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#### Year of publication

- 2015 (22) (remove)

Der vorliegende Text beschreibt die intensive Erforschung von Wabenplatten aus Papierwerkstoffen, die durch Faltprozesse neue räumliche Zustände einnehmen können und somit ihr ursprüngliches Anwendungsspektrum erweitern. Die gezeigten Lösungsansätze bewegen sich dabei im Spannungsfeld von Architektur und Ingenieurbau, denn die gefalteten Bauteile sind nicht nur äußerst tragfähig sondern besitzen auch eine ästhetische Form. Die entwickelten Verfahren und Konstruktionen werden auf einem hohen architektonischen Niveau präsentiert und mit einfachen ingenieurtechnischen Methoden verifiziert. Zur Lösungsfindung werden geometrische Verfahren ebenso angewendet wie konstruktive Faustformeln und Recherchen aus Architektur und Forschung.
Der Fokus der Arbeit liegt auf der Untersuchung von Faltungen in Wabenplatten. Während der Auseinandersetzung mit der Thematik erschienen jedoch viele weitere Aspekte als sehr interessant und bearbeitungswürdig. Als theoretische Grundlage dieser Arbeit werden deshalb die geschichtliche Entwicklung und die gesellschaftliche Bedeutung von Papier und Papierwerkstoffen analysiert und deren Produktionsprozesse beleuchtet. Diese Vorgehensweise ermöglicht eine Einordnung des Potentials und der Bedeutung des Werkstoffs Papier. Der Kontext der Arbeit wird dadurch gestärkt und führt zu interessanten zukünftigen Forschungsansätzen.
Intensive Untersuchungen widmen sich der geometrischen Bestimmung von Faltungen in Wabenplatten aus Papierwerkstoffen sowie deren Manifestation als konstruktive Bauteile. Auch die statischen Eigenschaften der Elemente und ihr Konstruktionspotential werden erforscht und aufbereitet. Wichtige Impulse aus Forschung und Technik fließen in die Recherche der Arbeit ein und erlauben die Verortung der Ergebnisse im architektonischen Kontext. Versuchsreihen und Materialstudien an Prototypen belegen die Ergebnisse virtueller und rechnerischer Studien. Konzepte zur parametrischen Berechnung und Visualisierung der Forschungsergebnisse werden präsentiert und zeigen zukunftsfähige Planungshilfen für die Industrie auf. Etliche Testreihen zu unterschiedlichsten Abdichtungskonzepten führen zur Realisierung eines sehenswerten Experimentalbaus. Er erlaubt die dauerhafte Untersuchung der entwickelten Bauteile unter realistischen Bedingungen und bestätigt deren Leistungsfähigkeit. Dadurch wird nicht nur ein dauerhaftes Monitoring und eine Evaluierung der Leistungsdaten möglich sondern es wird auch der sichtbare Beweis erbracht, dass mit Papierwerkstoffen effiziente und hochwertige Architekturen zu realisieren sind, welche das enorme gestalterische Potential von gefalteten Wabenplatten ausnutzen.

