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Isogeometric analysis (IGA) is a numerical method for solving partial differential equations (PDEs), which was introduced with the aim of integrating finite element analysis with computer-aided design systems. The main idea of the method is to use the same spline basis functions which describe the geometry in CAD systems for the approximation of solution fields in the finite element method (FEM). Originally, NURBS which is a standard technology employed in CAD systems was adopted as basis functions in IGA but there were several variants of IGA using other technologies such as T-splines, PHT splines, and subdivision surfaces as basis functions. In general, IGA offers two key advantages over classical FEM: (i) by describing the CAD geometry exactly using smooth, high-order spline functions, the mesh generation process is simplified and the interoperability between CAD and FEM is improved, (ii) IGA can be viewed as a high-order finite element method which offers basis functions with high inter-element continuity and therefore can provide a primal variational formulation of high-order PDEs in a straightforward fashion. The main goal of this thesis is to further advance isogeometric analysis by exploiting these major advantages, namely precise geometric modeling and the use of smooth high-order splines as basis functions, and develop robust computational methods for problems with complex geometry and/or complex multi-physics.
As the first contribution of this thesis, we leverage the precise geometric modeling of isogeometric analysis and propose a new method for its coupling with meshfree discretizations. We exploit the strengths of both methods by using IGA to provide a smooth, geometrically-exact surface discretization of the problem domain boundary, while the Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) discretization is used to provide the volumetric discretization of the domain interior. The coupling strategy is based upon the higher-order consistency or reproducing conditions that are directly imposed in the physical domain. The resulting coupled method enjoys several favorable features: (i) it preserves the geometric exactness of IGA, (ii) it circumvents the need for global volumetric parameterization of the problem domain, (iii) it achieves arbitrary-order approximation accuracy while preserving higher-order smoothness of the discretization. Several numerical examples are solved to show the optimal convergence properties of the coupled IGA–RKPM formulation, and to demonstrate its effectiveness in constructing volumetric discretizations for complex-geometry objects.
As for the next contribution, we exploit the use of smooth, high-order spline basis functions in IGA to solve high-order surface PDEs governing the morphological evolution of vesicles. These governing equations are often consisted of geometric PDEs, high-order PDEs on stationary or evolving surfaces, or a combination of them. We propose an isogeometric formulation for solving these PDEs. In the context of geometric PDEs, we consider phase-field approximations of mean curvature flow and Willmore flow problems and numerically study the convergence behavior of isogeometric analysis for these problems. As a model problem for high-order PDEs on stationary surfaces, we consider the Cahn–Hilliard equation on a sphere, where the surface is modeled using a phase-field approach. As for the high-order PDEs on evolving surfaces, a phase-field model of a deforming multi-component vesicle, which consists of two fourth-order nonlinear PDEs, is solved using the isogeometric analysis in a primal variational framework. Through several numerical examples in 2D, 3D and axisymmetric 3D settings, we show the robustness of IGA for solving the considered phase-field models.
Finally, we present a monolithic, implicit formulation based on isogeometric analysis and generalized-alpha time integration for simulating hydrodynamics of vesicles according to a phase-field model. Compared to earlier works, the number of equations of the phase-field model which need to be solved is reduced by leveraging high continuity of NURBS functions, and the algorithm is extended to 3D settings. We use residual-based variational multi-scale method (RBVMS) for solving Navier–Stokes equations, while the rest of PDEs in the phase-field model are treated using a standard Galerkin-based IGA. We introduce the resistive immersed surface (RIS) method into the formulation which can be employed for an implicit description of complex geometries using a diffuse-interface approach. The implementation highlights the robustness of the RBVMS method for Navier–Stokes equations of incompressible flows with non-trivial localized forcing terms including bending and tension forces of the vesicle. The potential of the phase-field model and isogeometric analysis for accurate simulation of a variety of fluid-vesicle interaction problems in 2D and 3D is demonstrated.

Realistic uncertainty description incorporating aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties can be described within the framework of polymorphic uncertainty, which is computationally demanding. Utilizing a domain decomposition approach for random field based uncertainty models the proposed level-based sampling method can reduce these computational costs significantly and shows good agreement with a standard sampling technique. While 2-level configurations tend to get unstable with decreasing sampling density 3-level setups show encouraging results for the investigated reliability analysis of a structural unit square.

