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- Dynamische Belastung (11) (remove)

The US Department of Highways is embarked on a very ambitious program to renovate much of the bridges and highways allover the USA. While it is doing so, it is also trying to take advantage of using such program to enhance the research for future programs. One of those projects is a 1000 ft. (305 m) long concrete bridge in the State of Vermont, located in the North East of USA. It is scheduled for renovation, in which the deck and its side parapet walls will be replaced. New England Transportation Consortium (NETC) decided to make further use of this project to find what effect will the heavy demolition tools have on the concrete to remain in place. The goal is to find out the extent of the experimental measurement agreement with the analytical results. In order to accomplish such a goal, numerous strain gages were installed at and in the vicinity of the demolition areas. Those gages will measure the effect of the demolition on the adjacent areas, and how far the destructive effect of the powerful demolition tools can propagate through different parts of the structure. The gages are connected to National Instruments data acquisition equipment, which is connected to a lap top computer to save all the acquired data. The analytical part the project will be using the energy method, which means that the energy applied by the demolition tools should equal the energy absorbed by the demolished structure, in elastic and plastic deformation forms.

Dynamic testing for damage assessment as non-destructive method has attracted growing in-terest for systematic inspections and maintenance of civil engineering structures. In this con-text the paper presents the Stochastic Finite Element (SFE) Modeling of the static and dy-namic results of own four point bending experiments with R/C beams. The beams are dam-aged by an increasing load. Between the load levels the dynamic properties are determined. Calculated stiffness loss factors for the displacements and the natural frequencies show differ-ent histories. A FE Model for the beams is developed with a discrete crack formulation. Cor-related random fields are used for structural parameters stiffness and tension strength. The idea is to simulate different crack evolutions. The beams have the same design parameters, but because of the stochastic material properties their undamaged state isn't yet the same. As the structure is loaded a stochastic first crack occurs on the weakest place of the structure. The further crack evolution is also stochastic. These is a great advantage compared with de-terministic formulations. To reduce the computational effort of the Monte Carlo simulation of this nonlinear problem the Latin-Hypercube sampling technique is applied. From the results functions of mean value and standard deviation of displacements and frequencies are calcu-lated. Compared with the experimental results some qualitative phenomena are good de-scribed by the model. Differences occurs especially in the dynamic behavior of the higher load levels. Aim of the investigations is to assess the possibilities of dynamic testing under consideration of effects from stochastic material properties

DETERMINATION OF THE DYNAMIC STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR USING ADVANCED ENERGY RELEASE EVALUATION
(2000)

In this study a simple effective procedure practically based upon the FEM for determination of the dynamic stress intensity factor (DSIF) depending on the input frequency and using an advanced strain energy release evaluation by the simultaneous release of a set of fictitious nodal spring links near the crack tip is developed and applied. The DSIF is expressed in terms of the released energy per unit crack length. The formulations of the linear fracture mechanics are accepted. This technique is theoretically based upon the eigenvalue problem for assessment of the spring stiffnesses and on the modal decomposition of the crack shape. The inertial effects are included into the released energy. A linear elastic material, time-dependent loading of sine type and steady state response of the structure are assumed. The procedure allows the opening, sliding and mixed modes of the structure fracture to be studied. This rational and powerful technique requires a mesh refinement near the crack tip. A numerical test example of a square notched steel plate under tension is given. Opening mode of fracture is studied only. The DSIF is calculated using a coarse mesh and a single node release for the released energy computation as well a fine mesh and simultaneous release of four links for more accurate values. The results are analyzed. Comparisons with the known exact results from a static loading are presented. Conclusions are derived. The values of the DSIF are significantly larger than the values of the corresponding static SIF. Significant peaks of the DSIF are observed near the natural frequences. This approach is general, practicable, reliable and versatile.

Analytical models, describing oscillations of systems of interconnected solid and deformable bodies,making a complex movement in fields of inertia forces and gravitation forces, are resulted. Method of numerical investigation of dynamics of the specified systems, based on sharing of parameter prolongation method, Newton-Kantorovich algorithm, Flocke and Liapunov hteories, is developed. On the basis of constructed analytical models and numerical techniques a new, practically important problems of dynamics of systems, consisting of solid bodies, flexible rods, membranes and soft shells, which make a complex movement in fields of forces of inertia and gravity are solved. The received results are used during designing of responsible elements of structures, making a complex movement, which find application in construction and mechanical engineering.

The phenomenological and computational aspects of the various damage models applications for the low and multi cyclic fatigue processes are investigated. Damage is considered as internal state variable, describing macroscopic effects of the progressive material degradation, within the framework of continuum damage mechanics. Present analysis is restricted to the case of isotropic damage, which can be modeled by a scalar variable. The strain, force and power types of kinetic equations for the damage evolution description are considered. The original mixed strain-power type damage model is developed for taking into account the different physical fracture mechanism in monotone and cyclic loading. The constitutive equations of plastic flow theory coupled and uncoupled to damage has been considered. The rational algorithm of implementation into finite element code is considered for developed damage models. Set of the computational experiments has been carried out for the various structures (huge aerials, pipelines, fastening units, vessel of nuclear reactor) and cases of loading. The comparison of the predictions of the developed model with experimental data is performed for 1X18H10T steel tubular specimens for complex paths of loading and for complex profiles beams under cyclic loading. Damage field distribution is the basic information for the prediction of crack initiation in structures. The developed method of structural parameter for stress concentration zones is discussed for correcting of crack location. It allows to describe the crack initiation near surface domain as observe in numerous experiments.

