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The making of totalitarian city in Pyongyang: The spatial transition from free to ideology, and for marketization

  • Space is a social product and a social producer. The main aim of this thesis is to reveal ‘the process of totalitarian city making in Pyongyang’, especially in the light of the interaction between the power and urban space. The totalitarian city of Pyongyang was born out of modernization in the process of masses formation. During the growth of colonial capitalism and Christian liberal ideas,Space is a social product and a social producer. The main aim of this thesis is to reveal ‘the process of totalitarian city making in Pyongyang’, especially in the light of the interaction between the power and urban space. The totalitarian city of Pyongyang was born out of modernization in the process of masses formation. During the growth of colonial capitalism and Christian liberal ideas, Pyongyang was modernized and displayed the characteristics of a modern city with industrialization and urbanization. During the introduction of Japanese colonial capitalism, peasants, women, and slaves became the first masses and urban poor, and they later transformed into the mob; their violence was finally demonstrated during the Anti-Chinese Riot. After the 1945 independence, Kim’s regime formed the one-party state with a cry for revolution. They produced an atmosphere of imminent war to instill fear and hatred into the psyche of Pyongyang citizens. The regime eliminated all political opponents in 1967 and finally declared the totalitarian ideology in 1974. During this process, Pyongyang demonstrated two main characteristics of a totalitarian city: the space of terror and of ideology. The space of terror produces the fear of death and the space of ideology controls the thought and life of citizens. After entry to the market, to keep Kim’s controlling power, the regime used the strategy of location exchange. The camp, market, and Foreign Currency Shop were effective tools to prepare for executives’ gifts. However, the market also produces the desire not only for consumption but also for freedom and truth; it is tearing down the foundation of the totalitarian city of Pyongyang. This research focuses primarily on the interaction between political power and urban space. In the process of making a totalitarian city, the power produced urban space and it influenced the psyche of Pyongyang citizens. Even though this spatial transition has created the totalitarian city and helped maintain political power, it also led and produced intended or unintended social variation in Pyongyang society.show moreshow less

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Metadaten
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Author:Dr. phil. Sihyo Lee
DOI (Cite-Link):https://doi.org/10.25643/bauhaus-universitaet.4173Cite-Link
URN (Cite-Link):https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:gbv:wim2-20200526-41731Cite-Link
Referee:Prof. Dr. Hans-Rudolf MeierGND
Advisor:Prof. Dr. habil. Frank EckardtORCiDGND
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2020/05/25
Date of first Publication:2020/05/25
Date of final exam:2019/12/05
Release Date:2020/05/26
Publishing Institution:Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
Granting Institution:Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Fakultät Architektur und Urbanistik [bis 2014 Fakultät Architektur]
Institutes:Fakultät Architektur und Urbanistik [bis 2014 Fakultät Architektur] / Professur Sozialwissenschaftliche Stadtforschung
Pagenumber:238
Tag:North Korea; Pyongyang; colonialcity; ideological space; socialist city; space of ideology; space of terror; spatial transition; totalitarian city
GND Keyword:Pyongyang; Stadtbild
Dewey Decimal Classification:300 Sozialwissenschaften
BKL-Classification:70 Sozialwissenschaften allgemein
74 Geographie, Raumordnung, Städtebau / 74.72 Stadtplanung, kommunale Planung
Licence (German):License Logo Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung (CC BY 4.0)