Das Ziel der Arbeit ist, eine mögliche Verbesserung der Güte der Lebensdauervorhersage für Gusseisenwerkstoffe mit Kugelgraphit zu erreichen, wobei die Gießprozesse verschiedener Hersteller berücksichtigt werden.
Im ersten Schritt wurden Probenkörper aus GJS500 und GJS600 von mehreren Gusslieferanten gegossen und daraus Schwingproben erstellt.
Insgesamt wurden Schwingfestigkeitswerte der einzelnen gegossenen Proben sowie der Proben des Bauteils von verschiedenen Gussherstellern weltweit entweder durch direkte Schwingversuche oder durch eine Sammlung von Betriebsfestigkeitsversuchen bestimmt.
Dank der metallografischen Arbeit und Korrelationsanalyse konnten drei wesentliche Parameter zur Bestimmung der lokalen Dauerfestigkeit festgestellt werden: 1. statische Festigkeit, 2. Ferrit- und Perlitanteil der Mikrostrukturen und 3. Kugelgraphitanzahl pro Flächeneinheit.
Basierend auf diesen Erkenntnissen wurde ein neues Festigkeitsverhältnisdiagramm (sogenanntes Sd/Rm-SG-Diagramm) entwickelt.
Diese neue Methodik sollte vor allem ermöglichen, die Bauteildauerfestigkeit auf der Grundlage der gemessenen oder durch eine Gießsimulation vorhersagten lokalen Zugfestigkeitswerte sowie Mikrogefügenstrukturen besser zu prognostizieren.
Mithilfe der Versuche sowie der Gießsimulation ist es gelungen, unterschiedliche Methoden der Lebensdauervorhersage unter Berücksichtigung der Herstellungsprozesse weiterzuentwickeln.

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a highly applicable material that is used in 3D printers due to some significant features such as its deformation property and affordable cost. For improvement of the end-use quality, it is of significant importance to enhance the quality of fused filament fabrication (FFF)-printed objects in PLA. The purpose of this investigation was to boost toughness and to reduce the production cost of the FFF-printed tensile test samples with the desired part thickness. To remove the need for numerous and idle printing samples, the response surface method (RSM) was used. Statistical analysis was performed to deal with this concern by considering extruder temperature (ET), infill percentage (IP), and layer thickness (LT) as controlled factors. The artificial intelligence method of artificial neural network (ANN) and ANN-genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) were further developed to estimate the toughness, part thickness, and production-cost-dependent variables. Results were evaluated by correlation coefficient and RMSE values. According to the modeling results, ANN-GA as a hybrid machine learning (ML) technique could enhance the accuracy of modeling by about 7.5, 11.5, and 4.5% for toughness, part thickness, and production cost, respectively, in comparison with those for the single ANN method. On the other hand, the optimization results confirm that the optimized specimen is cost-effective and able to comparatively undergo deformation, which enables the usability of printed PLA objects.

The derivation of nonlocal strong forms for many physical problems remains cumbersome in traditional methods. In this paper, we apply the variational principle/weighted residual method based on nonlocal operator method for the derivation of nonlocal forms for elasticity, thin plate, gradient elasticity, electro-magneto-elasticity and phase-field fracture method. The nonlocal governing equations are expressed as an integral form on support and dual-support. The first example shows that the nonlocal elasticity has the same form as dual-horizon non-ordinary state-based peridynamics. The derivation is simple and general and it can convert efficiently many local physical models into their corresponding nonlocal forms. In addition, a criterion based on the instability of the nonlocal gradient is proposed for the fracture modelling in linear elasticity. Several numerical examples are presented to validate nonlocal elasticity and the nonlocal thin plate.