Nanostructured materials are extensively applied in many fields of material science for new industrial applications, particularly in the automotive, aerospace industry due to their exceptional physical and mechanical properties. Experimental testing of nanomaterials is expensive, timeconsuming,challenging and sometimes unfeasible. Therefore,computational simulations have been employed as alternative method to predict macroscopic material properties. The behavior of polymeric nanocomposites (PNCs) are highly complex.
The origins of macroscopic material properties reside in the properties and interactions taking place on finer scales. It is therefore essential to use multiscale modeling strategy to properly account for all large length and time scales associated with these material systems, which across many orders of magnitude. Numerous multiscale models of PNCs have been established, however, most of them connect only two scales. There are a few multiscale models for PNCs bridging four length scales (nano-, micro-, meso- and macro-scales). In addition, nanomaterials are stochastic in nature and the prediction of macroscopic mechanical properties are influenced by many factors such as fine-scale features. The predicted mechanical properties obtained by traditional approaches significantly deviate from the measured values in experiments due to neglecting uncertainty of material features. This discrepancy is indicated that the effective macroscopic properties of materials are highly sensitive to various sources of uncertainty, such as loading and boundary conditions and material characteristics, etc., while very few stochastic multiscale models for PNCs have been developed. Therefore, it is essential to construct PNC models within the framework of stochastic modeling and quantify the stochastic effect of the input parameters on the macroscopic mechanical properties of those materials.
This study aims to develop computational models at four length scales (nano-, micro-, meso- and macro-scales) and hierarchical upscaling approaches bridging length scales from nano- to macro-scales. A framework for uncertainty quantification (UQ) applied to predict the mechanical properties
of the PNCs in dependence of material features at different scales is studied. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are of great helps in quantifying the effect of input parameters, considering both main and interaction effects, on the mechanical properties of the PNCs. To achieve this major
goal, the following tasks are carried out:
At nano-scale, molecular dynamics (MD) were used to investigate deformation mechanism of glassy amorphous polyethylene (PE) in dependence of temperature and strain rate. Steered molecular dynamics (SMD)were also employed to investigate interfacial characteristic of the PNCs.
At mico-scale, we developed an atomistic-based continuum model represented by a representative volume element (RVE) in which the SWNT’s properties and the SWNT/polymer interphase are modeled at nano-scale, the surrounding polymer matrix is modeled by solid elements. Then, a two-parameter model was employed at meso-scale. A hierarchical multiscale approach has been developed to obtain the structure-property relations at one length scale and transfer the effect to the higher length
scales. In particular, we homogenized the RVE into an equivalent fiber.
The equivalent fiber was then employed in a micromechanical analysis (i.e. Mori-Tanaka model) to predict the effective macroscopic properties of the PNC. Furthermore, an averaging homogenization process was also used to obtain the effective stiffness of the PCN at meso-scale.
Stochastic modeling and uncertainty quantification consist of the following ingredients:
- Simple random sampling, Latin hypercube sampling, Sobol’ quasirandom sequences, Iman and Conover’s method (inducing correlation in Latin hypercube sampling) are employed to generate independent and dependent sample data, respectively.
- Surrogate models, such as polynomial regression, moving least squares (MLS), hybrid method combining polynomial regression and MLS, Kriging regression, and penalized spline regression, are employed as an approximation of a mechanical model. The advantage of the surrogate models is the high computational efficiency and robust as they can be constructed from a limited amount of available data.
- Global sensitivity analysis (SA) methods, such as variance-based methods for models with independent and dependent input parameters, Fourier-based techniques for performing variance-based methods and partial derivatives, elementary effects in the context of local SA, are used to quantify the effects of input parameters and their interactions on the mechanical properties of the PNCs. A bootstrap technique is used to assess the robustness of the global SA methods with respect to their performance.
In addition, the probability distribution of mechanical properties are determined by using the probability plot method. The upper and lower bounds of the predicted Young’s modulus according to 95 % prediction intervals were provided.
The above-mentioned methods study on the behaviour of intact materials. Novel numerical methods such as a node-based smoothed extended finite element method (NS-XFEM) and an edge-based smoothed phantom node method (ES-Phantom node) were developed for fracture problems. These methods can be used to account for crack at macro-scale for future works. The predicted mechanical properties were validated and verified. They show good agreement with previous experimental and simulations results.

