Modeling and Simulation of Source Separation in Sanitation Systems for Reducing Emissions of Antimicrobial Resistances

  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the top ten threats to public health worldwide. In addition to public health, AMR also poses a major threat to food security and economic development. Current sanitation systems contribute to the emergence and spread of AMR and lack effective AMR mitigation measures. This study assesses source separationAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the top ten threats to public health worldwide. In addition to public health, AMR also poses a major threat to food security and economic development. Current sanitation systems contribute to the emergence and spread of AMR and lack effective AMR mitigation measures. This study assesses source separation of blackwater as a mitigation measure against AMR. A source-separation-modified combined sanitation system with separate collection of blackwater and graywater is conceptually described. Measures taken at the source, such as the separate collection and discharge of material flows, were not considered so far on a load balance basis, i.e., they have not yet been evaluated for their effectiveness. The sanitation system described is compared with a combined system and a separate system regarding AMR emissions by means of simulation. AMR is represented in the simulation model by one proxy parameter each for antibiotics (sulfamethoxa-zole), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase E. Coli), and antibiotic re-sistance genes (blaTEM). The simulation results suggest that the source-separation-based sanitation system reduces emissions of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes into the aquatic environment by more than six logarithm steps compared to combined systems. Sulfa-methoxazole emissions can be reduced by 75.5% by keeping blackwater separate from graywater and treating it sufficiently. In summary, sanitation systems incorporating source separation are, to date, among the most effective means of preventing the emission of AMR into the aquatic envi-ronment.show moreshow less

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  • Gefördert durch das Programm Open Access Publizieren der DFG und den Publikationsfonds der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar.

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Metadaten
Document Type:Article
Author:Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg LondongORCiDGND, B. Sc. Marcus Barth, Dr.-Ing. Heinrich SöbkeORCiD
DOI (Cite-Link):https://doi.org/10.3390/w13233342Cite-Link
URN (Cite-Link):https://nbn-resolving.org/urn:nbn:de:gbv:wim2-20211202-45338Cite-Link
URL:http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/13/23/3342
Parent Title (English):Water
Publisher:MDPI
Place of publication:Basel
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2021/11/25
Date of first Publication:2021/11/25
Release Date:2021/12/02
Publishing Institution:Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
Institutes and partner institutions:Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen / Bauhaus-Institut für zukunftsweisende Infrastruktursysteme
Volume:2021
Issue:Volume 13, issue 23, article 3342
Pagenumber:19
First Page:1
Last Page:19
Tag:UASB; antimicrobial resistance genes; microbial resistances; resource-oriented sanitation; source separation
GND Keyword:Abwasser; Ressourcen
Dewey Decimal Classification:600 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften
BKL-Classification:43 Umweltforschung, Umweltschutz
Open Access Publikationsfonds:Open-Access-Publikationsfonds 2021
Licence (German):License Logo Creative Commons 4.0 - Namensnennung (CC BY 4.0)