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Heat, gas, and leachate are primary by-products of landfill processes in municipal solid waste landfills. In nuclear waste repository, temperature of the waste also raises due to radioactivity processes. Temperature increase in the repository induces hydro-mechanical processes of its sealing material. Moderate to high temperature is expected to be encountered in the field situation. In this thesis, a study on the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of compacted bentonite-sand mixtures which are among the materials proposed to be used as sealing material for landfills and hazardous waste repository is presented. Mixtures of a calcium-type bentonite, Calcigel, and quartz sand were used in this study. Series of tests including suction and swelling pressure measurement, drying-wetting under unconfined and confined conditions were conducted at a moderately high temperature. Tests at room temperature including basic and physico-chemical characterization, microstructure and fabric studies, and osmotic suction were conducted in order to provide insight into understanding the hydro-mechanical processes taking place in the bentonite. The experimental data obtained are presented and compared to the result of the previous tests for the same material performed by other researchers at room temperature. The changes in hydro-mechanical behavior due to elevated temperature were analyzed and discussed based on the suction components of soil which are influenced by temperature. At the end, conclusions concerning the temperature effects on the hydro-mechanical behavior of the materials are drawn and suggestions for future studies are made.

Granular soils can amplify earthquake shaking at small strains without reaching the level of pore pressure generation. The hysteretic constitutive behaviour of sands and gravels under this specific consideration has been described in the thesis using the total stress based simplified model, SimSoil (Pestana and Salvati, 2006). SimSoil retains the basic features of the hysteretic constitutive behaviour described in the generalized effective stress model, MIT-S1 (Pestana 1994). It uses only four parameters (n, Gb, ws, and wa) which are readily determined from laboratory tests. Model parameters in the SimSoil execute independent control of nonlinearity of the soil behaviour under cyclic loading which is a unique feature of this model. ...

In this dissertation, a new, unique and original biaxial device for testing unsaturated soil was designed and developed. A study on the mechanical behaviour of unsaturated sand in plane-strain conditions using the new device is presented. The tests were mainly conducted on Hostun sand specimens. A series of experiments including basic characterisation, soil water characteristic curves, and compression biaxial tests on dry, saturated, and unsaturated sand were conducted. A set of bearing capacity tests of strip model footing on unsaturated sand were performed. Additionally, since the presence of fine content (i.e., clay) influences the behavior of soils, soil water characteristic tests were also performed for sand-kaolin mixtures specimens.

Physicochemical forces are responsible for the swelling pressure development in saturated bentonites. In this paper, the swelling pressures of several compacted bentonite specimens for a range of dry density of 1.10–1.73 Mg/m3 were measured experimentally. The clay used was a divalent-rich Ca-Mg-bentonite with 12% exchangeable Na+ ions. The theoretical swelling pressure–dry density relationship for the bentonite was determined from the Gouy-Chapman diffuse double-layer theory. A comparison of experimental and theoretical results showed that the experimental swelling pressures are either smaller or greater than their theoretical counterparts within different dry density ranges. It is shown that for dry density of the clay less than about 1.55 Mg/m3, a possible dissociation of ions from the surface of the clay platelets contributed to the diffuse double-layer repulsion. At higher dry densities, the adsorptive forces due to surface and ion hydration dominated the swelling pressures of the clay. A comparison of the modified diffuse double-layer theory equations proposed in the literature to determine the swelling pressures of compacted bentonites and the experimental results for the clay in this study showed that the agreement between the calculated and experimental swelling pressure results is very good for dry densities less than 1.55 Mg/m3, whereas at higher dry densities the use of the equations was found to be limited.

Central point of this study is to evaluate stiffness properties of pavement, specifically the E or G- modulus determined by different testing methods. Stiffness of soil is both stress and strain dependent property and otherwise different methods usually affect the material in different ways. The Young’s modulus E0 and shear modulus G0 correspond to the very small strain level are regarded as the initial or maximal stiffness of the relevant stress-strain curves of a given material. The modulus decay curve is called the degradation curve, which also reviewed in this study. With the results of different measurement methods applied for a reclaimed mining site in Klettwitz for determining of stiffness parameter of subsoil, author have tried to find a unification between the results considering the relationship between stiffness parameter and the range of strain levels. The testing methods executed at plant S9 in Klettwitz-Südfeld are: laboratory oedometer test, static plate load test, dynamic plate load test, and seismic testing methods (spectral analysis of surface wave, SASW). Some results getting from this study are: one receives different absolute values of stiffness parameter from different testing methods. The reason is different testing methods produce different range of strain levels in soil during their execution. Conventional and non-destructive testing methods should be combined together for investigating of subsoil characteristics. This means, the soil parameters must be adjusted to the current range of strain level. Especially for settlement calculation it is recommended that different values of stiffness modulus, Es, resulted by different testing methods should be simultaneously utilized along the depth beneath loading surface. Accuracy for determining of stiffness degradation curves depends a lot on the determination of maximal stiffness parameters (E0, G0) at the range of very small strain level, and it still requires much further studies.

