage, temperature etc. The unconstrained minimum problem can be solved for each load combination using standard software. The application of the method presented in the paper is demonstrated by means of examples.

NONZONAL WAVELETS ON S^N
(2010)

In the present article we will construct wavelets on an arbitrary dimensional sphere S^n due the approach of approximate Identities. There are two equivalently approaches to wavelets. The group theoretical approach formulates a square integrability condition for a group acting via unitary, irreducible representation on the sphere. The connection to the group theoretical approach will be sketched. The concept of approximate identities uses the same constructions in the background, here we select an appropriate section of dilations and translations in the group acting on the sphere in two steps. At First we will formulate dilations in terms of approximate identities and than we call in translations on the sphere as rotations. This leads to the construction of an orthogonal polynomial system in L²(SO(n+1)). That approach is convenient to construct concrete wavelets, since the appropriate kernels can be constructed form the heat kernel leading to the approximate Identity of Gauss-Weierstra\ss. We will work out conditions to functions forming a family of wavelets, subsequently we formulate how we can construct zonal wavelets from a approximate Identity and the relation to admissibility of nonzonal wavelets. Eventually we will give an example of a nonzonal Wavelet on $S^n$, which we obtain from the approximate identity of Gauss-Weierstraß.

The article presents analysis of stress distribution in the reinforced concrete support beam bracket which is a component of prefabricated reinforced concrete building. The building structure is spatial frame where dilatations were applied. The proper stiffness of its structure is provided by frames with stiff joints, monolithic lift shifts and staircases. The prefabricated slab floors are supported by beam shelves which are shaped as inverted letter ‘T’. Beams are supported by the column brackets. In order to lower the storey height and fulfill the architectural demands at the same time, the designer lowered the height of beam at the support zone. The analyzed case refers to the bracket zone where the slant crack. on the support beam bracket was observed. It could appear as a result of overcrossing of allowable tension stresses in reinforced concrete, in the bracket zone. It should be noted that the construction solution applied, i.e. concurrent support of the “undercut” beam on the column bracket causes local concentration of stresses in the undercut zone where the strongest transverse forces and tangent stresses occur concurrently. Some additional rectangular stresses being a result of placing the slab floors on the lower part of beam shelves sum up with those described above.

We present the way of calculation of displacement in the bent reinforced concrete bar elements where rearrangement of internal forces and plastic hinge occurred. The described solution is based on prof. Borcz’s mathematical model. It directly takes into consideration the effects connected with the occurrence of plastic hinge, such as for example a crack, by means of a differential equation of axis of the bent reinforced concrete beam. The EN Eurocode 2 makes it possible to consider the influence of plastic hinge on the values of the reinforced concrete structures. This influence can also be assumed using other analytical methods. However, the results obtained by the application of Eurocode 2 are higher from those received in testing. Just comparably big error level occurs when calculations are made by means of Borcz’s method, but in the latter case, the results depend on the assumptions made beforehand. This method makes it possible to apply the experimental results using parameters r1 i r0. When the experimental results are taken into account, one could observe the compatibility between the calculations and actual deflections of the structure.

Sand-bentonite mixtures are well recognized as buffer and sealing material in nuclear waste repository constructions. The behaviour of compacted sand-bentonite mixture needs to be well understood in order to guarantee the safety and the efficiency of the barrier construction. This paper presents numerical simulations of swelling test and coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) test on compacted sand-bentonite mixture in order to reveal the influence of the temperature and hydraulic gradients on the distribution of temperature, mechanical stress and water content in such materials. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to identify the parameters which influence the most the response of the numerical model. Results of back analysis of the model parameters are reported and critically assessed.

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THERMO-HYGRAL ALKALI-SILICA REACTION MODEL IN CONCRETE AT THE MESOSCALE
(2010)

This research aims to model Alkali-Silica Reaction gel expansion in concrete under the influence of hygral and thermal loading, based on experimental results. ASR provokes a heterogeneous expansion in concrete leading to dimensional changes and eventually the premature failure of the concrete structure. This can result in map cracking on the concrete surface which will decrease the concrete stiffness. Factors that influence ASR are parameters such as the cement alkalinity, the number of deleterious silica from the aggregate used, concrete porosity, and external factors like temperature, humidity and external source of alkali from ingression of deicing salts. Uncertainties of the influential factors make ASR a difficult phenomenon to solve; hence my approach to this matter is to solve the problem using stochastic modelling, where a numerical simulation of concrete cross-section with integration of experimental results from Finger-Institute for Building Materials Science at the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. The problem is formulated as a multi-field problem, combining heat transfer, fluid transfer and the reaction rate model with the mechanical stress field. Simulation is performed as a mesoscale model considering aggregates and mortar matrix. The reaction rate model will be conducted using experimental results from concrete expansions due to ASR gained from concrete prism tests. Expansive strains values for transient environmental conditions due to the reaction rate will be determined from calculation based on the reaction rate model. Results from these models will be able to predict the rate of ASR expansion and the cracking propagation that may arise.

