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The importance of modern simulation methods in the mechanical analysis of heterogeneous solids is presented in detail. Thereby the problem is noted that even for small bodies the required high-resolution analysis reaches the limits of today's computational power, in terms of memory demand as well as acceptable computational effort. A further problem is that frequently the accuracy of geometrical modelling of heterogeneous bodies is inadequate. The present work introduces a systematic combination and adaption of grid-based methods for achieving an essentially higher resolution in the numerical analysis of heterogeneous solids. Grid-based methods are as well primely suited for developing efficient and numerically stable algorithms for flexible geometrical modeling. A key aspect is the uniform data management for a grid, which can be utilized to reduce the effort and complexity of almost all concerned methods. A new finite element program, called Mulgrido, was just developed to realize this concept consistently and to test the proposed methods. Several disadvantages which generally result from grid discretizations are selectively corrected by modified methods. The present work is structured into a geometrical model, a mechanical model and a numerical model. The geometrical model includes digital image-based modeling and in particular several methods for the theory-based generation of inclusion-matrix models. Essential contributions refer to variable shape, size distribution, separation checks and placement procedures of inclusions. The mechanical model prepares the fundamentals of continuum mechanics, homogenization and damage modeling for the following numerical methods. The first topic of the numerical model introduces to a special version of B-spline finite elements. These finite elements are entirely variable in the order k of B-splines. For homogeneous bodies this means that the approximation quality can arbitrarily be scaled. In addition, the multiphase finite element concept in combination with transition zones along material interfaces yields a valuable solution for heterogeneous bodies. As the formulation is element-based, the storage of a global stiffness matrix is superseded such that the memory demand can essentially be reduced. This is possible in combination with iterative solver methods which represent the second topic of the numerical model. Here, the focus lies on multigrid methods where the number of required operations to solve a linear equation system only increases linearly with problem size. Moreover, for badly conditioned problems quite an essential improvement is achieved by preconditioning. The third part of the numerical model discusses certain aspects of damage simulation which are closely related to the proposed grid discretization. The strong efficiency of the linear analysis can be maintained for damage simulation. This is achieved by a damage-controlled sequentially linear iteration scheme. Finally a study on the effective material behavior of heterogeneous bodies is presented. Especially the influence of inclusion shapes is examined. By means of altogether more than one hundred thousand random geometrical arrangements, the effective material behavior is statistically analyzed and assessed.

This master thesis explores an important and under-researched topic on the so-called bridging of length scales (from >meso< to >macro<), with the concept of homogenization in which the careful characterization of mechanical response requires that the developed material model >bridge< the representations of events that occur at two different scales. The underlying objective here is to efficiently incorporate material length scales in the classical continuum plasticity/damage theories through the concept of homogenization theory. The present thesis is devoted to computational modeling of heterogeneous materials, primarily to matrix-inclusion type of materials. Considerations are focused predominantly on the elastic and damage behavior as a response to quasistatic mechanical loading. Mainly this thesis focuses to elaborate a sound numerical homogenization model which accounts for the prediction of overall properties with the application of different types of boundary conditions namely: periodic, homogeneous and mixed type of boundary conditions over two-dimensional periodic and non-periodic RVEs and three-dimensional non-periodic RVEs. Identification of the governing mechanisms and assessing their effect on the material behavior leads one step further. Bringing together this knowledge with service requirements allows for functional oriented materials design. First, this thesis gives attention on providing the theoretical basic mechanisms involved in homogenization techniques and a survey will be made on existing analytical methods available in literature. Second, the proposed frameworks are implemented in the well known finite element software programs ANSYS and SLang. Simple and efficient algorithms in FORTRAN are developed for automated microstructure generation using RSA algorithm in order to perform a systematic numerical testing of microstructures of composites. Algorithms are developed to generate constraint equations in periodic boundary conditions and different displacements applied spatially over the boundaries of the RVE in homogeneous boundary conditions. Finally, nonlinear simulations are performed at mesolevel, by considering continuum scalar damage behavior of matrix material with the linear elastic behavior of aggregates with the assumption of rigid bond between constituents.