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- Finite-Elemente-Methode (68) (remove)

This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM) comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent.

The optimization of continuous structures requires careful attention to discretization errors. Compared to ordinary low order formulation (h-elements) in conjunction with an adaptive mesh refinement in each optimization step, the use of high order finite elements (so called p-elements) has several advantages. However, compared to the h-method a higher order finite element analysis program poses higher demands from a software engineering point of view. In this article the basics of an object oriented higher order finite element system especially tailored to the use in structural optimization is presented. Besides the design of the system, aspects related to the employed implementation language Java are discussed.

The point collocation method of finite spheres (PCMFS) is used to model the hyperelastic response of soft biological tissue in real time within the framework of virtual surgery simulation. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) model order reduction (MOR) technique was used to achieve reduced-order model of the problem, minimizing computational cost. The PCMFS is a physics-based meshfree numerical technique for real-time simulation of surgical procedures where the approximation functions are applied directly on the strong form of the boundary value problem without the need for integration, increasing computational efficiency. Since computational speed has a significant role in simulation of surgical procedures, the proposed technique was able to model realistic nonlinear behavior of organs in real time. Numerical results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology through a comparison between full and reduced analyses for several nonlinear problems. It is shown that the proposed technique was able to achieve good agreement with the full model; moreover, the computational and data storage costs were significantly reduced.

Detailuntersuchungen an Tragwerken führen bei FE-Berechnungen immer wieder auf das Problem einer geeigneten Netzgestaltung. Während in weiten Bereichen ein grobes Netz ausreicht, muß an kritischen Stellen ein sehr feines Netz gewählt werden, um gerade dort hinreichend genaue Ergebnisse zu erhalten. Bei der Realisierung lokaler Netzverdichtungen stellt die Gestaltung des Übergangs vom groben zum feinen Netz das Hauptproblem dar. Im Beitrag wird hierzu eine Familie von FE-Übergangselementen vorgestellt, mit denen sich eine voll-kompatible Kopplung von wenigen großen Elementen mit vielen kleinen Elementen bereits über nur eine Stufe erzielen läßt. Diese neu entwickelten sogenannten pNh-Elemente ermöglichen an einer oder mehreren Seiten den Anschluß von N kleineren Elementen (Elementseiten für h-Verfeinerung). Das wird durch N stückweise definierte Ansatzfunktionen an den entsprechenden Seiten erreicht, wobei die Teilung nicht äquidistant sein braucht. Darüber hinaus ist es möglich, Elemente unterschiedlichen Polynomgrades p an den Standardseiten und den Verfeinerungsseiten anzuschließen. Der praktische Einsatz der Übergangselemente setzt geeignete automatische oder halbautomatische Netzgeneratoren voraus, die diese Elemente einbeziehen. Im Rahmen einer substrukturorientierten Modellierung läßt sich dies besonders günstig realisieren. Im Beitrag wird gezeigt, wie durch Zerlegung des Gesamtmodells in Bereiche mit grobem Netz, mit Übergangsnetz und mit feinem Netz, eine effektive Generierung der Netzverdichtungen zu erreichen ist. An einem praktischen Beispiel aus dem Bauingenieurwesen werden die Vorteile des vorgestellten Übergangselementkonzeptes umfassend demonstriert.

A realistic and reliable model is an important precondition for the simulation of revitalization tasks and the estimation of system properties of existing buildings. Thereby, the main focus lies on the parameter identification, the optimization strategies and the preparation of experiments. As usual structures are modeled by the finite element method. This as well as other techniques are based on idealizations and empiric material properties. Within one theory the parameters of the model should be approximated by gradually performed experiments and their analysis. This approximation method is performed by solving an optimization problem, which is usually non-convex, of high dimension and possesses a non-differentiable objective function. Therefore we use an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithms which was implemented by using the program package SLang...

