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The aim of this paper is to present so-called discrete-continual boundary element method (DCBEM) of structural analysis. Its field of application comprises buildings constructions, structures and also parts and components for the residential, commercial and un-inhabitant structures with invariability of physical and geometrical parameters in some dimensions. We should mention here in particular such objects as beams, thin-walled bars, strip foundations, plates, shells, deep beams, high-rise buildings, extensional buildings, pipelines, rails, dams and others. DCBEM comes under group of semianalytical methods. Semianalytical formulations are contemporary mathematical models which currently becoming available for realization due to substantial speed-up of computer productivity. DCBEM is based on the theory of the pseudodifferential boundary equations. Corresponding pseudodifferential operators are discretely approximated using Fourier analysis or wavelet analysis. The main DCBEM advantages against the other methods of the numerical analysis is a double reduction in dimension of the problem (discrete numerical division applied not to the full region of the interest but only to the boundary of the region cross section, as a matter of fact one is solving an one-dimensional problem with the finite step on the boundary area of the region), one has opportunities to carrying out very detailed analysis of the specific chosen zones, simplified initial data preparation, simplistic and adaptive algorithms. There are two methods to define and conduct DCBEM analysis developed – indirect (IDCBEM) and direct (DDCBEM), thus indirect like in boundary element method (BEM) applied and used little bit more than direct.

The execution of project activities generally requires the use of (renewable) resources like machines, equipment or manpower. The resource allocation problem consists in assigning time intervals to the execution of the project activities while taking into account temporal constraints between activities emanating from technological or organizational requirements and costs incurred by the resource allocation. If the total procurement cost of the different renewable resources has to be minimized we speak of a resource investment problem. If the cost depends on the smoothness of the resource utilization over time the underlying problem is called a resource levelling problem. In this paper we consider a new tree-based enumeration method for solving resource investment and resource levelling problems exploiting some fundamental properties of spanning trees. The enumeration scheme is embedded in a branch-and-bound procedure using a workload-based lower bound and a depth first search. Preliminary computational results show that the proposed procedure is promising for instances with up to 30 activities.

We present an algebraically extended 2D image representation in this paper. In order to obtain more degrees of freedom, a 2D image is embedded into a certain geometric algebra. Combining methods of differential geometry, tensor algebra, monogenic signal and quadrature filter, the novel 2D image representation can be derived as the monogenic extension of a curvature tensor. The 2D spherical harmonics are employed as basis functions to construct the algebraically extended 2D image representation. From this representation, the monogenic signal and the monogenic curvature signal for modeling intrinsically one and two dimensional (i1D/i2D) structures are obtained as special cases. Local features of amplitude, phase and orientation can be extracted at the same time in this unique framework. Compared with the related work, our approach has the advantage of simultaneous estimation of local phase and orientation. The main contribution is the rotationally invariant phase estimation, which enables phase-based processing in many computer vision tasks.

Analysis of the reinforced concrete chimney geometry changes and their influence on the stresses in the chimney mantle was made. All the changes were introduced to a model chimney and compared. Relations between the stresses in the mantle of the chimney and the deformations determined by the change of the chimney's vertical axis geometry were investigated. The vertical axis of chimney was described by linear function (corresponding to the real rotation of the chimney together with the foundation), and by parabolic function (corresponding to the real dislocation of the chimney under the influence of the horizontal forces - wind). The positive stress pattern in the concrete as well as the negative stress pattern in the reinforcing steel have been presented. The two cases were compared. Analysis of the stress changes in the chimney mantle depending on the modification in the thickness of the mantle (the thickness of the chimney mantle was altered in the linear or the abrupt way) was carried out. The relation between the stresses and the chimney's diameter change from the bottom to the top of the chimney was investigated. All the analyses were conducted by means of a specially developed computer program created in Mathematica environment. The program makes it also possible to control calculations and to visualize the results of the calculations at every stage of the calculation process.

TOOL TO CHECK TOPOLOGY AND GEOMETRY FOR SPATIAL STRUCTURES ON BASIS OF THE EXTENDED MAXWELL'S RULE
(2006)

One of the simplest principle in the design of light-weight structures is to avoid bending. This can be achieved by dissolving girders into members acting purely in axial tension or compression. The employment of cables for the tensioned members leads to even lighter structures which are called cable-strut structures. They constitute a subclass of spatial structures. To give fast information about the general feasibility of an architectural concept employing cable-strut structures is a challenging task due to their sophisticated mechanical behavior. In this regard it is essential to control if the structure is stable and if pre-stress can be applied. This paper presents a tool using the spreadsheet software Microsoft (MS) Excel which can give such information. Therefore it is not necessary to purchase special software and the according time consuming training is much lower. The tool was developed on basis of the extended Maxwell's rule, which besides topology also considers the geometry of the structure. For this the rank of the node equilibrium matrix is crucial. Significance and determination of the rank and the implementation of the corresponding algorithms in MS Excel are described in the following. The presented tool is able to support the structural designer in an early stage of the project in finding a feasible architectural concept for cable-strut structures. As examples for the application of the software tool two special cable-strut structures, so called tensegrity structures, were examined for their mechanical behavior.