Electric trains are considered one of the most eco-friendly and safest means of transportation. Catenary poles are used worldwide to support overhead power lines for electric trains. The performance of the catenary poles has an extensive influence on the integrity of the train systems and, consequently, the connected human services. It became a must nowadays to develop SHM systems that provide the instantaneous status of catenary poles in- service, making the decision-making processes to keep or repair the damaged poles more feasible. This study develops a data-driven, model-free approach for status monitoring of cantilever structures, focusing on pre-stressed, spun-cast ultrahigh-strength concrete catenary poles installed along high-speed train tracks. The pro-posed approach evaluates multiple damage features in an unfied damage index, which leads to straightforward interpretation and comparison of the output. Besides, it distinguishes between multiple damage scenarios of the poles, either the ones caused by material degradation of the concrete or by the cracks that can be propagated during the life span of the given structure. Moreover, using a logistic function to classify the integrity of structure avoids the expensive learning step in the existing damage detection approaches, namely, using the modern machine and deep learning methods. The findings of this study look very promising when applied to other types of cantilever structures, such as the poles that support the power transmission lines, antenna masts, chimneys, and wind turbines.

Encapsulation-based self-healing concrete has received a lot of attention nowadays in civil engineering field. These capsules are embedded in the cementitious matrix during concrete mixing. When the cracks appear, the embedded capsules which are placed along the path of incoming crack are fractured and then release of healing agents in the vicinity of damage. The materials of capsules need to be designed in a way that they should be able to break with small deformation, so the internal fluid can be released to seal the crack. This study focuses on computational modeling of fracture in encapsulation-based selfhealing concrete. The numerical model of 2D and 3D with randomly packed aggreates and capsules have been developed to analyze fracture mechanism that plays a significant role in the fracture probability of capsules and consequently the self-healing process. The capsules are assumed to be made of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) and the potential cracks are represented by pre-inserted cohesive elements with tension and shear softening laws along the element boundaries of the mortar matrix, aggregates, capsules, and at the interfaces between these phases. The effects of volume fraction, core-wall thickness ratio, and mismatch fracture properties of capsules on the load carrying capacity of self-healing concrete and fracture probability of the capsules are investigated. The output of this study will become valuable tool to assist not only the experimentalists but also the manufacturers in designing an appropriate capsule material for self-healing concrete.

Accurate prediction of stable alluvial hydraulic geometry, in which erosion and sedimentation are in equilibrium, is one of the most difficult but critical topics in the field of river engineering. Data mining algorithms have been gaining more attention in this field due to their high performance and flexibility. However, an understanding of
the potential for these algorithms to provide fast, cheap, and accurate predictions of hydraulic geometry is lacking. This study provides the first quantification of this potential. Using at-a-station field data, predictions of flow depth, water-surface width and longitudinal water surface slope are made using three standalone data mining techniques -, Instance-based Learning (IBK), KStar, Locally Weighted Learning (LWL) - along with four types of novel hybrid algorithms in which the standalone models are trained with Vote, Attribute Selected
Classifier (ASC), Regression by Discretization (RBD), and Cross-validation Parameter Selection (CVPS) algorithms (Vote-IBK, Vote-Kstar, Vote-LWL, ASC-IBK, ASC-Kstar, ASC-LWL, RBD-IBK, RBD-Kstar, RBD-LWL, CVPSIBK, CVPS-Kstar, CVPS-LWL). Through a comparison of their predictive performance and a sensitivity analysis of the driving variables, the results reveal: (1) Shield stress was the most effective parameter in the prediction of all geometry dimensions; (2) hybrid models had a higher prediction power than standalone data mining models,
empirical equations and traditional machine learning algorithms; (3) Vote-Kstar model had the highest performance in predicting depth and width, and ASC-Kstar in estimating slope, each providing very good prediction performance. Through these algorithms, the hydraulic geometry of any river can potentially be predicted accurately and with ease using just a few, readily available flow and channel parameters. Thus, the results reveal that these models have great potential for use in stable channel design in data poor catchments, especially in developing nations where technical modelling skills and understanding of the hydraulic and sediment processes occurring in the river system may be lacking.