Iso-parametric finite elements with linear shape functions show in general a too stiff element behavior, called locking. By the investigation of structural parts under bending loading the so-called shear locking appears, because these elements can not reproduce pure bending modes. Many studies dealt with the locking problem and a number of methods to avoid the undesirable effects have been developed. Two well known methods are the >Assumed Natural Strain< (ANS) method and the >Enhanced Assumed Strain< (EAS) method. In this study the EAS method is applied to a four-node plane element with four EAS-parameters. The paper will describe the well-known linear formulation, its extension to nonlinear materials and the modeling of material uncertainties with random fields. For nonlinear material behavior the EAS parameters can not be determined directly. Here the problem is solved by using an internal iteration at the element level, which is much more efficient and stable than the determination via a global iteration. To verify the deterministic element behavior the results of common test examples are presented for linear and nonlinear materials. The modeling of material uncertainties is done by point-discretized random fields. To show the applicability of the element for stochastic finite element calculations Latin Hypercube Sampling was applied to investigate the stochastic hardening behavior of a cantilever beam with nonlinear material. The enhanced linear element can be applied as an alternative to higher-order finite elements where more nodes are necessary. The presented element formulation can be used in a similar manner to improve stochastic linear solid elements.

Bei komplexen Gründungskonstruktionen sind Planungsfehler durch eine konsistente Modellierung vermeidbar. Manuelle Berechnungsmethoden ermöglichen im allgemeinen ein dreidimensionales Vorgehen nicht. Numerische Berechnungsmethoden, wie z.B. die Finite-Element-Methode, sind ein optimales Werkzeug zur ganzheitlichen Simulation des Problems. Die für die Finite-Element-Analyse notwendige Diskretisierung komplexer Bau- grundstrukturen ist manuell nicht zu bewältigen. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt wie ein Finite-Element-Modell automatisch aus einem geotechnischen Modell unter Berücksichtigung der spezifischen Anforderungen der Baugrund-Tragwerk-Struktur und des Bauablaufes erzeugt werden kann. Hierbei wird die Berücksichtigung der geometrischen und der mechanischen Besonderheiten bei der Netzgenerierung dargestellt.

The steel structure design codes require to check up the member strength when evaluating plastic deformations. The model of perfectly plastic material is accepted. The strength criteria for simple cross-sections (I section, etc.) of steel members are given in design codes. The analytical strength criteria for steel cross-sections and numerical approaches based on stepwise procedure are investigated in many articles. Another way for checking the carrying capacity of cross-sections is the use of methods that are applied for defining strain-deformed state of elastic perfectly plastic systems. In this paper non-iterative methods are suggested for checking strength of cross-sections. Carrying capacity of cross section is verified according to extremum principle of plastic fail under monotonically loading and the strain-deformed state of cross-section is defined according to extremum energy principals of elastic potential of residual stresses and complementary work of residual displacements. The mathematical expressions of these principals for discrete cross-section are formulated as problems of convex mathematical programming. The cross-section of steel member using finite element method is divided into free form plane elements. The constant distribution of stresses along the finite element is accepted. The relationships of finite elements for static formulation of the problem are formed so, that kinematics formulation relationships could be obtained in a formal way using the theory of duality. Numerical examples of determination of cross-section strength, composition of interactive curves and composition of moment-curvature curves for different axial force levels are presented.

Die Eisenbahnbrücken des Lehrter Bahnhofs in Berlin - Ein ganzheitliches FE-Berechnungskonzept
(2000)

