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#### Year of publication

- 2020 (3) (remove)

Wind effects can be critical for the design of lifelines such as long-span bridges. The existence of a significant number of aerodynamic force models, used to assess the performance of bridges, poses an important question regarding their comparison and validation. This study utilizes a unified set of metrics for a quantitative comparison of time-histories in bridge aerodynamics with a host of characteristics. Accordingly, nine comparison metrics are included to quantify the discrepancies in local and global signal features such as phase, time-varying frequency and magnitude content, probability density, nonstationarity and nonlinearity. Among these, seven metrics available in the literature are introduced after recasting them for time-histories associated with bridge aerodynamics. Two additional metrics are established to overcome the shortcomings of the existing metrics. The performance of the comparison metrics is first assessed using generic signals with prescribed signal features. Subsequently, the metrics are applied to a practical example from bridge aerodynamics to quantify the discrepancies in the aerodynamic forces and response based on numerical and semi-analytical aerodynamic models. In this context, it is demonstrated how a discussion based on the set of comparison metrics presented here can aid a model evaluation by offering deeper insight. The outcome of the study is intended to provide a framework for quantitative comparison and validation of aerodynamic models based on the underlying physics of fluid-structure interaction. Immediate further applications are expected for the comparison of time-histories that are simulated by data-driven approaches.

The assessment of wind-induced vibrations is considered vital for the design of long-span bridges. The aim of this research is to develop a methodological framework for robust and efficient prediction strategies for complex aerodynamic phenomena using hybrid models that employ numerical analyses as well as meta-models. Here, an approach to predict motion-induced aerodynamic forces is developed using artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is implemented in the classical formulation and trained with a comprehensive dataset which is obtained from computational fluid dynamics forced vibration simulations. The input to the ANN is the response time histories of a bridge section, whereas the output is the motion-induced forces. The developed ANN has been tested for training and test data of different cross section geometries which provide promising predictions. The prediction is also performed for an ambient response input with multiple frequencies. Moreover, the trained ANN for aerodynamic forcing is coupled with the structural model to perform fully-coupled fluid--structure interaction analysis to determine the aeroelastic instability limit. The sensitivity of the ANN parameters to the model prediction quality and the efficiency has also been highlighted. The proposed methodology has wide application in the analysis and design of long-span bridges.

Synergistic Framework for Analysis and Model Assessment in Bridge Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity
(2020)

Wind-induced vibrations often represent a major design criterion for long-span bridges. This work deals with the assessment and development of models for aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses of long-span bridges.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and semi-analytical aerodynamic models are employed to compute the bridge response due to both turbulent and laminar free-stream. For the assessment of these models, a comparative methodology is developed that consists of two steps, a qualitative and a quantitative one. The first, qualitative, step involves an extension
of an existing approach based on Category Theory and its application to the field of bridge aerodynamics. Initially, the approach is extended to consider model comparability and completeness. Then, the complexity of the CFD and twelve semi-analytical models are evaluated based on their mathematical constructions, yielding a diagrammatic representation of model quality.
In the second, quantitative, step of the comparative methodology, the discrepancy of a system response quantity for time-dependent aerodynamic models is quantified using comparison metrics for time-histories. Nine metrics are established on a uniform basis to quantify the discrepancies in local and global signal features that are of interest in bridge aerodynamics. These signal features involve quantities such as phase, time-varying frequency and magnitude content, probability density, non-stationarity, and nonlinearity.
The two-dimensional (2D) Vortex Particle Method is used for the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations including a Pseudo-three dimensional (Pseudo-3D) extension within an existing CFD solver. The Pseudo-3D Vortex Method considers the 3D structural behavior for aeroelastic analyses by positioning 2D fluid strips along a line-like structure. A novel turbulent Pseudo-3D Vortex Method is developed by combining the laminar Pseudo-3D VPM and a previously developed 2D method for the generation of free-stream turbulence. Using analytical derivations, it is shown that the fluid velocity correlation is maintained between the CFD strips.
Furthermore, a new method is presented for the determination of the complex aerodynamic admittance under deterministic sinusoidal gusts using the Vortex Particle Method. The sinusoidal gusts are simulated by modeling the wakes of flapping airfoils in the CFD domain with inflow vortex particles. Positioning a section downstream yields sinusoidal forces that are used for determining all six components of the complex aerodynamic admittance. A closed-form analytical relation is derived, based on an existing analytical model. With this relation, the inflow particles’ strength can be related with the target gust amplitudes a priori.
The developed methodologies are combined in a synergistic framework, which is applied to both fundamental examples and practical case studies. Where possible, the results are verified and validated. The outcome of this work is intended to shed some light on the complex wind–bridge interaction and suggest appropriate modeling strategies for an enhanced design.