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The design of safety-critical structures, exposed to cyclic excitations demands for non-degrading or limited-degrading behavior during extreme events. Among others, the structural behavior is mainly determined by the amount of plastic cycles, completed during the excitation. Existing simplified methods often ignore this dependency, or assume/request sufficient cyclic capacity. The paper introduces a new performance based design method that considers explicitly a predefined number of re-plastifications. Hereby approaches from the shakedown theory and signal processing methods are utilized. The paper introduces the theoretical background, explains the steps of the design procedure and demonstrates the applicability with help of an example. This project was supported by German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG)

The proceedings at hand are the result of the International Master Course Module: "Nonlinear Analysis of Structures: Wind Induced Vibrations" held at the Faculty of Civil Engineering at Bauhaus-University Weimar, Germany in the summer semester 2019 (April - August). This material summarizes the results of the project work done throughout the semester, provides an overview of the topic, as well as impressions from the accompanying programme.
Wind Engineering is a particular field of Civil Engineering that evaluates the resistance of structures caused by wind loads. Bridges, high-rise buildings, chimneys and telecommunication towers might be susceptible to wind vibrations due to their increased flexibility, therefore a special design is carried for this aspect. Advancement in technology and scientific studies permit us doing research at small scale for more accurate analyses. Therefore scaled models of real structures are built and tested for various construction scenarios. These models are placed in wind tunnels where experiments are conducted to determine parameters such as: critical wind speeds for bridge decks, static wind coefficients and forces for buildings or bridges. The objective of the course was to offer insight to the students into the assessment of long-span cable-supported bridges and high-rise buildings under wind excitation. The participating students worked in interdisciplinary teams to increase their knowledge in the understanding and influences on the behaviour of wind-sensitive structures.

In the paper presented, reinforced concrete shells of revolution are analyzed in both meridional and circumferential directions. Taking into account the physical non-linearity of the material, the internal forces and the deflections of the shell as well as the strain distribution at the cross-sections are calculated. The behavior of concrete under compression is described by linear and non-linear stress-strain relations. The description of the behavior of concrete under tension must account for tension stiffening effects. A tri-linear function is used to formulate the material law of reinforcement. The problem cannot be solved analytically due to the physical non-linearity. Thus a numerical solution is formulated by means of the LAGRANGE Principle of the minimum of the total potential energy. The kinematically admissible field of deformation is defined by the displacements u in the meridional and w in the radial direction. These displacements must satisfy the equations of compatibility and the kinematical boundary conditions of the shell. The strains are linearly distributed across the wall thickness. The strain energy depends on the specific of the material behavior. Using integral formulations of the material law [1], the strain energy of each part of the cross-section is defined as a function of the strains at the boundaries of the cross-sections. The shell is discretised in the meridional direction. Various methods of numerical differentiation and numerical integration are applied in order to determine the deformations and the strain energy. The unknown displacements u and w are calculated by a non-restricted extremum problem based on the minimum of the total potential energy. From mathematical point of view, the objective function is a convex function, thus the minimum can be determined without difficulty. The advantage of this formulation is that unlike non-linear methods with path-following algorithms the calculation does not have to account for changing stiffness and load increments. All iterations necessary to find the solution are integrated into the “Solver”. The model presented provides many ways of investigating the influence of various material parameters on the stresses and deformations of the entire shell structure.

The presented method for an physically non-linear analysis of stresses and deformations of composite cross-sections and members based on energy principles and their transformation to non-linear optimisation problems. From the LAGRANGE principle of minimum of total potential energy a kinematic formulation of the mechanical problem can be developed, which has the general advantage that pre-deformations excited by shrinkage, temperature, residual deformations after unloading et al., can be considered directly. Thus the non-linear analysis of composite cross-sections with layers of different mechanical properties and different preloading becomes possible and cracks in concrete, stiffness degradation and other specifics of the material behaviour can be taken into account without cardinal modification of the mathematical model. The impact of local defects on the bearing capacity of an entire element can also be analysed in this principle way. Standard computational systems for mathematical optimisation or general programs for spreadsheet analysis enable an uncomplicated implementation of the developed models and an effective non-linear analysis for composite cross-sections and elements.