Der Komplexität moderner Brückenbauwerke scheinen die verwendeten Berechungsmodelle oft nicht angemessen. Tragwerksberechnungen basieren in vielen Fällen noch auf der Vorgehensweise, das Brückenbauwerk in Einzelbauteile zu zerlegen und mit unterschiedlichen Teilmodellen zu behandeln. Das erscheint, auch vor dem Hintergrund ständig wachsender Rechnerleistung, nicht mehr zeitgemäß. Dies gilt zum Beispiel auch für die gängige Praxis, flächenhafte Brückenüberbauten mit Balkenmodellen zu berechnen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt ein ganzheitliches Berech-nungskonzept vor, welches auf der Basis eines einzigen FE-Modells die Berechnung des Gesamtbauwerks erlaubt. Damit wird für alle Bauteile neben der Zustandsgrößenberechnung auch die Bemessung von Stahl- und Spannbetonbauteilen bis hin zu Nachweisen wie zur Beschränkung der Rissbreite geführt. Die Anwendung dieses Berechnungskonzeptes wird am Beispiel der Eisenbahnüberführung des neuen Lehrter Bahn-hofs in Berlin gezeigt. Das verwendete FE-Modell umfasst Baugrund, Fundamente, Stahl- bzw. Gußstahlunterkonstruktion sowie den Stahl- bzw. Spannbetonüberbau. Besonderheiten sind unter anderem die Modellierung des plattenbalkenartigen Überbaus durch exzentrische, vorspannbare Schalenelemente und das getrennte Vorhalten von tragwerks- und lastbezogenen Eingabefiles. Damit gelingt die sequentielle Erfassung unterschiedlicher Bettungsmoduli zur Simulation statischer und dynamischer Beanspruchungen, die Berücksichtigung des Anspannens und der Interaktion zwischen vorgespannten Stahlverbänden zur Aufnahme von Horizontallasten sowie die Berücksichtigung unterschiedlicher statischer Systeme bei der Herstellung des Spannbetonüberbaus.

Dynamic testing for damage assessment as non-destructive method has attracted growing in-terest for systematic inspections and maintenance of civil engineering structures. In this con-text the paper presents the Stochastic Finite Element (SFE) Modeling of the static and dy-namic results of own four point bending experiments with R/C beams. The beams are dam-aged by an increasing load. Between the load levels the dynamic properties are determined. Calculated stiffness loss factors for the displacements and the natural frequencies show differ-ent histories. A FE Model for the beams is developed with a discrete crack formulation. Cor-related random fields are used for structural parameters stiffness and tension strength. The idea is to simulate different crack evolutions. The beams have the same design parameters, but because of the stochastic material properties their undamaged state isn't yet the same. As the structure is loaded a stochastic first crack occurs on the weakest place of the structure. The further crack evolution is also stochastic. These is a great advantage compared with de-terministic formulations. To reduce the computational effort of the Monte Carlo simulation of this nonlinear problem the Latin-Hypercube sampling technique is applied. From the results functions of mean value and standard deviation of displacements and frequencies are calcu-lated. Compared with the experimental results some qualitative phenomena are good de-scribed by the model. Differences occurs especially in the dynamic behavior of the higher load levels. Aim of the investigations is to assess the possibilities of dynamic testing under consideration of effects from stochastic material properties

The nonlinear behavior of concrete can be attributed to the propagation of microcracks within the heterogeneous internal material structure. In this thesis, a mesoscale model is developed which allows for the explicit simulation of these microcracks. Consequently, the actual physical phenomena causing the complex nonlinear macroscopic behavior of concrete can be represented using rather simple material formulations. On the mesoscale, the numerical model explicitly resolves the components of the internal material structure. For concrete, a three-phase model consisting of aggregates, mortar matrix and interfacial transition zone is proposed. Based on prescribed grading curves, an efficient algorithm for the generation of three-dimensional aggregate distributions using ellipsoids is presented. In the numerical model, tensile failure of the mortar matrix is described using a continuum damage approach. In order to reduce spurious mesh sensitivities, introduced by the softening behavior of the matrix material, nonlocal integral-type material formulations are applied. The propagation of cracks at the interface between aggregates and mortar matrix is represented in a discrete way using a cohesive crack approach. The iterative solution procedure is stabilized using a new path following constraint within the framework of load-displacement-constraint methods which allows for an efficient representation of snap-back phenomena. In several examples, the influence of the randomly generated heterogeneous material structure on the stochastic scatter of the results is analyzed. Furthermore, the ability of mesoscale models to represent size effects is investigated. Mesoscale simulations require the discretization of the internal material structure. Compared to simulations on the macroscale, the numerical effort and the memory demand increases dramatically. Due to the complexity of the numerical model, mesoscale simulations are, in general, limited to small specimens. In this thesis, an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach is presented which allows for the incorporation of mesoscale models within nonlinear simulations of concrete structures. In heterogeneous multiscale models, only critical regions, i.e. regions in which damage develops, are resolved on the mesoscale, whereas undamaged or sparsely damage regions are modeled on the macroscale. A crucial point in simulations with heterogeneous multiscale models is the coupling of sub-domains discretized on different length scales. The sub-domains differ not only in the size of the finite elements but also in the constitutive description. In this thesis, different methods for the coupling of non-matching discretizations - constraint equations, the mortar method and the arlequin method - are investigated and the application to heterogeneous multiscale models is presented. Another important point is the detection of critical regions. An adaptive solution procedure allowing the transfer of macroscale sub-domains to the mesoscale is proposed. In this context, several indicators which trigger the model adaptation are introduced. Finally, the application of the proposed adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach in nonlinear simulations of concrete structures is presented.