In the given paper the generalized formulation of the problem of computer modelling of the complex-composite structure interaction with different types of dynamic loads and effects is discussed. Here the analysis is given as for the usage of some universal computing systems for the solution of such problems. Also if is shown that the quantification of the dynamic models of the complex-composite systems with the variable structure, depending on the character and intensivity of the effects, is necessary. The different variants of the joint and the space structure element modelling are gested. It allows to consider the complex modes of the joint bending-torsional oscillations of such structures as bridges, towers, high-rise buildings. The peculiarities of the modelling and testing of some problems of the objects aerodynamics and the interaction of the frameworks constructions with shock and movable loads are considered. In this paper the examples of the complex-composite structure dynamic analysis are shown. It is achieved by means of some special methods of the input of the real inducements and loads of the exploitated analog-object into the computing model. The suggested models found a wide use both at the design of new structures and the dynamic monitoring of the exploitated structures.

Pre-stressed structural elements are widely used in large-span structures. As a rule, they have higher stiffness characteristics. Pre-stressed rods can be applied as girders of different purpose, and as their separate parts, e.g. rods of trusses and frames. Among numerous ways of prestressing the compression of girders, trusses, and frames by tightenings from high-strength materials is under common application.

The goal of the research is to increase the understanding of dynamic behaviors during the crane operation, and develops computer-aided methods to improve the training of crane operators. There are approximately 125,000 cranes in operation today in the construction industry, responsible for major portion of erection activities. Unfortunately, many accidents occur every year in the U.S. and other countries related to the operation of cranes in construction sites. For example on November 28, 1989 a tower crane collapse during the construction of a building in San Francisco killing four construction workers, one civilian and injuring 28. According to the statistics from Occupational Safety Health Administration (OSHA), there were 137 crane-related fatalities from 1992 to 2001 in the US. A well-known internet website that keeps track of crane-related accidents (craneaccidents.com), reports 516 accidents and 277 fatalities from 2000 to 2002. These statistics show that even though many measures have been taken to decrease the number of crane-related accidents (Braam, 2002), the number of crane related accidents is still very large. It is important to recognize that each construction related fatality is not only a great human loss but also increases the costs of insurance, lawsuits, and the construction budget due to delay of a project (Paulson 1992)...

Der Zusammenhang zwischen Schädigung und der Veränderung dynamischer und statischer Eigenschaften von Stahlbetonstrukturen wird untersucht. Auf der einen Seite stehen die statischen Lastversuche in Verbindung mit dynamischen Experimenten an Stahlbetonstrukturen (Platten und Balken). Auf der anderen Seite wird für die Balkenstrukturen ein nichtlineares Stochastisches Finite Elemente Modell entwickelt. Dies berücksichtigt zufällige Material- und Festigkeitseigenschaften durch räumlich korrelierte Zufallsfelder. So werden stochastische Rissentwicklungen für den Stahlbeton simuliert. Für die Berechnungen vieler Realisationen und damit verschiedenartige "Lebensgeschichten" einer Struktur wird als Monte Carlo Methode Latin Hypercube Sampling verwendet. Die Auswertung der Strukturantworten für die Lastgeschichte zeigt den Einfluss der zufälligen Eigenschaften auf die Schädigungsentwicklung. Die Arbeit leistet einen Beitrag zur Bewertung und zum zukünftigen Einsatz dynamischer Untersuchungsmethoden im Bauwesen.

Die Arbeit befaßt sich mit varianzmindernden Verfahren zur Monte Carlo Simulation von stochastischen Prozessen, zum Zweck der Zuverlässigkeitsbeurteilung von Baukonstruktionen mit nichtlinearem Systemverhalten. Kap. 2 ist eine Literaturstudie zu varianzmindernden Monte Carlo Methoden. In Kap. 3 wird die Spektrale Darstellung eines stationären, skalaren Gauß - Prozesses hergeleitet. Auf dieser Grundlage werden verschiedene Simulationsmodelle diskutiert. Das in Kap. 4 entwickelte varianzmindernde Simulationsverfahren basiert auf der Spektralen Darstellung. Nach einer ersten Pilotsimulation werden die Frequenzen für die Einführung zufälliger Amplituden bestimmt und deren Parameter angepaßt. Der zweite Lauf erfolgt mit diesen Parametern nach dem Prinzip des Importance Sampling. Das Verfahren wird in Kap. 5 für eine Brücke unter Erdbebenbelastung angewendet. Die Brücke ist mit sog. Hysteretic Devices zur Energiedissipation ausgerüstet. Es werden einerseits die Genauigkeit und Effizienz des Simulationsverfahrens, andererseits die Leistungsfähigkeit der Hysteretic Devices zur Erdbebenertüchtigung von Bauwerken demonstriert.