Superplasticizers are utilized both to improve the fluidity during the placement and to reduce the water content of concretes. Both effects have also an impact on the properties of the hardened concrete. As a side effect the presence of superplasticizers affects the strength development of concretes that is strongly retarded. This may lead to an ecomomical drawback of the concrete manufacturing. The present work is aimed at gaining insights on the causes of the retarding effect of superplasticizers on the hydration of Portland cement. In order to simplify the complex interactions occurring during the hydration of Portland cement the majority of the work focuses on the interaction of superplasticizer and tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5 or C3S, the main compound of Portland cement clinker). The tests are performed in three main parts accompanied by methods as for example isothermal conduction calorimetry, electrical conductivity, Electron Microscopy, ICP-OES, TOC, as well as Analytical Ultracentrifugation.
In the first main part and based on the interaction of cations and anionic charges of polymers, the interactions between calcium ions and superplasticizers are investigated. As a main effect calcium ions are complexed by the functional groups of the polymers (carboxy, sulfonic). Calcium ions may be both dissolved in the aqueous phase and a constitute of particle interfaces. Besides these effects it is furthermore shown that superplasticizers induce the formation of nanoscaled particles which are dispersed in the aqueous phase (cluster formation). Analogous to recent findings in the field of biomineralization, it is reasonable to assume that these nanoparticles influence the crystal growth by their assembly process.
Based on the assumption that superplasticizers hinder either or both dissolution and precipitation and by that retard the cement hydration, the impact on separate reactions is investigated. On experiments that address the solubility of C-S-H phases and portlandite, it is shown that complexation of calcium ions in the aqueous phase by functional groups of polymers increases the solubility of portlandite. Contrary, in case of C-S-H solubility the complexation of calcium ions in solution leads to decrease of the calcium ion concentration in the aqueous phase. These effects are explained by differences in adsorption of polymers on C-S-H phases and portlandite. It is proposed that adsorption is stronger on C-S-H phases compared to portlandite due to the increased specific surface area of C-S-H phases. Following that, it is claimed that before polymers are able to adsorb on C-S-H phases the functional groups must be screened by calcium ions in the aqueous phase. It is further shown that data regarding the impact of superplasticizers on the unconstrained dissolution rate of C3S does not provide a clear relation to the overall retarding effect occurring during the hydration of C3S. Both increased and decreased dissolution rate with respect to the reference sample are detected. If the complexation capability of the superplasticizers is considered then also a reduced dissolution rate of C3S is determined. Despite the fact that the global hydration process is accelerated, the addition of calcite leads to a slower dissolution rate. Thus, a hindered unconstrained dissolution of C3S as possibly cause for the retarding effect still remains open for discussion. In the last section of this part, the pure crystallization of hydrate phases (C-S-H phases, portlandite) is fathomed. Results clearly show that superplasticizers prolong the induction time and modify the rate of crystal growth during pure crystallization in particular due to the complexation of ions in solution. But this effect is insufficient to account for the overall retarding effect. Further important factors are the blocking of crystal growth faces by adsorbed polymers and the dispersion of nanoscaled particles which hinders their agglomeration in order to build up crystals.
In the last main part of the work, the previously gathered results are utilized in order to investigate hydration kinetics. During hydration, dissolution and precipitation occur in parallel. Thereby, special attention is laid on the ion composition of the aqueous phase of C3S pastes and suspensions in order to determine the rate limiting step. All in all it is concluded that the retarding effect of superplasticizers on the hydration of tricalcium silicate is based on the retardation of crystallization of hydrate phases (C-S-H phases and portlandite). Thereby, the two effects complexation of calcium ions on surfaces and stabilization of nanoscaled particles are of major importance. These mechanisms may partly be compensated by template performance and increase in solubility by complexation of ions in solution. The decreased dissolution rate of C3S by the presence of superplasticizers during the in parallel occuring hydration process can only be assessed indirectly by means of the development of the ion concentrations in the aqueous phase (reaction path). Whether this observation is the cause or the consequence within the dissolution-precipitation process and therefore accounts for the retarding effect remains a topic for further investigations.
Besides these results it is shown that superplasticizers can be associated chemically with inhibitors because they reduce the frequency factor to end the induction period. Because the activation energy is widely unaffected it is shown that the basic reaction mechanism sustain. Furthermore, a method was developed which permits for the first time the determination of ion concentrations in the aqueous phase of C3S pastes in-situ. It is shown that during the C3S hydration the ion concentration in the aqueous phase is developed correspondingly to the heat release rate (calorimetry). The method permits the differentiation of the acceleration period in three stages. It is emphasized that crystallization of the product phases of C3S hydration, namely C-S-H phases and portlandite, are responsible for the end of the induction period.