A vast number of existing buildings were constructed before the development and enforcement of seismic design codes, which run into the risk of being severely damaged under the action of seismic excitations. This poses not only a threat to the life of people but also affects the socio-economic stability in the affected area. Therefore, it is necessary to assess such buildings’ present vulnerability to make an educated decision regarding risk mitigation by seismic strengthening techniques such as retrofitting. However, it is economically and timely manner not feasible to inspect, repair, and augment every old building on an urban scale. As a result, a reliable rapid screening methods, namely Rapid Visual Screening (RVS), have garnered increasing interest among researchers and decision-makers alike. In this study, the effectiveness of five different Machine Learning (ML) techniques in vulnerability prediction applications have been investigated. The damage data of four different earthquakes from Ecuador, Haiti, Nepal, and South Korea, have been utilized to train and test the developed models. Eight performance modifiers have been implemented as variables with a supervised ML. The investigations on this paper illustrate that the assessed vulnerability classes by ML techniques were very close to the actual damage levels observed in the buildings.

In this work, extensive reactive molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to analyze the nanopore creation by nano-particles impact over single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) with 1T and 2H phases. We also compare the results with graphene monolayer. In our simulations, nanosheets are exposed to a spherical rigid carbon projectile with high initial velocities ranging from 2 to 23 km/s. Results for three different structures are compared to examine the most critical factors in the perforation and resistance force during the impact. To analyze the perforation and impact resistance, kinetic energy and displacement time history of the projectile as well as perforation resistance force of the projectile are investigated.
Interestingly, although the elasticity module and tensile strength of the graphene are by almost five times higher than those of MoS2, the results demonstrate that 1T and 2H-MoS2 phases are more resistive to the impact loading and perforation than graphene. For the MoS2nanosheets, we realize that the 2H phase is more resistant to impact loading than the 1T counterpart.
Our reactive molecular dynamics results highlight that in addition to the strength and toughness, atomic structure is another crucial factor that can contribute substantially to impact resistance of 2D materials. The obtained results can be useful to guide the experimental setups for the nanopore creation in MoS2or other 2D lattices.

The main purpose of the thesis is to ensure the safe demolition of old guyed antenna masts that are located in different parts of Germany. The major problem in demolition of this masts is the falling down of the masts in unexpected direction because of buckling problem. The objective of this thesis is development of a numerical models using finite element method (FEM) and assuring a controlled collapse by coming up with different time setups for the detonation of explosives which are responsible for cutting down the cables. The result of this thesis will avoid unexpected outcomes during the demolition processes and prevent risk of collapsing of the mast over near by structures.

This work presents a robust status monitoring approach for detecting damage in cantilever structures based on logistic functions. Also, a stochastic damage identification approach based on changes of eigenfrequencies is proposed. The proposed algorithms are verified using catenary poles of electrified railways track. The proposed damage features overcome the limitation of frequency-based damage identification methods available in the literature, which are valid to detect damage in structures to Level 1 only. Changes in eigenfrequencies of cantilever structures are enough to identify possible local damage at Level 3, i.e., to cover damage detection, localization, and quantification. The proposed algorithms identified the damage with relatively small errors, even at a high noise level.

This study proposes an efficient Bayesian, frequency-based damage identification approach to identify damages in cantilever structures with an acceptable error rate, even at high noise levels. The catenary poles of electric high-speed train systems were selected as a realistic case study to cover the objectives of this study. Compared to other frequency-based damage detection approaches described in the literature, the proposed approach is efficiently able to detect damages in cantilever structures to higher levels of damage detection, namely identifying both the damage location and severity using a low-cost structural health monitoring (SHM) system with a limited number of sensors; for example, accelerometers. The integration of Bayesian inference, as a stochastic framework, in the proposed approach, makes it possible to utilize the benefit of data fusion in merging the informative data from multiple damage features, which increases the quality and accuracy of the results. The findings provide the decision-maker with the information required to manage the maintenance, repair, or replacement procedures.