Subject of the paper is the realisation of a model based efficiency control system for PV generators using a simulation model. A standard 2-diodes model of PV generator is base of the ColSim model, which is implemented in ANSI C code for flexible code exporting. The algorithm is based on discretisized U-I characteristics, which allows the calculation of string topologies witch parallel and serial PV cells and modules. Shadowing effects can be modelled down to cell configuration using polar horizon definitions. The simulation model was ported to a real time environment, to calculate the efficiency of a PV system. Embedded System technology allows the networked operation and the integration of standard I/O devices. Futher work focus on the adaption of shadowing routine, which will be adapted to get the environment conditions from the real operation.

Die meisten Insolvenzen in Deutschland kommen aus der Bauindustrie. Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig, jedoch kann mittels eines modern ausgerichteten M-I-S und Baustellen-Controllings frühzeitig erkannt werden, wie sich die Baustellenergebnisse entwickeln. Hierzu ist es notwendig, dass die Arbeitskalkulation ständig auf dem Laufenden gehalten wird. Nur wenn dies geschieht, sind monatliche Soll-/ Ist-Vergleiche und eine Betrachtung der cost-to-complete möglich und sinnvoll. Eine monatlich rollierende Prognose des Baustellenergebnisses zum Bauende ermöglicht, dass gravierende Veränderungen des Ergebnisses umgehend aufgedeckt werden. Nur in Kenntnis dieser Entwicklungen kann das Management frühzeitig (im Sinne eines Frühwarnsystems) agieren und Steuerungsmaßnahmen ergreifen. Die Ergebnisprognose zum Bauende ist allein als Steuerungsinstrument nicht ausreichend. Die Finanzsituation der Baustelle muß auch regelmäßig geprüft werden, d.h. der Leistungsstand mit der Rechnungsstellung an den Bauherren abgeglichen sowie die unbezahlten Rechnungen des Bauherren überprüft werden. Das beste Prognoseergebnis ist wertlos, wenn der Bauherr seine bezogenen Leistungen nicht vergütet. Die wirtschaftlichen Daten stehen den Verantwortlichen online im Baustellen-Informations-System (B-I-S) zur Verfügung. Ein Ampelsystem verdeutlicht die wirtschaftliche Lage der Baustelle.

Hinsichtlich der Integration einzelner Bauwerkslebensphasen und der verschiedenen Beteiligten, insbesondere innerhalb von Bauplanungs- und Revitalisierungsprozessen, bestehen aktuell entscheidende Defizite. Die generelle Zielstellung der in diesem Beitrag vorgestellten Forschungsarbeiten besteht in der Unterstützung und Verbesserung der Integration durch die disziplin- und lebensphasenübergreifende Bereitstellung sämtlicher bauwerksbezogener Informationen. Dies erfordert einerseits geeignete Ansätze zur Modellierung und Integration der vielfältigen disziplinspezifischen Daten, andererseits geeignete Lösungen, die einen globalen Zugriff, Navigation und Recherche im Gesamtdatenbestand ermöglichen. Die Modellierung und Verwaltung bauwerksbezogener Daten ist seit längerem Gegenstand diverser Forschungsarbeiten. Im Rahmen des SFB 524 wurde ein eigener Ansatz basierend auf einem laufzeitdynamischen Partialmodellverbund entwickelt. Dieser wird in den wesentlichen Grundzügen anderen Ansätzen gegenübergestellt. Den Schwerpunkt dieses Beitrags bildet jedoch die Entwicklung einer geeigneten flexiblen Navigations- und Rechercheschicht zu Realisierung projektglobaler Informationsrecherche. Aus der Sicht der Modellierung und Datenverwaltung wie auch aus der Sicht der Informationsrecherche und Informationspräsentation in Planungsprozessen ergeben sich verschiedene Anforderungen an derartige Recherchewerkzeuge, wobei der wesentlichste Grundsatz maximale Flexibilität hinsichtlich verfügbarer Darstellungstechniken und deren freie Kombination mit Techniken formaler Suchanfragen ist. Das entwickelte Systemkonzept basiert auf einem Framework, welches verschiedene Grundtypen von Recherchemodulen und deren Interaktionsprinzipien vorgibt. Einzelne Recherchemodule werden als Ausprägungen dieser Modultypen realisiert und können je nach Bedarf laufzeitdynamisch in die Navigationsschicht integriert werden. Die technische Realisierung des Systems erfolgt im Umfeld vorhandener Prototypen aus vorangegangenen Forschungsaktivitäten. Dieses technische Umfeld gibt verschiedene Rahmenbedingungen vor, welche im Vorfeld prototypischer Implementierungen verschiedene Adaptionen des generellen Systemkonzepts notwendig machen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt den aktuellen Entwicklungsstand der Systemlösung aus konzeptioneller und technischer Sicht sowie erste prototypische Realisierungen von Recherchemodulen vor.