Building information modeling offers a huge potential for increasing the productivity and quality of construction planning processes. Despite its promising concept, this approach has not found widespread use. One of the reasons is the insufficient coupling of the structural models with the general building model. Instead, structural engineers usually set up a structural model that is independent from the building model and consists of mechanical models of reduced dimension. An automatic model generation, which would be valuable in case of model revisions is therefore not possible. This can be overcome by a volumetric formulation of the problem. A recent approach employed the p-version of the finite element method to this problem. This method, in conjunction with a volumetric formulation is suited to simulate the structural behaviour of both „thick“ solid bodies and thin-walled structures. However, there remains a notable discretization error in the numerical models. This paper therefore proposes a new approach for overcoming this situation. It sugggests the combination of the Isogeometric analysis together with the volumetric models in order to integrate the structural design into the digital, building model-centered planning process and reduce the discretization error. The concept of the isogeometric analysis consists, roughly, in the application of NURBS functions to represent the geometry and the shape functions of the elements. These functions possess some beneficial properties regarding numerical simulation. Their use, however, leads to some intricacies related to the setup of the stiffness matrix. This paper describes some of these properties.

Since the 90-ties the Pascal matrix, its generalizations and applications have been in the focus of a great amount of publications. As it is well known, the Pascal matrix, the symmetric Pascal matrix and other special matrices of Pascal type play an important role in many scientific areas, among them Numerical Analysis, Combinatorics, Number Theory, Probability, Image processing, Sinal processing, Electrical engineering, etc. We present a unified approach to matrix representations of special polynomials in several hypercomplex variables (new Bernoulli, Euler etc. polynomials), extending results of H. Malonek, G.Tomaz: Bernoulli polynomials and Pascal matrices in the context of Clifford Analysis, Discrete Appl. Math. 157(4)(2009) 838-847. The hypercomplex version of a new Pascal matrix with block structure, which resembles the ordinary one for polynomials of one variable will be discussed in detail.

The paper is devoted to a study of properties of homogeneous solutions of massless field equation in higher dimensions. We first treat the case of dimension 4. Here we use the two-component spinor language (developed for purposes of general relativity). We describe how are massless field operators related to a higher spin analogues of the de Rham sequence - the so called Bernstein-Gel'fand-Gel'fand (BGG) complexes - and how are they related to the twisted Dirac operators. Then we study similar question in higher (even) dimensions. Here we have to use more tools from representation theory of the orthogonal group. We recall the definition of massless field equations in higher dimensions and relations to higher dimensional conformal BGG complexes. Then we discuss properties of homogeneous solutions of massless field equation. Using some recent techniques for decomposition of tensor products of irreducible $Spin(m)$-modules, we are able to add some new results on a structure of the spaces of homogenous solutions of massless field equations. In particular, we show that the kernel of the massless field equation in a given homogeneity contains at least on specific irreducible submodule.

As numerical techniques for solving PDE or integral equations become more sophisticated, treatments of the generation of the geometric inputs should also follow that numerical advancement. This document describes the preparation of CAD data so that they can later be applied to hierarchical BEM or FEM solvers. For the BEM case, the geometric data are described by surfaces which we want to decompose into several curved foursided patches. We show the treatment of untrimmed and trimmed surfaces. In particular, we provide prevention of smooth corners which are bad for diffeomorphism. Additionally, we consider the problem of characterizing whether a Coons map is a diffeomorphism from the unit square onto a planar domain delineated by four given curves. We aim primarily at having not only theoretically correct conditions but also practically efficient methods. As for FEM geometric preparation, we need to decompose a 3D solid into a set of curved tetrahedra. First, we describe some method of decomposition without adding too many Steiner points (additional points not belonging to the initial boundary nodes of the boundary surface). Then, we provide a methodology for efficiently checking whether a tetrahedral transfinite interpolation is regular. That is done by a combination of degree reduction technique and subdivision. Along with the method description, we report also on some interesting practical results from real CAD data.

In this paper we consider the time independent Klein-Gordon equation on some conformally flat 3-tori with given boundary data. We set up an explicit formula for the fundamental solution. We show that we can represent any solution to the homogeneous Klein-Gordon equation on the torus as finite sum over generalized 3-fold periodic elliptic functions that are in the kernel of the Klein-Gordon operator. Furthermore we prove Cauchy and Green type integral formulas and set up a Teodorescu and Cauchy transform for the toroidal Klein-Gordon operator. These in turn are used to set up explicit formulas for the solution to the inhomogeneous version of the Klein-Gordon equation on the 3-torus.