One of the most important subjects of hydraulic engineering is the reliable estimation of the transverse distribution in the rectangular channel of bed and wall shear stresses. This study makes use of the Tsallis entropy, genetic programming (GP) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) methods to assess the shear stress distribution (SSD) in the rectangular channel.
To evaluate the results of the Tsallis entropy, GP and ANFIS models, laboratory observations were used in which shear stress was measured using an optimized Preston tube. This is then used to measure the SSD in various aspect ratios in the rectangular channel. To investigate the shear stress percentage, 10 data series with a total of 112 different data for were used. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the most influential parameter for the SSD in smooth rectangular channel is the dimensionless parameter B/H, Where the transverse coordinate is B, and the flow depth is H. With the parameters (b/B), (B/H) for the bed and (z/H), (B/H) for the wall as inputs, the modeling of the GP was better than the other one. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the use of GP and ANFIS algorithms is more effective in estimating shear stress in smooth rectangular channels than the Tsallis entropy-based equations.

In the last two decades, Peridynamics (PD) attracts much attention in the field of fracture mechanics. One key feature of PD is the nonlocality, which is quite different from the ideas in conventional methods such as FEM and meshless method. However, conventional PD suffers from problems such as constant horizon, explicit algorithm, hourglass mode. In this thesis, by examining the nonlocality with scrutiny, we proposed several new concepts such as dual-horizon (DH) in PD, dual-support (DS) in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), nonlocal operators and operator energy functional. The conventional PD (SPH) is incorporated in the DH-PD (DS-SPH), which can adopt an inhomogeneous discretization and inhomogeneous support domains. The DH-PD (DS-SPH) can be viewed as some fundamental improvement on the conventional PD (SPH). Dual formulation of PD and SPH allows h-adaptivity while satisfying the conservations of linear momentum, angular momentum and energy. By developing the concept of nonlocality further, we introduced the nonlocal operator method as a generalization of DH-PD. Combined with energy functional of various physical models, the nonlocal forms based on dual-support concept are derived. In addition, the variation of the energy functional allows implicit formulation of the nonlocal theory. At last, we developed the higher order nonlocal operator method which is capable of solving higher order partial differential equations on arbitrary domain in higher dimensional space. Since the concepts are developed gradually, we described our findings chronologically.
In chapter 2, we developed a DH-PD formulation that includes varying horizon sizes and solves the "ghost force" issue. The concept of dual-horizon considers the unbalanced interactions between the particles with different horizon sizes. The present formulation fulfills both the balances of linear momentum and angular momentum exactly with arbitrary particle discretization. All three peridynamic formulations, namely bond based, ordinary state based and non-ordinary state based peridynamics can be implemented within the DH-PD framework. A simple adaptive refinement procedure (h-adaptivity) is proposed reducing the computational cost. Both two- and three- dimensional examples including the Kalthoff-Winkler experiment and plate with branching cracks are tested to demonstrate the capability of the method.
In chapter 3, a nonlocal operator method (NOM) based on the variational principle is proposed for the solution of waveguide problem in computational electromagnetic field. Common differential operators as well as the variational forms are defined within the context of nonlocal operators. The present nonlocal formulation allows the assembling of the tangent stiffness matrix with ease, which is necessary for the eigenvalue analysis of the waveguide problem. The present formulation is applied to solve 1D Schrodinger equation, 2D electrostatic problem and the differential electromagnetic vector wave equations based on electric fields.
In chapter 4, a general nonlocal operator method is proposed which is applicable for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) of mechanical problems. The nonlocal operator can be regarded as the integral form, ``equivalent'' to the differential form in the sense of a nonlocal interaction model. The variation of a nonlocal operator plays an equivalent role as the derivatives of the shape functions in the meshless methods or those of the finite element method. Based on the variational principle, the residual and the tangent stiffness matrix can be obtained with ease. The nonlocal operator method is enhanced here also with an operator energy functional to satisfy the linear consistency of the field. A highlight of the present method is the functional derived based on the nonlocal operator can convert the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplications using the predefined nonlocal operators. The nonlocal strong forms of different functionals can be obtained easily via the concept of support and dual-support. Several numerical examples of different types of PDEs are presented.
In chapter 5, we extended the NOM to higher order scheme by using a higher order Taylor series expansion of the unknown field. Such a higher order scheme improves the original NOM in chapter 3 and chapter 4, which can only achieve one-order convergence. The higher order NOM obtains all partial derivatives with specified maximal order simultaneously without resorting to shape functions. The functional based on the nonlocal operators converts the construction of residual and stiffness matrix into a series of matrix multiplication on the nonlocal operator matrix. Several numerical examples solved by strong form or weak form are presented to show the capabilities of this method.
In chapter 6, the NOM proposed as a particle-based method in chapter 3,4,5, has difficulty in imposing accurately the boundary conditions of various orders. In this paper, we converted the particle-based NOM into a scheme with interpolation property. The new scheme describes partial derivatives of various orders at a point by the nodes in the support and takes advantage of the background mesh for numerical integration. The boundary conditions are enforced via the modified variational principle. The particle-based NOM can be viewed a special case of NOM with interpolation property when nodal integration is used. The scheme based on numerical integration greatly improves the stability of the method, as a consequence, the operator energy functional in particle-based NOM is not required. We demonstrated the capabilities of current method by solving the gradient solid problems and comparing the numerical results with the available exact solutions.
In chapter 7, we derived the DS-SPH in solid within the framework of variational principle. The tangent stiffness matrix of SPH can be obtained with ease, and can be served as the basis for the present implicit SPH. We proposed an hourglass energy functional, which allows the direct derivation of hourglass force and hourglass tangent stiffness matrix. The dual-support is {involved} in all derivations based on variational principles and is automatically satisfied in the assembling of stiffness matrix. The implementation of stiffness matrix comprises with two steps, the nodal assembly based on deformation gradient and global assembly on all nodes. Several numerical examples are presented to validate the method.