The design of safety-critical structures, exposed to cyclic excitations demands for non-degrading or limited-degrading behavior during extreme events. Among others, the structural behavior is mainly determined by the amount of plastic cycles, completed during the excitation. Existing simplified methods often ignore this dependency, or assume/request sufficient cyclic capacity. The paper introduces a new performance based design method that considers explicitly a predefined number of re-plastifications. Hereby approaches from the shakedown theory and signal processing methods are utilized. The paper introduces the theoretical background, explains the steps of the design procedure and demonstrates the applicability with help of an example. This project was supported by German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG)

For the dynamic behavior of lightweight structures like thin shells and membranes exposed to fluid flow the interaction between the two fields is often essential. Computational fluid-structure interaction provides a tool to predict this interaction and complement or eventually replace expensive experiments. Partitioned analyses techniques enjoy great popularity for the numerical simulation of these interactions. This is due to their computational superiority over simultaneous, i.e. fully coupled monolithic approaches, as they allow the independent use of suitable discretization methods and modular analysis software. We use, for the fluid, GLS stabilized finite elements on a moving domain based on the incompressible instationary Navier-Stokes equations, where the formulation guarantees geometric conservation on the deforming domain. The structure is discretized by nonlinear, three-dimensional shell elements.
Commonly used sequential staggered coupling schemes may exhibit instabilities due to the so-called artificial added mass effect. As best remedy to this problem subiterations should be invoked to guarantee kinematic and dynamic continuity across the fluid-structure interface. Since iterative coupling algorithms are computationally very costly, their convergence rate is very decisive for their usability. To ensure and accelerate the convergence of this iteration the updates of the interface position are relaxed. The time dependent, 'optimal' relaxation parameter is determined automatically without any user-input via exploiting a gradient method or applying an Aitken iteration scheme.

The reduction of oscillation amplitudes of structural elements is necessary not only for maintenance of their durability and longevity but also for elimination of a harmful effect of oscillations on people and technology operations. The dampers are widely applied for this purpose. One of the most widespread models of structural friction forces having piecewise linear relation to displacement was analysed. T The author suggests the application of phase trajectories mapping in plane "acceleration – displacement". Unlike the trajectories mapping in a plane "velocity – displacement", they don't require large number of geometrical constructions for identification of the characteristics of dynamic systems. It promotes improving the accuracy. The analytical assumptions had been verified by numerical modeling. The results show good enough coincide between numerical and analytical estimation of dissipative characteristic.

The extended finite element method (XFEM) offers an elegant tool to model material discontinuities and cracks within a regular mesh, so that the element edges do not necessarily coincide with the discontinuities. This allows the modeling of propagating cracks without the requirement to adapt the mesh incrementally. Using a regular mesh offers the advantage, that simple refinement strategies based on the quadtree data structure can be used to refine the mesh in regions, that require a high mesh density. An additional benefit of the XFEM is, that the transmission of cohesive forces through a crack can be modeled in a straightforward way without introducing additional interface elements. Finally different criteria for the determination of the crack propagation angle are investigated and applied to numerical tests of cracked concrete specimens, which are compared with experimental results.

The paper contains a description of dynamic effects in the silo wall during the outflow of a stored material. The work allows for determining the danger of construction damage due to resonant vibrations and is of practical importance by determining the influence of cyclic pressures and vibro–creeping during prolonged use of a silo. The paper was devised as a result of tests on silo walls in semi-technical scale. The model is generally applicable and allows for identification of parameters in real- size silos as well.

The paper proposes a new method for general 3D measurement and 3D point reconstruction. Looking at its features, the method explicitly aims at practical applications. These features especially cover low technical expenses and minimal user interaction, a clear problem separation into steps that are solved by simple mathematical methods (direct, stable and optimal with respect to least error squares), and scalability. The method expects the internal and radial distortion parameters of the used camera(s) as inputs, and a plane quadrangle with known geometry within the scene. At first, for each single picture the 3D position of the reference quadrangle (with respect to each camera coordinate frame) is calculated. These 3D reconstructions of the reference quadrangle are then used to yield the relative external parameters of each camera regarding the first one. With known external parameters, triangulation is finally possible. The differences from other known procedures are outlined, paying attention to the stable mathematical methods (no usage of nonlinear optimization) and the low user interaction with good results at the same time.