A new approach to the non-linear analysis of cross-sections loaded by normal forces and bending moments is presented in the paper. The mechanical model is based on the LAGRANGE principle of minimum of total potential energy. Deformations, stresses and limit load parameters are obtained by solving a non-linear optimisation problem. The mathematical model is independent of the specifics of material. In addition to the stress strain relation and the specific strain energy W(ε) two further functions F(ε) and Φ(ε) are introduced to describe the material behaviour. Thus cracks in concrete, non-linearity of material etc. can be taken into account without basic modification of the numerical algorithm. For polygonal cross-sections the GAUSS' integral theorem is used. Numerical solutions of the non-linear optimisation problems can be found by application of standard software. Thus the analysis of reinforced concrete cross-sections or more general composite cross-sections with non-linear behaviour of material is as simple as in the case of linear elasticity. The application of the method is demonstrated for polygonal cross-sections. Pre-stresses or pre-strains can easily be included in the mathematical model.

An energy method based on the LAGRANGE Principle of the minimum of total potential en-ergy is presented to calculate the stresses and strains of composite cross-sections. The stress-strain relation of each partition of the cross-section can be an arbitrary piecewise continuous function. The strain energy is transformed into a line integral by GAUSS’s integral theorem. The total strain of each partition of the cross-section is split into load-dependent strain and pre-strain. Pre-strains have to be taken into account when the cross-section is pre-stressed, retrofit-ted or influenced by shrinkage, temperature etc. The unconstrained minimum problem can be solved for each load combination using standard software. The application of the method presented in the paper is demonstrated by means of examples.

Low-skilled labor makes a significant part of the construction sector, performing daily production tasks that do not require specific technical knowledge or confirmed skills. Today, construction market demands increasing skill levels. Many jobs that were once considered to be undertaken by low or un-skilled labor, now demand some kind of formal skills. The jobs that require low skilled labor are continually decreasing due to technological advancement and globalization. Jobs that previously required little or no training now require skilful people to perform the tasks appropriately. The study aims at ameliorating employability of less skilled manpower by finding ways to instruct them for performing constructions tasks. A review of exiting task instruction methodologies in construction and the underlying gaps within them warrants an appropriate way to train and instruct low skilled workers for the tasks in construction. The idea is to ensure the required quality of construction with technological and didactic aids seeming particularly purposeful to prepare potential workers for the tasks in construction without exposing them to existing communication barriers. A BIM based technology is considered promising along with the integration of visual directives/animations to elaborate the construction tasks scheduled to be carried on site.

Am Beispiel eines 3-feldrigen Durchlaufträgers wird die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit von wechselnd belasteten Stahlbetonbalken bezüglich des Grenzzustandes der Adaption (Einspielen, shakedown) untersucht. Die Adaptionsanalyse erfolgt unter Berücksichtigung der beanspruchungschabhängigen Degradation der Biegesteifigkeit infolge Rissbildung. Die damit verbundene mechanische Problemstellung kann auf die Adaptionsanalyse linear elastisch - ideal plastischer Balkentragwerke mit unbekannter aber begrenzter Biegesteifigkeit zurückgeführt werden. Die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit wird unter Berücksichtigung stochastischer Tragwerks- und Belastungsgrößen berechnet. Tragwerkseigenschaften und ständige Lasten gelten als zeitunabhängige Zufallsgrößen. Zeitlich veränderliche Lasten werden als nutzungsdauerbezogene Extremwerte POISSONscher Rechteck-Pulsprozesse unter Berücksichtigung zeitlicher Überlagerungseffekte modelliert, so dass die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit ebenfalls eine nutzungsdauerbezogene Größe ist. Die mechanischen Problemstellungen werden numerisch mit der mathematischen Optimierung gelöst. Die Versagenswahrscheinlichkeit wird auf statistischem Weg mit der Monte-Carlo-Methode geschätzt.

