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#### Keywords

- Finite-Elemente-Methode (67) (remove)

Das FEM-Programmsystem „SYSWELD“ kommt für die Berechnung des Temperaturfeldes bei einer Laserstrahlschweißung zum Einsatz. Insbesondere sollen der Einfluss des Energieeintrages und die damit verbundene Gefügeumwandlung eines Feinkornbaustahles untersucht und Aussagen zur notwendigen Modellierungsgenauigkeit der Nahtgeometrie bzw. Netzverfeinerung getroffen werden. Im Einzelnen sind folgende Teilaufgaben zu lösen: - ausführliche Literaturrecherche zur numerischen Analyse von Schweißverbindungen insbesondere zu temperaturabhängigen Materialeigenschaften von Feinkornbaustählen, - Darstellung der Wärmequelle für das Laserstrahlschweißen, - Erprobung unterschiedlicher Netzvarianten für die FE-Analyse von instationären Temperaturfeldern, - Untersuchung zur Modellierungsgenauigkeit der Nahtgeometrie, - Parameterstudien zum Einfluss der Materialkennwerte und Gefügekinetik auf das Temperaturfeld sowie das Gefüge.

The primary objective of initial shape analysis of a cable stayed bridge is to calculate initial installation cable tension forces and to evaluate fabrication camber of main span and pylon providing the final longitudinal profile of the bridge at the end of construction. In addition, the initial cable forces depending on the alternation of the bridge’s shape can be obtained from the analysis, and will be used to provide construction safety during construction. In this research, we conducted numerical experiments for initial shape of Ko-ha bridge, which will be constructed in the near future, using three different typical methods such as continuous beam method, linear truss method, and IIMF (Introducing Initial Member Force) method

Iso-parametric finite elements with linear shape functions show in general a too stiff element behavior, called locking. By the investigation of structural parts under bending loading the so-called shear locking appears, because these elements can not reproduce pure bending modes. Many studies dealt with the locking problem and a number of methods to avoid the undesirable effects have been developed. Two well known methods are the >Assumed Natural Strain< (ANS) method and the >Enhanced Assumed Strain< (EAS) method. In this study the EAS method is applied to a four-node plane element with four EAS-parameters. The paper will describe the well-known linear formulation, its extension to nonlinear materials and the modeling of material uncertainties with random fields. For nonlinear material behavior the EAS parameters can not be determined directly. Here the problem is solved by using an internal iteration at the element level, which is much more efficient and stable than the determination via a global iteration. To verify the deterministic element behavior the results of common test examples are presented for linear and nonlinear materials. The modeling of material uncertainties is done by point-discretized random fields. To show the applicability of the element for stochastic finite element calculations Latin Hypercube Sampling was applied to investigate the stochastic hardening behavior of a cantilever beam with nonlinear material. The enhanced linear element can be applied as an alternative to higher-order finite elements where more nodes are necessary. The presented element formulation can be used in a similar manner to improve stochastic linear solid elements.

A geometrical inclusion-matrix model for the finite element analysis of concrete at multiple scales
(2003)

This paper introduces a method to generate adequate inclusion-matrix geometries of concrete in two and three dimensions, which are independent of any specific numerical discretization. The article starts with an analysis on shapes of natural aggregates and discusses corresponding mathematical realizations. As a first prototype a two-dimensional generation of a mesoscale model is introduced. Particle size distribution functions are analysed and prepared for simulating an adequate three-dimensional representation of the aggregates within a concrete structure. A sample geometry of a three-dimensional test cube is generated and the finite element analysis of its heterogeneous geometry by a uniform mesh is presented. Concluding, aspects of a multiscale analysis are discussed and possible enhancements are proposed.

For the analysis of arbitrary, by Finite Elements discretized shell structures, an efficient numerical simulation strategy with quadratic convergence including geometrically and physically nonlinear effects will be presented. In the beginning, a Finite-Rotation shell theory allowing constant shear deformations across the shell thickness is given in an isoparametric formulation. The assumed-strain concept enables the derivation of a locking-free finite element. The Layered Approach will be applied to ensure a sufficiently precise prediction of the propagation of plastic zones even throughout the shell thickness. The Riks-Wempner-Wessels global iteration scheme will be enhanced by a Line-Search procedure to ensure the tracing of nonlinear deformation paths with rather great load steps even in the post-peak range. The elastic-plastic material model includes isotropic hardening. A new Operator-Split return algorithm ensures considerably exact solution of the initial-value problem even for greater load steps. The combination with consistently linearized constitutive equations ensures quadratic convergence in a close neighbourhood to the exact solution. Finally, several examples will demonstrate accuracy and numerical efficiency of the developed algorithm.