Methods based on B-splines for model representation, numerical analysis and image registration
(2015)

The thesis consists of inter-connected parts for modeling and analysis using newly developed isogeometric methods. The main parts are reproducing kernel triangular B-splines, extended isogeometric analysis for solving weakly discontinuous problems, collocation methods using superconvergent points, and B-spline basis in image registration applications.
Each topic is oriented towards application of isogeometric analysis basis functions to ease the process of integrating the modeling and analysis phases of simulation.
First, we develop reproducing a kernel triangular B-spline-based FEM for solving PDEs. We review the triangular B-splines and their properties. By definition, the triangular basis function is very flexible in modeling complicated domains. However, instability results when it is applied for analysis. We modify the triangular B-spline by a reproducing kernel technique, calculating a correction term for the triangular kernel function from the chosen surrounding basis. The improved triangular basis is capable to obtain the results with higher accuracy and almost optimal convergence rates.
Second, we propose an extended isogeometric analysis for dealing with weakly discontinuous problems such as material interfaces. The original IGA is combined with XFEM-like enrichments which are continuous functions themselves but with discontinuous derivatives. Consequently, the resulting solution space can approximate solutions with weak discontinuities. The method is also applied to curved material interfaces, where the inverse mapping and the curved triangular elements are considered.
Third, we develop an IGA collocation method using superconvergent points. The collocation methods are efficient because no numerical integration is needed. In particular when higher polynomial basis applied, the method has a lower computational cost than Galerkin methods. However, the positions of the collocation points are crucial for the accuracy of the method, as they affect the convergent rate significantly. The proposed IGA collocation method uses superconvergent points instead of the traditional Greville abscissae points. The numerical results show the proposed method can have better accuracy and optimal convergence rates, while the traditional IGA collocation has optimal convergence only for even polynomial degrees.
Lastly, we propose a novel dynamic multilevel technique for handling image registration. It is application of the B-spline functions in image processing. The procedure considered aims to align a target image from a reference image by a spatial transformation. The method starts with an energy function which is the same as a FEM-based image registration. However, we simplify the solving procedure, working on the energy function directly. We dynamically solve for control points which are coefficients of B-spline basis functions. The new approach is more simple and fast. Moreover, it is also enhanced by a multilevel technique in order to prevent instabilities. The numerical testing consists of two artificial images, four real bio-medical MRI brain and CT heart images, and they show our registration method is accurate, fast and efficient, especially for large deformation problems.

The refurbishment of old buildings often goes hand in hand with an increase in both the dead and live loads. The latter, combined with the higher safety factors, often make the reinforcement of the old structures necessary. Most reinforcement methods involve transforming a structural timber member into a composite beam. Composite sections have a long tradition in timber construction. In the early days, multiple timber beams were connected with interlocking tooth and wooden shear connecters, which resulted in an elastic connection. Although historical timber structures are frequently upgraded, no method has yet been established and fully accepted by all stakeholders such as owners, builders, architects, engineers and cultural heritage organisations. Carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (CFRP) have already shown their efficiency in structural reinforcement especially in concrete structures. Moreover, previous studies have shown that CFRP has the potential to meet the expectations of all parties involved.
In order to reach the service-limit state, a high amount of carbon fibres has to be used, or considering the cost of reinforcement, prestress has to be applied. However, prestressing often goes hand-in-hand with delaminating issues. The camber method presented here offers an efficient solution for prestressing timber bending members and overcoming the known obstacles.
In the method proposed, the timber beam is cambered using an adjustable prop at midspan during the bonding of the CRFP-lamella to the lower side of the bending member. After curing the adhesive, the prop is removed and the prestressed composite beam is ready to be used. The prestress introduced in the system is not constant, but has a triangular shape and peaks at midspan, where it is used the most. The prestress force, which declines towards the end of the beam, leads to a constant shear stress over the whole length of the reinforcement,avoiding a concentrated anchorage zone.
An analytical calculation model has been developed to calculate and design prestressed timber-
bending members using the camber method. Numerical modelling, using a multi-surface plasticity model for timber, confirmed the results from the analytical model, and clearly reduced delaminating issues, comparing very favourably to traditional prestressing methods. The experimental parametric study, including the determination of the short-term loadbearing capacity of structural-sized beams, showed agreement with the analytical and numerical calculation. The prestressed reinforcement showed a benefit of nearly 50% towards the ultimate-limit state and up to 70% towards the service-limit state. Calculations revealed that the use of high modulus CFRP allows even higher benefits, depending on the configurations and requirements. The long-term design of the prestressed composite beam was investigated by extending the analytical model. The creep of the timber leads to a load transfer from the timber towards the CFRP, and therefore increases the benefit towards the ultimatelimit design. Applying high modulus CFRP-lamellas allows for a complete utilisation of the
design capacity of timber and carbon fibre-reinforced polymer.
The thorough investigation conducted demonstrated that the camber method is an efficient technique for prestressing and reinforcing timber-bending members. Furthermore, the calculation model presented allows for a safe design and estimation of long-term behaviour.