The paper deals with the simulation of the non-linear and time dependent behaviour of complex structures in engineering. Such simulations have to provide high accuracy in the prediction of deformations and stability, by taking into account the long term influences of the non-linear behaviour of the material as well as the large deformation and contact conditions. The limiting factors of the computer simulation are the computer run time and the memory requirement during solving large scale problems. To overcome these problems we use a dynamic-explicit time integration procedure for the solution of the semi-discrete equations of motion, which is very suited for parallel processing. In the paper at first we give a brief review of the theoretical background of the mechanical modelling and the dynamic-explicit technique for the solution of the semi-discrete equations of motion. Then the concept of parallel processing will be discussed . A test example concludes the paper.

The influence of vortex-induces vibrations on vertical tie rods has been proved as a determinant load factor in the lifetime-oriented dimensioning of arched steel bridges. Particularly, the welded connection plates between the suspenders and the arches often exhibit cracks induced primarily rods. In this context, the synchronization of the vortex-shedding to the rod motion in a critical wind velocity range, the so-called lock-in effect, is of essential interest.

Thin elastic plates are the basic constructional elements and are very often subjected to dynamic effects especially in the machine-building structures. Their saving design of resonance conditions of operation is an extremely complicated task which cannot be solved analytically. In the present report an efficient and sufficiently general method for optimal design of thin plates is worked out on the basis of energy resonance method of Wilder, the method of the finite elements for dynamic research and the methods of parameter optimization. By means of these methods various limitations and requirements put by the designer to the plates can be taken into account. A programme module for numerical investigation of the weight variation of the plate depending on the taken variable of the designed thickness at different supporting conditions is developed. The reasons for the considerable quantity and quality difference between the obtained optimal designs are also analysed.

Briefly, the two basic questions that this research is supposed to answer are:
1. Howmuch fiber is needed and how fibers should be distributed through a fiber reinforced composite (FRC) structure in order to obtain the optimal and reliable structural response?
2. How do uncertainties influence the optimization results and reliability of the structure?
Giving answer to the above questions a double stage sequential optimization algorithm for finding the optimal content of short fiber reinforcements and their distribution in the composite structure, considering uncertain design parameters, is presented. In the first stage, the optimal amount of short fibers in a FRC structure with uniformly distributed fibers is conducted in the framework of a Reliability Based Design Optimization (RBDO) problem. Presented model considers material, structural and modeling uncertainties. In the second stage, the fiber distribution optimization (with the aim to further increase in structural reliability) is performed by defining a fiber distribution function through a Non-Uniform Rational BSpline (NURBS) surface. The advantages of using the NURBS surface as a fiber distribution function include: using the same data set for the optimization and analysis; high convergence rate due to the smoothness of the NURBS; mesh independency of the optimal layout; no need for any post processing technique and its non-heuristic nature. The output of stage 1 (the optimal fiber content for homogeneously distributed fibers) is considered as the input of stage 2. The output of stage 2 is the Reliability Index (b ) of the structure with the optimal fiber content and distribution.
First order reliability method (in order to approximate the limit state function) as well as different material models including Rule of Mixtures, Mori-Tanaka, energy-based approach and stochastic multi-scales are implemented in different examples. The proposed combined model is able to capture the role of available uncertainties in FRC structures through a computationally efficient algorithm using all sequential, NURBS and sensitivity based techniques. The methodology is successfully implemented for interfacial shear stress optimization in sandwich beams and also for optimization of the internal cooling channels in a ceramic matrix composite.
Finally, after some changes and modifications by combining Isogeometric Analysis, level set and point wise density mapping techniques, the computational framework is extended for topology optimization of piezoelectric / flexoelectric materials.