This paper presents a novel numerical procedure based on the combination of an edge-based smoothed finite element (ES-FEM) with a phantom-node method for 2D linear elastic fracture mechanics. In the standard phantom-node method, the cracks are formulated by adding phantom nodes, and the cracked element is replaced by two new superimposed elements. This approach is quite simple to implement into existing explicit finite element programs. The shape functions associated with discontinuous elements are similar to those of the standard finite elements, which leads to certain simplification with implementing in the existing codes. The phantom-node method allows modeling discontinuities at an arbitrary location in the mesh. The ES-FEM model owns a close-to-exact stiffness that is much softer than lower-order finite element methods (FEM). Taking advantage of both the ES-FEM and the phantom-node method, we introduce an edge-based strain smoothing technique for the phantom-node method. Numerical results show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy compared with the extended finite element method (XFEM) and other reference solutions.

The displacements and stresses in arch dams and their abutments are frequently determined with 20-node brick elements. The elements are distorted near the contact plane between the wall and the abutment. A cantilever beam testbed has been developed to investigate the consequences of this distortion. It is shown that the deterioration of the accuracy in the computed stresses is significant. A compatible 18-node wedge element with linear stress variation is developed as an alternative to the brick element. The shape of this element type is readily adapted to the shape of the contact plane. It is shown that the accuracy of the computed stresses in the vicinity of the contact plane is improved significantly by the use of wedge elements.

A simple multiscale analysis framework for heterogeneous solids based on a computational homogenization technique is presented. The macroscopic strain is linked kinematically to the boundary displacement of a circular or spherical representative volume which contains the microscopic information of the material. The macroscopic stress is obtained from the energy principle between the macroscopic scale and the microscopic scale. This new method is applied to several standard examples to show its accuracy and consistency of the method proposed.

To fulfil safety requirements the changes in the static and/or dynamic behaviour of the structure must be analysed with great care. These changes are often caused by local reduction of the stiffness of the structure caused by the irregularities in the structure, as for example cracks. In simple structures such analysis can be performed directly, by solving equations of motion, but for more complex structures a different approach, usually numerical, must be applied. The problem of crack implementation into the structure behaviour has been studied by many authors who have usually modelled the crack as a massless rotational spring of suitable stiffness placed at the beam at the location where the crack occurs. Recently, the numerical procedure for the computation of the stiffness matrix for a beam element with a single transverse crack has been replaced with the element stiffness matrix written in fully symbolic form. A detailed comparison of the results obtained by using 200 2D finite elements with those obtained with a single cracked beam element has confirmed the usefulness of such element.

The nonlinear behavior of concrete can be attributed to the propagation of microcracks within the heterogeneous internal material structure. In this thesis, a mesoscale model is developed which allows for the explicit simulation of these microcracks. Consequently, the actual physical phenomena causing the complex nonlinear macroscopic behavior of concrete can be represented using rather simple material formulations. On the mesoscale, the numerical model explicitly resolves the components of the internal material structure. For concrete, a three-phase model consisting of aggregates, mortar matrix and interfacial transition zone is proposed. Based on prescribed grading curves, an efficient algorithm for the generation of three-dimensional aggregate distributions using ellipsoids is presented. In the numerical model, tensile failure of the mortar matrix is described using a continuum damage approach. In order to reduce spurious mesh sensitivities, introduced by the softening behavior of the matrix material, nonlocal integral-type material formulations are applied. The propagation of cracks at the interface between aggregates and mortar matrix is represented in a discrete way using a cohesive crack approach. The iterative solution procedure is stabilized using a new path following constraint within the framework of load-displacement-constraint methods which allows for an efficient representation of snap-back phenomena. In several examples, the influence of the randomly generated heterogeneous material structure on the stochastic scatter of the results is analyzed. Furthermore, the ability of mesoscale models to represent size effects is investigated. Mesoscale simulations require the discretization of the internal material structure. Compared to simulations on the macroscale, the numerical effort and the memory demand increases dramatically. Due to the complexity of the numerical model, mesoscale simulations are, in general, limited to small specimens. In this thesis, an adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach is presented which allows for the incorporation of mesoscale models within nonlinear simulations of concrete structures. In heterogeneous multiscale models, only critical regions, i.e. regions in which damage develops, are resolved on the mesoscale, whereas undamaged or sparsely damage regions are modeled on the macroscale. A crucial point in simulations with heterogeneous multiscale models is the coupling of sub-domains discretized on different length scales. The sub-domains differ not only in the size of the finite elements but also in the constitutive description. In this thesis, different methods for the coupling of non-matching discretizations - constraint equations, the mortar method and the arlequin method - are investigated and the application to heterogeneous multiscale models is presented. Another important point is the detection of critical regions. An adaptive solution procedure allowing the transfer of macroscale sub-domains to the mesoscale is proposed. In this context, several indicators which trigger the model adaptation are introduced. Finally, the application of the proposed adaptive heterogeneous multiscale approach in nonlinear simulations of concrete structures is presented.