This thesis presents new interactive visualization techniques and systems intended to support users with real-world decisions such as selecting a product from a large variety of similar offerings, finding appropriate wording as a non-native speaker, and assessing an alleged case of plagiarism.
The Product Explorer is a significantly improved interactive Parallel Coordinates display for facilitating the product selection process in cases where many attributes and numerous alternatives have to be considered. A novel visual representation for categorical and ordered data with only few occurring values, the so-called extended areas, in combination with cubic curves for connecting the parallel axes, are crucial for providing an effective overview of the entire dataset and to facilitate the tracing of individual products. The visual query interface supports users in quickly narrowing down the product search to a small subset or even a single product. The scalability of the approach towards a large number of attributes and products is enhanced by the possibility of setting some constraints on final attributes and, therefore, reducing the number of considered attributes and data items. Furthermore, an attribute repository allows users to focus on the most important attributes at first and to bring in additional criteria for product selection later in the decision process. A user study confirmed that the Product Explorer is indeed an excellent tool for its intended purpose for casual users.
The Wordgraph is a layered graph visualization for the interactive exploration of search results for complex keywords-in-context queries. The system relies on the Netspeak web service and is designed to support non-native speakers in finding customary phrases. Uncertainties about the commonness of phrases are expressed with the help of wildcard-based queries. The visualization presents the alternatives for the wildcards in a multi-column layout: one column per wildcard with the other query fragments in between. The Wordgraph visualization displays the sorted results for all wildcards at once by appropriately arranging the words of each column. A user study confirmed that this is a significant advantage over simple textual result lists. Furthermore, visual interfaces to filter, navigate, and expand the graph allow interactive refinement and expansion of wildcard-containing queries.
Furthermore, this thesis presents an advanced visual analysis tool for assessing and presenting alleged cases of plagiarism and provides a three-level approach for exploring the so-called finding spots in their context. The overview shows the relationship of the entire suspicious document to the set of source documents. An intermediate glyph-based view reveals the structural and textual differences and similarities of a set of finding spots and their corresponding source text fragments. Eventually, the actual fragments of the finding spot can be shown in a side-by-side view with a novel structured wrapping of both the source, as well as the suspicious text. The three different levels of detail are tied together by versatile navigation and selection operations. Reviews with plagiarism experts confirm that this tool can effectively support their workflow and provides a significant improvement over existing static visualizations for assessing and presenting plagiarism cases.
The three main contributions of this research have a lot in common aside from being carefully designed and scientifically grounded solutions to real-world decision problems. The first two visualizations facilitate the decision for a single possibility out of many alternatives, whereas the latter ones deal with text at varying levels of detail. All visual representations are clearly structured based on horizontal and vertical layers contained in a single view and they all employ edges for depicting the most important relationships between attributes, words, or different levels of detail. A detailed analysis considering the context of the established decision-making literature reveals that important steps of common decision models are well-supported by the three visualization systems presented in this thesis.

This thesis applies the theory of \psi-hyperholomorphic functions dened in R^3 with values in the set of paravectors, which is identified with the Eucledian space R^3, to tackle some problems in theory and practice: geometric mapping properties, additive decompositions of harmonic functions and applications in the theory of linear elasticity.