Although it is impractical to avert subsequent natural disasters, advances in simulation science and seismological studies make it possible to lessen the catastrophic damage. There currently exists in many urban areas a large number of structures, which are prone to damage by earthquakes. These were constructed without the guidance of a national seismic code, either before it existed or before it was enforced. For instance, in Istanbul, Turkey, as a high seismic area, around 90% of buildings are substandard, which can be generalized into other earthquakeprone regions in Turkey. The reliability of this building stock resulting from earthquake-induced collapse is currently uncertain. Nonetheless, it is also not feasible to perform a detailed seismic vulnerability analysis on each building as a solution to the scenario, as it will be too complicated and expensive. This indicates the necessity of a reliable, rapid, and computationally easy method for seismic vulnerability assessment, commonly known as Rapid Visual Screening (RVS). In RVS methodology, an observational survey of buildings is performed, and according to the data collected during the visual inspection, a structural score is calculated without performing any structural calculations to determine the expected damage of a building and whether the building needs detailed assessment. Although this method might save time and resources due to the subjective/qualitative judgments of experts who performed the inspection, the evaluation process is dominated by vagueness and uncertainties, where the vagueness can be handled adequately through the fuzzy set theory but do not cover all sort of uncertainties due to its crisp membership functions. In this study, a novel method of rapid visual hazard safety assessment of buildings against earthquake is introduced in which an interval type-2 fuzzy logic system (IT2FLS) is used to cover uncertainties. In addition, the proposed method provides the possibility to evaluate the earthquake risk of the building by considering factors related to the building importance and exposure. A smartphone app prototype of the method has been introduced. For validation of the proposed method, two case studies have been selected, and the result of the analysis presents the robust efficiency of the proposed method.

Complex vortex flow patterns around bridge piers, especially during floods, cause scour process that can result in the failure of foundations. Abutment scour is a complex three-dimensional phenomenon that is difficult to predict especially with traditional formulas obtained using empirical approaches such as regressions. This paper presents a test of a standalone Kstar model with five novel hybrid algorithm of bagging (BA-Kstar), dagging (DA-Kstar), random committee (RC-Kstar), random subspace (RS-Kstar), and weighted instance handler wrapper (WIHWKstar) to predict scour depth (ds) for clear water condition. The dataset consists of 99 scour depth data from flume experiments (Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005) using abutment shapes such as vertical, semicircular and 45◦ wing. Four dimensionless parameter of relative flow depth (h/l), excess abutment Froude number (Fe), relative sediment size (d50/l) and relative submergence (d50/h) were considered for the prediction of relative scour depth (ds/l). A portion of the dataset was used for the calibration (70%), and the remaining used for model validation. Pearson correlation coefficients helped deciding relevance of the input parameters combination and finally four different combinations of input parameters were used. The performance of the models was assessed visually and with quantitative metrics. Overall, the best input combination for vertical abutment shape is the combination of Fe, d50/l and h/l, while for semicircular and 45◦ wing the combination of the Fe and d50/l is the most effective input parameter combination. Our results show that incorporating Fe, d50/l and h/l lead to higher performance while involving d50/h reduced the models prediction power for vertical abutment shape and for semicircular and 45◦ wing involving h/l and d50/h lead to more error. The WIHW-Kstar provided the highest performance in scour depth prediction around vertical abutment shape while RC-Kstar model outperform of other models for scour depth prediction around semicircular and 45◦ wing.