Das FEM-Programmsystem „SYSWELD“ kommt für die Berechnung des Temperaturfeldes bei einer Laserstrahlschweißung zum Einsatz. Insbesondere sollen der Einfluss des Energieeintrages und die damit verbundene Gefügeumwandlung eines Feinkornbaustahles untersucht und Aussagen zur notwendigen Modellierungsgenauigkeit der Nahtgeometrie bzw. Netzverfeinerung getroffen werden. Im Einzelnen sind folgende Teilaufgaben zu lösen: - ausführliche Literaturrecherche zur numerischen Analyse von Schweißverbindungen insbesondere zu temperaturabhängigen Materialeigenschaften von Feinkornbaustählen, - Darstellung der Wärmequelle für das Laserstrahlschweißen, - Erprobung unterschiedlicher Netzvarianten für die FE-Analyse von instationären Temperaturfeldern, - Untersuchung zur Modellierungsgenauigkeit der Nahtgeometrie, - Parameterstudien zum Einfluss der Materialkennwerte und Gefügekinetik auf das Temperaturfeld sowie das Gefüge.

There was suggested a phenomenological modified quadratic condition of the beginning of plasticity for plastic and quasifragile orthotropic materials. Limiting surface in the shape of a paraboloid with an axis bend over hydrostatic axis corresponds to the condition. The equations of theory of current with the isotropic and anisotropic hardenings, associated with the suggested yield condition, modified into the version of determining equations of strain theory of plasticity are received. These defining equations formed the basis of highlyprecise non-classic continual (along thickness) theory of non-linear deformation of thick sandwich plates and sloping shells. In the approximations along the cross coordinate the specificity of flexural and non-flexural deformations is taken into account. The necessity of introducing the approximations of higher order, as well as accounting for the cross compression while decreasing of the relatively cross normal and shear layer rigidness is shown. The specifications, obtained in comparison with the known physically nonlinear specified model of the bending of plates with orthotropic layers are distinguished. An effective procedure of linearization of the solving equations and getting the solutions in frames of the discrete-continual scheme of the finite-element method is suggested. The approximations of higher order let to model the appearance of the cracs of layers being split by the introducing of slightly hard thin layers into the finite element, not violating the idea of continuality of theory. Calculation of a threelayer plate with rigid face diaphragms on the contour is considered

This thesis addresses an adaptive higher-order method based on a Geometry Independent Field approximatTion(GIFT) of polynomial/rationals plines over hierarchical T-meshes(PHT/RHT-splines).
In isogeometric analysis, basis functions used for constructing geometric models in computer-aided design(CAD) are also employed to discretize the partial differential equations(PDEs) for numerical analysis. Non-uniform rational B-Splines(NURBS) are the most commonly used basis functions in CAD. However, they may not be ideal for numerical analysis where local refinement is required.
The alternative method GIFT deploys different splines for geometry and numerical analysis. NURBS are utilized for the geometry representation, while for the field solution, PHT/RHT-splines are used. PHT-splines not only inherit the useful properties of B-splines and NURBS, but also possess the capabilities of local refinement and hierarchical structure. The smooth basis function properties of PHT-splines make them suitable for analysis purposes. While most problems considered in isogeometric analysis can be solved efficiently when the solution is smooth, many non-trivial problems have rough solutions. For example, this can be caused by the presence of re-entrant corners in the domain. For such problems, a tensor-product basis (as in the case of NURBS) is less suitable for resolving the singularities that appear since refinement propagates throughout the computational domain. Hierarchical bases and local refinement (as in the case of PHT-splines) allow for a more efficient way to resolve these singularities by adding more degrees of freedom where they are necessary. In order to drive the adaptive refinement, an efficient recovery-based error estimator is proposed in this thesis. The estimator produces a recovery solution which is a more accurate approximation than the computed numerical solution. Several two- and three-dimensional numerical investigations with PHT-splines of higher order and continuity prove that the proposed method is capable of obtaining results with higher accuracy, better convergence, fewer degrees of freedom and less computational cost than NURBS for smooth solution problems. The adaptive GIFT method utilizing PHT-splines with the recovery-based error estimator is used for solutions with discontinuities or singularities where adaptive local refinement in particular domains of interest achieves higher accuracy with fewer degrees of freedom. This method also proves that it can handle complicated multi-patch domains for two- and three-dimensional problems outperforming uniform refinement in terms of degrees of freedom and computational cost.