In this paper proposed the application of two-parameters damage model, based on non-linear finite element approach, to the analysis of masonry panels. Masonry is treated as a homogenized material, for which the material characteristics can be defined by using homogenization technique. The masonry panels subjected to shear loading are studied by using the proposed procedure within the framework of three-dimensional analyses. The nonlinear behaviour of masonry can be modelled using concepts of damage theory. In this case an adequate damage function is defined for taking into account different response of masonry under tension and compression states. Cracking can, therefore, be interpreted as a local damage effect, defined by the evolution of known material parameters and by one or several functions which control the onset and evolution of damage. The model takes into account all the important aspects which should be considered in the nonlinear analysis of masonry structures such as the effect of stiffness degradation due to mechanical effects and the problem of objectivity of the results with respect to the finite element mesh. Finally the proposed damage model is validated with a comparison with experimental results available in the literature.

This paper presents results of applying Fuzzy Inference System for estimation of the number of potential Park and Ride users. Usually it is difficult to evaluate the number of users because it depends on human factor and data in the considered system are uncertain. In such situation the traditional mathematical approaches can not take into consideration rough data. Therefore a fuzzy approach can be applied in this case. A fuzzy methodology is treated as a proper way to describe choice of mode of transport, and especially that uncertainty accompanied of choosing process has rather fuzzy character. The proposed approach is based on the Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System and for calculation there is used Matlab software with Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Mamdani model requires, as an input data, knowledge of the shape of membership function. These functions can be calibrated taking into consideration results of questionnaires conducted among users of Park and Ride system. Due to lack of representative sample of users, one has decided to use results of experts' questionnaires as a input data for calibration the shape of membership functions. Describing factor will be generalized cost of the trip for different modes of transport. Proposed approach consists of two main stages: modeling of share of public/private transport trips and Multimodal model estimating number of Park and Ride users. Verification of presented methodology is treated as an indirect proof. Proposed approach can be applied for estimation of bi-modal split. Then the results are compared with traditional approaches based on logit functions. Comparable results of proposed fuzzy approach with traditional logit models can be treated as a confirmation of chosen methodology.

In this paper we evaluate 2D models for soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), that incorporate the hysteretic nature of the relationship between volumetric water content θ and suction ψ. The models are based on nonlinear least squares estimation of the experimental data for sand. To estimate the dependent variable θ the proposed models include two independent variables, suction and sensors reading position (depth d in the column test). The variable d represents not only the position where suction and water content are measured but also the initial suction distribution before each of the hydraulic loading test phases. Due to this the proposed 2D regression models acquire the advantage that they: (a) can be applied for prediction of θ for any position along the column and (b) give the functional form for the scanning curves.

Optimum technological solutions must take into account the entire life cycle of structures including design procedures as well as quality assurance, inspection, maintenance, and repair strategies. Unfortunately, current design standards do not provide a satisfactory basis to ensure expected structural lifetimes. The latter may vary from only a few years for temporary structures to over a century for bridges, water dams or nuclear repositories. Consistent scientific concepts are urgently required to cover this wide spectrum of lifetimes in structural design and maintenance. This was a motivation for a group of scientists at the Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB) to start a special research program supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the Cooperative Research Center SFB 398 since 1996. Institutes of the University Wuppertal and of the University Essen-Duisburg joined the research group. The goal of the Center is to study sources of damage and deterioration in materials and structures, to develop consistent models and simulation methods, to predict structural lifetimes and finally to integrate this predictions into new lifetime-oriented design strategies.
Research activities in our center are organised in three Project Groups as follows:
- Modelling of lifetime effects
- Methods for lifetime-oriented structural analyses
- Future lifespan-oriented design strategies.

... WITHOUT RIGHT ANGLE.
(2006)

Currently sculptural design is one of the most discussed themes in architecture. Due to their light weight, easy transportation and assembly, as well as an almost unlimited structural variety, parameterised spatial structures are excellently suited for constructive realisation of free formed claddings. They subdivide the continuous surface into a structure of small sized nodes, straight members and plane glass panels. Thus they provide an opportunity to realise arbitrary double-curved claddings with a high degree of transparency, using industrial semi-finished products (steel sections, flat glass). Digital design strategies and a huge number of similar looking but in detail unique structural members demand a continuous digital project handling. Within a research project, named MYLOMESH, a free-formed spatial structure was designed, constructed, fabricated and assembled. All required steps were carried out based on digital data. Different digital connections (scripts) between varying software tools, which are usually not used in the planning process of buildings, were created. They allow a completely digital workflow. The project, its design, meshing, constructive detailing and the above-mentioned scripts are described in this paper.