The paper introduces a systematic construction management approach, supporting expansion of a specified construction process, both automatically and semi-automatically. Throughout the whole design process, many requirements must be taken into account in order to fulfil demands defined by clients. In implementing those demands into a design concept up to the execution plan, constraints such as site conditions, building code, and legal framework are to be considered. However, complete information, which is needed to make a sound decision, is not yet acquired in the early phase. Decisions are traditionally taken based on experience and assumptions. Due to a vast number of appropriate available solutions, particularly in building projects, it is necessary to make those decisions traceable. This is important in order to be able to reconstruct considerations and assumptions taken, should there be any changes in the future project’s objectives. The research will be carried out by means of building information modelling, where rules deriving from standard logics of construction management knowledge will be applied. The knowledge comprises a comprehensive interaction amongst bidding process, cost-estimation, construction site preparation as well as specific project logistics – which are usually still separately considered. By means of these rules, favourable decision taking regarding prefabrication and in-situ implementation can be justified. Modifications depending on the available information within current design stage will consistently be traceable.

The design of engineering structures takes place today and in the past on the basis of static calculations. The consideration of uncertainties in the model quality becomes more and more important with the development of new construction methods and design requirements. In addition to the traditional forced-based approaches, experiences and observations about the deformation behavior of components and the overall structure under different exposure conditions allow the introduction of novel detection and evaluation criteria.
The proceedings at hand are the result from the Bauhaus Summer School Course: Forecast Engineering held at the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, 2017. It summarizes the results of the conducted project work, provides the abstracts of the contributions by the participants, as well as impressions from the accompanying programme and organized cultural activities.
The special character of this course is in the combination of basic disciplines of structural engineering with applied research projects in the areas of steel and reinforced concrete structures, earthquake and wind engineering as well as informatics and linking them to mathematical methods and modern tools of visualization. Its innovative character results from the ambitious engineering tasks and advanced
modeling demands.

Institute of Structural Engineering, Institute of Structural Mechanics, as well as Institute for Computing, Mathematics and Physics in Civil Engineering at the faculty of civil engineering at the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar presented special topics of structural engineering to highlight the broad spectrum of civil engineering in the field of modeling and simulation.
The summer course sought to impart knowledge and to combine research with a practical context, through a challenging and demanding series of lectures, seminars and project work. Participating students were enabled to deal with advanced methods and its practical application.
The extraordinary format of the interdisciplinary summer school offers the opportunity to study advanced developments of numerical methods and sophisticated modelling techniques in different disciplines of civil engineering for foreign and domestic students, which go far beyond traditional graduate courses.
The proceedings at hand are the result from the Bauhaus Summer School course: Forecast Engineering held at the Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, 2018. It summarizes the results of the conducted project work, provides the abstracts/papers of the contributions by the participants, as well as impressions from the accompanying programme and organized cultural activities.

The Bauhaus Summer School series provides an international forum for an exchange of methods and skills related to the interaction between different disciplines of modern engineering science.
The 2012 civil engineering course was held in August over two weeks at Bauhaus-Universität Weimar. The overall aim was the exchange
of research and modern scientific approaches in the field of model validation and simulation between well-known experts acting as lecturers
and active students. Besides these educational intentions the social and cultural component of the meeting has been in the focus. 48 graduate and doctoral students from 20 different countries and 22 lecturers from 12 countries attended this summer school. Among
other aspects, this activity can be considered successful as it raised the
sensitivity towards both the significance of research in civil engineering
and the role of intercultural exchange.
This volume summarizes and publishes some of the results: abstracts
of key note papers presented by the experts and selected student
research works. The overview reflects the quality of this summer school.
Furthermore the individual contributions confirm that for active students
this event has been a research forum and a special opportunity
to learn from the experiences of the researchers in terms of methodology
and strategies for research implementation in their current work.