The importance of modern simulation methods in the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous solids is presented in detail. Thereby the problem is noted that even for small bodies the required high-resolution analysis reaches the limits of today's computational power, in terms of memory demand as well as acceptable computational effort. A further problem is that frequently the accuracy of geometrical modelling of heterogeneous bodies is inadequate. The present work introduces a systematic combination and adaption of grid-based methods for achieving an essentially higher resolution in the numerical analysis of heterogeneous solids. Grid-based methods are as well primely suited for developing efficient and numerically stable algorithms for flexible geometrical modeling. A key aspect is the uniform data management for a grid, which can be utilized to reduce the effort and complexity of almost all concerned methods. A new finite element program, called Mulgrido, was just developed to realize this concept consistently and to test the proposed methods. Several disadvantages which generally result from grid discretizations are selectively corrected by modified methods. The present work is structured into a geometrical model, a mechanical model and a numerical model. The geometrical model includes digital image-based modeling and in particular several methods for the theory-based generation of inclusion-matrix models. Essential contributions refer to variable shape, size distribution, separation checks and placement procedures of inclusions. The mechanical model prepares the fundamentals of continuum mechanics, homogenization and damage modeling for the following numerical methods. The first topic of the numerical model introduces to a special version of B-spline finite elements. These finite elements are entirely variable in the order k of B-splines. For homogeneous bodies this means that the approximation quality can arbitrarily be scaled. In addition, the multiphase finite element concept in combination with transition zones along material interfaces yields a valuable solution for heterogeneous bodies. As the formulation is element-based, the storage of a global stiffness matrix is superseded such that the memory demand can essentially be reduced. This is possible in combination with iterative solver methods which represent the second topic of the numerical model. Here, the focus lies on multigrid methods where the number of required operations to solve a linear equation system only increases linearly with problem size. Moreover, for badly conditioned problems quite an essential improvement is achieved by preconditioning. The third part of the numerical model discusses certain aspects of damage simulation which are closely related to the proposed grid discretization. The strong efficiency of the linear analysis can be maintained for damage simulation. This is achieved by a damage-controlled sequentially linear iteration scheme. Finally a study on the effective material behavior of heterogeneous bodies is presented. Especially the influence of inclusion shapes is examined. By means of altogether more than one hundred thousand random geometrical arrangements, the effective material behavior is statistically analyzed and assessed.

A geometrical inclusion-matrix model for the finite element analysis of concrete at multiple scales
(2003)

This paper introduces a method to generate adequate inclusion-matrix geometries of concrete in two and three dimensions, which are independent of any specific numerical discretization. The article starts with an analysis on shapes of natural aggregates and discusses corresponding mathematical realizations. As a first prototype a two-dimensional generation of a mesoscale model is introduced. Particle size distribution functions are analysed and prepared for simulating an adequate three-dimensional representation of the aggregates within a concrete structure. A sample geometry of a three-dimensional test cube is generated and the finite element analysis of its heterogeneous geometry by a uniform mesh is presented. Concluding, aspects of a multiscale analysis are discussed and possible enhancements are proposed.