Bei der Bearbeitung geotechnischer Aufgabenstellungen treten häufig Probleme bei der Vorhersage des Setzungsverhaltens von Böden auf. Numerische Methoden auf Basis finiter Elemente oder finiter Differenzen werden oftmals als Hauptinstrumente der Prognose verwendet. Dabei erzielen sie jedoch nicht selten Ergebnisse, die im Nachhinein als unbefriedigend bezeichnet werden müssen. Eine Begründung dafür liegt in der Verwendung linearer Stoffgesetze, die auf Ansätze aus der Elastizitätstheorie beruhen. Werden höherwertige Stoffgesetze eingesetzt, so fehlen oftmals gesicherte Aussagen zu den erforderlichen Bodenkennwerten. Diese müssen durch ein umfangreiches Versuchsprogramm mit einer aufwendigen Auswertung bestimmt werden. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es daher, eine robuste Methode zu entwickeln, die in der Lage ist, aus Messwerten (Feld) und Versuchsergebnissen (Labor) geeignete Parameter für Modelle mit nichtlinearer Konsolidationstheorie zu ermitteln. Dazu werden die Möglichkeiten der Mathematik ausgenutzt, welche inverse Methoden zur Verfügung stellt, mit denen man mehrere Bodenkennwerte (hauptsächlich Steifigkeiten und Durchlässigkeiten) gleichzeitig unter Be-rücksichtung ihrer Wechselbeziehungen zueinander bestimmen kann. Als Instrumentarium dafür steht das Programm AdConsol-1D zur Verfügung, welches die inverse Parameterermittlung auf Basis mathematischer Optimierungsmethode ermöglicht. Ein Test- und Versuchsdamm, der im Finnischen Haarajoki (Haarajoki Test Embankment) errichtet wurde und über längeren Zeitraum messtechnisch überwacht wurde, dient als Validationsbeispiel. Dieser wurde auf sehr verformungsempfindlichem Boden errichtet. Durch Aufbereitung und Auswertung der Feld- und Laborversuche am Haarajoki Test Embankment wurden die Grundlagen für die inverse Parameterermittlung geschaffen. Dazu wurde eine Methode zur Konstruktion plausib-ler Porenwasserüberdrücke aus Setzungsmessungen und Laborversuchsdaten entwickelt. Mit den Werten der Optimierung wurde ein Modell im 2D FEM Programm Plaxis erstellt, welches die in Haarajoki gemessenen Setzungen und Porenwasserdrücke möglichst genau reproduzieren sollte. Es zeigte sich, dass sich Bodenparameter des eindimensionalen nichtlinearen Konsolidati-onsmodells nicht problemlos auf ein 2D FEM Modell übertragen lassen. Insbesondere fehlen gesicherte Aussagen über die Größe des horizontalen Durchlässigkeitskoeffizienten kx und des Referenzsekantenmoduls E50Ref aus dem Triaxialversuch. Die inverse Berechnung für sich betrachtet verlief dahingegen zufrieden stellend mit dem eindimensionalen Modell in AdConsol-1D. Auf dieser Grundlage ist die Erstellung einer realistischen Prognose des weiteren Konsolidationsverlaufes am Haarajoki Test Embankment möglich.

In this paper we evaluate 2D models for soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), that incorporate the hysteretic nature of the relationship between volumetric water content θ and suction ψ. The models are based on nonlinear least squares estimation of the experimental data for sand. To estimate the dependent variable θ the proposed models include two independent variables, suction and sensors reading position (depth d in the column test). The variable d represents not only the position where suction and water content are measured but also the initial suction distribution before each of the hydraulic loading test phases. Due to this the proposed 2D regression models acquire the advantage that they: (a) can be applied for prediction of θ for any position along the column and (b) give the functional form for the scanning curves.

The hydraulic properties of the polymer-enhanced bentonite-sand mixtures (PEBSMs) investigated in this study consisted of the water retention behaviour (or the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC)) and the saturated and unsaturated coefficients of permeability. The SWCCs of the compacted polymer-enhanced bentonite-sand mixtures were measured using two techniques; namely, axis-translation technique and vapour equilibrium technique. The results obtained from both methods were combined to establish a single SWCC for each specimen. The saturated coefficient of permeability of the material was measured using the constant-head flexible wall permeameter method. The unsaturated coefficient of permeability was computed from the SWCCs and the saturated permeability values using the statistical model. The study revealed that the wetting curves for the PEBSM and clay are above the drying curves. The fact is thought be due to the specimens being not saturated before starting the drying tests. Since the specimens are expensive soil such a trend can be expected. The permeability deduced from the oedometer test data over-estimates the actual water flow rate resulting in a higher computed saturated coefficient of permeability compared to the measured values. The nets of polymer and bentonite clusters are thought to retard the flow of water during the direct measurement. However, the net of polymer and bentonite clusters are compressed during loading and rebound during unloading. Hysteresis effect was found for the PEBSMs in the permeability versus degree of saturation curve. This is due to possible difference in the spatial distribution of water in the specimens depending whether the specimens were on drying or wetting path.

In this paper we evaluate 2D models for soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), that incorporate the hysteretic nature of the relationship between volumetric water content Θ and suction Ψ. The models are based on nonlinear least squares estimation of the experimental data for sand. To estimate the dependent variable Θ the proposed models include two independent variables, suction and sensors reading position (depth d in the column test). The variable d represents not only the position where suction and water content are measured but also the initial suction distribution before each of the hydraulic loading test phases. Due to this the proposed 2D regression models acquire the advantage that they: (a) can be applied for prediction of Θ for any position along the column and (b) give the functional form for the scanning curves.

This term paper presents a literature review and discusses concepts of the following point: 1- Factors affecting small-strain stiffness in soil; 2- Methods to determine small-strain shear stiffness in laboratory and in-situ; 3- Brief introduction into wave propagation and 4- Bender elements technique to determine shear wave velocity in soil.