This thesis presents the advances and applications of phase field modeling in fracture analysis. In this approach, the sharp crack surface topology in a solid is approximated by a diffusive crack zone governed by a scalar auxiliary variable. The uniqueness of phase field modeling is that the crack paths are automatically determined as part of the solution and no interface tracking is required. The damage parameter varies continuously over the domain. But this flexibility comes with associated difficulties: (1) a very fine spatial discretization is required to represent sharp local gradients correctly; (2) fine discretization results in high computational cost; (3) computation of higher-order derivatives for improved convergence rates and (4) curse of dimensionality in conventional numerical integration techniques. As a consequence, the practical applicability of phase field models is severely limited.
The research presented in this thesis addresses the difficulties of the conventional numerical integration techniques for phase field modeling in quasi-static brittle fracture analysis. The first method relies on polynomial splines over hierarchical T-meshes (PHT-splines) in the framework of isogeometric analysis (IGA). An adaptive h-refinement scheme is developed based on the variational energy formulation of phase field modeling. The fourth-order phase field model provides increased regularity in the exact solution of the phase field equation and improved convergence rates for numerical solutions on a coarser discretization, compared to the second-order model. However, second-order derivatives of the phase field are required in the fourth-order model. Hence, at least a minimum of C1 continuous basis functions are essential, which is achieved using hierarchical cubic B-splines in IGA. PHT-splines enable the refinement to remain local at singularities and high gradients, consequently reducing the computational cost greatly. Unfortunately, when modeling complex geometries, multiple parameter spaces (patches) are joined together to describe the physical domain and there is typically a loss of continuity at the patch boundaries. This decrease of smoothness is dictated by the geometry description, where C0 parameterizations are normally used to deal with kinks and corners in the domain. Hence, the application of the fourth-order model is severely restricted. To overcome the high computational cost for the second-order model, we develop a dual-mesh adaptive h-refinement approach. This approach uses a coarser discretization for the elastic field and a finer discretization for the phase field. Independent refinement strategies have been used for each field.
The next contribution is based on physics informed deep neural networks. The network is trained based on the minimization of the variational energy of the system described by general non-linear partial differential equations while respecting any given law of physics, hence the name physics informed neural network (PINN). The developed approach needs only a set of points to define the geometry, contrary to the conventional mesh-based discretization techniques. The concept of `transfer learning' is integrated with the developed PINN approach to improve the computational efficiency of the network at each displacement step. This approach allows a numerically stable crack growth even with larger displacement steps. An adaptive h-refinement scheme based on the generation of more quadrature points in the damage zone is developed in this framework. For all the developed methods, displacement-controlled loading is considered. The accuracy and the efficiency of both methods are studied numerically showing that the developed methods are powerful and computationally efficient tools for accurately predicting fractures.

The concept of information entropy together with the principle of maximum entropy to open channel flow is essentially based on some physical consideration of the problem under consideration. This paper is a discussion on Yeganeh and Heidari (2020)’s paper, who proposed a new approach for measuring vertical distribution of streamwise velocity in open channels. The discussers argue that their approach is conceptually incorrect and thus leads to a physically unrealistic situation. In addition, the discussers found some wrong mathematical expressions (which are assumed to be typos) written in the paper, and also point out that the authors did not cite some of the original papers on the topic.