Die Bau-Ausstellung zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts oder „Die Schwierigkeit zu wohnen“, so lautet der Titel der Arbeit und legt damit ihren Fokus offen. Sie betrachtet ein um 1900 aufkommendes Ausstellungsphänomen in seinen ersten Dekaden; in einer Zeit, in der das Wohnen problematisiert wurde.
Der Praxis des Wohnens ist Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts seine Selbstverständlichkeit abgesprochen worden. Die Bau-Ausstellung wird als ein Symptom dieses Verlusts interpretiert und zugleich als Versuch, ihm entgegenzuwirken. Statt sie innerdisziplinär als eine architekturgeschichtliche Episode der Moderne rein positivistisch zu beschreiben, legt die vorliegende Arbeit im Typus der Bau-Ausstellung eine weit reichende Problematik frei, die kulturphilosophische ebenso wie medientheoretische Dimensionen hat: Inwieweit lässt sich das Wohnen überhaupt ausstellen? Wie kann man eine alltägliche Praxis, die kaum eine Definition erlaubt, zeigen? Den Umgang mit dieser Aporie untersucht die Arbeit.

Abstract
In this research, based on socio-spatiality as the starting point, it has conducted extensive city space analysis to advance a new urban social space theory. Resting upon the basis of traditional continent philosophy, this social space theory has adopted the structuration methods, at the same time trying to build certain combination between theoretical frame work establishment and empirical observations. Therefore, the socio-spatial transition study is neither a macro theory of traditional structuralism nor a typology of urban planning theory, or a positivism social geography, but an operative theory on practical purpose. Firstly, what’s distinct from the traditional structuralism is that this study examines the endless transiting structural relations, not macroscopic narrations of absolute definition and structure. In fact, any city and space are always co-existed in their structurational transiting relationship, thus research in transition has become the main body of this study. And case study is a must for research in transition, as part of efforts to apply the structuration concept into practice reason. Secondly, this study first establishes the fundamental structuration concept of socio-spatial transition, which, as an operative tool, is applied to conduct transition analysis on specific case about the City of Beijing. Therefore, as a social space theory, referring to as science, remains criticism of traditional continent philosophy. However, this criticism did not working on the level of ideology or conceptions, but on transiting under structural relations, keeping it from incompetent ideology criticism of continental critical theory. Unfortunately contemporary urban and space development have now gone extremely unbalanced under a background of globalization; yet traditional macro theories are incapable of either producing significant impact on practice or helping people identify practical problems. While facing general issues, particularly the Chinese urban issue category established on a meta-structured city mode, the micro-case study has plunged into dilemma for unknowing either to ask questions or to answer questions. Therefore, this study is set to identify dilemma and find direction for future relevant research. In this dissertation, Beijing is used as a model, and structuration methods as tools. It has extensively analyzed the social-spatial transition of the city space of Beijing, acquiring brand-new knowledge of its urban space development. It is helpful to an in-depth understanding of the city space development not only in Beijing, but also in many other cities that were influenced by the capital model of Beijing. Since the start of reform and opening-up, China has created a unique development mode of the new-styled metropolitan and urbanization in history. This research is expected to analyze or decode what China’s urban development in between communal space and associative space.

In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Manifestäußerungen des Design- und Architekturdiskurses im situativen, medialen, institutionellen und historischen Kontext untersucht. Auf Grundlage einer Analyse der Etymologie und der Ideengeschichte des Manifestes wird anhand ausgewählter Beispiele die These belegt, dass das Medium vor allem der gezielten Rezeptionssteuerung im Diskurs dient. Darüber hinaus wird die Fähigkeit und Bedeutung des Manifestes als Spiegel vergangener und gegenwärtiger, aber auch als Wegbereiter zukünftiger Diskurse analysiert und Entwicklungen des Manifestes hinsichtlich Stilistik, Inhalt, Funktion und Bedeutung im Design- und Architekturdiskurs dargestellt.